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of  tbe 


Saints 


yl^v^J^Si 


iftev.  3obn  (Canon  ©"©anion 


fc.li.l-* '  <•■ 


LIVES 


OF 


THE    IRISH     SAINTS, 


WITH 


Jfperiat  Jwrtfoate',  mid  the  tewmem  ovation  ot  ifoly  ^er^attj^, 

COMPILED     FROM 

^alemfaii*,  jjfartgrolajji^  ami  fmttw  $our«*, 


RELATING  TO 


Ct)f  Stuient  Cburrlj  $i0tan>  of  IrrlanD, 


BY  THE 


VERY  REV.  JOHN   CANON  O'HANLON,  M.R.I.A. 


» V°\ 


s 


Dublin  :   James  Duffy  and  Sons,  14  &  15  Wellington-quay. 

London  :  Burns,    Oates,  &    Co.,   17    &    18    Portman-street,   and 
63  Paternoster-row,  E.C. 

New  York:  Benziger,  Brothers. 


[ALL  RIGHTS  RESERVED.! 


DOLLAR!),    PRINTINOHOUSB,    DUBLIN 


BX 

if  6  53 

hLft 

v.  3 


CONTENTS. 


jftrgt  Bag  of  September. 


SeccnD  ©ag  of  .September, 


Page 


Article  I. — St.  /Egidius  or  Giles,  Abbot  of  Gillks,  France.     [Seventh  and 
Eighth  Centuries], 

Chap.    I. — Introduction — Writers  of  Lives  of  St.  /Egidius — 
His  Origin,  Birth  and  Early  Dispositions— Educa- 
tion  and    Emigration   from  Greece — He  arrives  at 
Marseilles — Afterwards  he  »oes  to  Aries — He  then 
seeks  a  Place  for  Retreat   near  the  River  Gard — 
Lives  with  the  Hermit  Ferodemos  and  afterwards 
parts  with  him  for  a  Situation  of  still  greater  Retire- 
ment— Nimes  and  its  Gothic  Kings — St.  ^Egidius 
is  urged  to  the  Erection  of  a  Religious  House      ...  I 

Chap.  II. — Writings  attributed  to  St.  ^Egidius  —  His  Life  of 
Solitude— Accidental  Discovery  of  the  Saint's  Her- 
mitage— Foundation    of    his    Monastery    and    its 
Endowment — 1 1  is  Rul-^  of  Discipline — His  Visit  to 
King   Charles   Martel  at  Orleans — His   hospitable 
Reception— His    Miracles  and   Prophetic  Spirit — 
His  Visit  to  the  Sovereign  Pontiff,  Benedict  II. — 
The  Saracens  invade   Southern  Gaul,  and  destroy 
the  Monastery  of  St.  Gilles — The  holy  Abbot  and 
his  Monks  fly  for  Protection   to   Charles   Martel  at 
Orleans  ...  ...  ..  1 1 

Chap.   III. — Expulsion   of  the   Saracens — Rebuilding   of   his 
Monastery     by    St.      <Egi<iius — His     Death — The 
Church,   Monastery,  and  Shrine  at  Saint-Gilles — 
Veneration  for  the  Holy  Abbot  in  France  and  on 
the    Continent    of   Europe  —  Veneration    for  his 
Memory  in  the  British  Islands  and  Chuiches  dedi- 
cated to  St.  Giles — Commemoration  of  his  Festival 
in  the  Ca  endars — Conclusion       ..  ...  15 

Article  II. — St.  Neman,  Bishop  of  Cill  Bia     ...  ...  .  25 

Article  III. — St.   Cnimmen,  Son  of  Cuanna,  01    Cuanach,   probably  Abbot  of 

Druim-Snechta,  now  Drumsnat,  County  of  Monaghan  ...  26 

Article  IV.  —  St.  Sceallan,  the  Leper,  of  Armagh,  County  of  Armagh  ...  26 

Article  V. — Reputed  Feast  of  St.  Sebaldus,  or  Sew  alius  ...  ...  27 

Article  VI. — St.  Failbhe,  Son  of  Ronan,  or  Cluain  Airbealaigh  ...  27 

Article  VII. — Translation  of  the  Relics  of  St.  Anatolius,  at  Salins,  France         ...  27 

Article  VIII.— The  Sons  of  Caimene  ...  ...  ...  28 

Article  IX. — Feast  of  St.  Cecilia,  with  other  Companions         ...  ...  28 

Article  X — Reputed  Feast  of  St.  Muredach,  Bishop  of  Killala  ...  ..  29 

Article  X  I.— Reputed  Festival  of  St.  Sarbile  of  Fochard  ...  ...  29 

Article  XII. — Reputed  Festival  of  St.  Fiachrach  ...  ...  30 

Article  XIII.— Reputed  Feast  of  St.  Ultan  Mac  Ua  Conchobair  of  Ardbraccain  30 

Article  XIV. — Reputed  Feast  of  St.  Senain      ...  ...  ...  30 

Article  XV. — Reputed  Festival  of  Cornwall  of  Both  Conais         ...  ...  30 

Article  XVI.— Reputed  Feast  for  a  Translation  of  St.  Columban's  Relics  at  Bobbio       30 


Article  I. — St.    Seanan,    of    Laithrkch-Briuin,     now    Laragh  Brine, 

County  of  Kildare.     [Sixth  Century.']       ...  ...  30 

Article  II. —  St.  Maine,  Son  of  Coechan,  Bishop  of  Tyroilill.     [Fifti  or  Sixth 

Century]  ...  ...  ...  ...  32 


CPXTENTS. 


Page 

Article  III.— St.  Geinten,  Priest,  of  Tir-Guaire  ...  •■•  33 

Article  IV.— St.  Colum,  Son  of  Blann  ...  •••  34 

Article  V.—Sr.  Enan,  Mac  Ua  M  ...  ••  34 

Article  VI.— Reputed  Festival  for  Saints  Loman,  Colman  and  Macmsus  ...  34 

Article  VII— St.  Adomnanus  or  Adomnan,  Abbot  ...  34 

Artici  e  VIII.— Feast  of  St.  Muredach,  BUbop  of  Killala  ...  ...  34 

Article  IX—  Re;  uted  Feast  of  St.  Teothotha   ..  ...  -  34 

Article  X.— Reputed  Festival  of  St.  Mansuetus,  Bishop  of  Toul,  France  ...  35 

Artici  I  XI.— Reputed  Feast  of  a  St   Colman,  Avignon,  France...  ...  35 

Article  XII— Reputed  Festival  of  a  St.  Molotha  ...  ••■  35 

Article  XIII.— Reputed    Feasts    for   Gallan,    Abbot,   and   Oronius,    surnamed 

Modestus,  Bishop  of  Carpentras,  France  ...  ...  36 


Etjirti  ©ag  of  September, 


Article  I.— Si.  Mansuetus,  Mansuet,  Mansuy,  or  Maunsey,  first  Bishop 
of  Toul,  France.     [Fourth  Century.] 

Chap.  I.  —Introduction— Writers  of  St.  Mansuet's  Acts— The 
Period  when  he  flourished — The  Country  of  his 
liirth — Hi^  Parentage  and  Mission  from  Rome  to 
Toul— The  Leuci  or  Leques—  Want  of  Success  at 
the   Commencement   of  St.   Maunsey's  Mission — 
Courteously   received   by  the   Governor's    Wife — 
Mir.iculou.-    Restoration  of  her  Son  to  Life — The 
Governor  and  his  Family,  with  the  People  of  Toul, 
embiace  Christianity  ...  ...  j<> 

Chap.  II. — The  Virtues  and  miraculous  Gifts  of  St.  Mansuetus 
— He  builds  various  Churches  and  ordains  many 
Priests — His  Death  — Veneration  of  the  People  at 
Toul  for  his  Memory — Pilgrimages  to  his  Shrine, 
where  several  Miracles  are  wrought — Destruction 
of  his  Church  and  the  charitable  Foundations  at 
Toul  by  the  Vandals — Restorations  by  the  Bishops 
( ..iuzlin  and  Gerard  ...  ...  43 

Chap.  III.  -State  of  Toul  during  the  Middle  Ages— Reputed 
nization  of  St.  Maunsey  by  Pope  Leo  IX. — 
Various  Translations  of  his  Relics — The  Cathedral 
of  St.  Stephen,  at  Toul,  and  its  Shrines — Destruc- 
tion of  St.  Maunsey's  Ancient  Church  in  the  Six- 
teenth  Century — Festivals  and    Memorials  of  St. 
Maunsey  -  Commemorations  in  Calendars  and  Mar- 
tyrologies — Conclusion  ...  ...  54 

Article  II—  Sr.  Macnessius,  or  Mac  Nissi,  Bishop  of  Connor,  County 

Fifth  and  Sixth  Centuries.  ] 

•  hap.  I.— Introduction— Authors  on  St.  Macnessius'  Life — 

BftpUsm   by  St  Patrick— Educated  under  Bishop 

11— Becomes  a   Disciple  of  St.  Patrick  — His 

•cration  as  Bishop — Pilgrimage  to  Jerusalem — 

Return    to  Rome,  where  he  is  treated  with  great 

Respect— Joyfully  received  on  his  Return  to  Ireland 

— His  Missionary  Labours— Gifts  of  Miracles  and  of 

Prophesy— He  rescue-.  St.  Colman  from  Death  — 

from    St.    Brigid  —  St   Macnessius    the   1' 'irst 

poi  Connor — Monastery  and  Church  at  Connor         62 

CHAP.  II. — St.  Macnc  .  mn-cla  in  Company  with  St. 

Patrick  and   St.    Brigid— Advises    St.    Colman    to 

found  a  Monastery  at  Diomore     St.  Macnessius  is 

said  to  have  established  a  Monastery  at  Kebs  near 

Connoi  —  Hi-.  Miracles  and  Prophecies — His  Death 

—Festival  and  Commemorations— Conclusion     ...  70 


COXTJ'XTS 


Pag< 
Article  III. — St.  Lon,  or  Loman,also  called  Lon-garadh,  of  Disert-Caradh,  or  of 

Magh  Tuathat,  Queen's  County.     [Sixth  Centuty.]  ...  77 

Article  IV.— Translation  of  St.  Krentrude's  Relics,  at  Salzburg    '  ...  81 

Article  V. —  Translation  of  the  Relics  of  St.  Foillan  ...  ...  82 

Article  VI.— St.  Balm  or  Balloin,  of  Tech-Saxon  ...  ...  82 

Article  VII. — St.  Colman,  of  Cluain  or  Druim  Ferta  Mughaine,  now  Kilclonfert, 

Kings  County  ...  ...  ..  83 


tfourtf)  ©ag  t«f  September. 

Article  I. — St.  Ultan,  said  to  have  been  Bishop,  or  more  probably 
Abbot,  of  Ardbraccan,  County  of  Meath.      [Fifth  and 

Sixth  Centuries']                         ...                          ...                          ...  83 

Article  II. — Translation  of  St.  Cuthbert's  Relics                          ...                         ...  91 

Article  III. — St.  Ness,  Nessa,  or  Munessa,  of  Ernaidh,  said  to  have  been  Urney, 

in  the  County  of  Tyrone.      [Fifth  Century]      ...                         ...  94 

Article  IV. — St.    Comhgall,    of  Both-Conais,    County  of  Donegal.      [Seventh 

Century]          ...                          ...                          ...                          ..  96 

Article  V. — St.  Cummein,  Abbot  of  Drumsnat,  County  of  Monaghan                  ...  97 

Article  VI. — St.  Senan            ...                        ...                        ...                        ...  97 

Article  VII. — St.  Sarbile,  Virgin  of  Fochart,  County  of  Louth  ...                        ...  98 

Article  VIII. — St.  Peneux.     [Sixth  Century]  ...                         ...                         ...  98 

Article  IX  — St.  Aedhan  Amlonn,  possibly  at  Clontarf,  County  of  Dublin         ...  98 

Article  X. — St.  Failbhe           ...                        ...                        ...                        ...  99 

ARTICLE  XI. — Reputed  Feast  of  St.  Erentrudis,  or  Erentrude,  Abbess  of  Salzburg  99 

Article  XII.— St.  Fiachrach     ...                        ...                        ...                        ...  99 

Article  XIII. — Reputed  Commemoration  or  Canonization  of  St.  Swibert,  or  Suit- 

bert,  Bishop  and  Apostle  of  the  Frisons  and  of  the  Boructuarians  99 
Article  XIV.— Reputed  Feast  of  St.  Veran,  Confessor,  at  Rheims,  France.    [Sixth 

Century]           ...                         ...                          ...                          ...  99 

Article  XV.— Reputed  Festival  of  St.  Anatolius,  Bishop  of  Salins,  France         ...  100 


Jtftij  ©ag  of  September. 

Article  I. — St.  Alto,  Founder  and  Abbot  of  Altmunster,  in  Bavaria. 

[Eighth  Century]  ...  ...  ...  100 

Article  II. — St.  Faithleann,  possibly  of  Innisfallen,  County  of  Kerry  ...  104 

Article  III. — St.  Eolang,  said  to  have  been  of  Aghaboe,  Queen's  County,  yet 

prol>ably  of  Aghabollogue,  County  of  Cork       ...  ...  105 

Article  IV. — St.  Brecc-buaid  or   Bncin,  said   to  have  been  of  Tuaim-Dreacain, 

now  Toomregan,  County  of  Cavan  ...  ...  106 

Article  V. — St.  Dubhscuile      ...  ...  •••  •••  io7 

Article  VI.— St.  Elacha  .  ...  ...  •••  io7 

article  VII. — St.  Eolog,  Anchoret  ...  .  •••  io7 

Article  VIII. — St.  Indeacht,  Deacon  ...  ...  •  ••  i°7 

Article  IX.— Reputed  Feast  of  St.  Ultan  ...  ...  ...  108 


Stxti)  Bap  of  Srptember. 

Article  I.— St.  Brga  or  Bees.  Virgin,  of  Cofeland,  England.    [Snjcnth 
Century  ] 

CHAP.  I.— Introdu  tion— v\  ri'ers   of    St.     Bega's    Acts-Her 
Birtli    m    Ireland    and    reputed     Parentage— Her 


CONTENTS. 


Page 


Virtues  during  the  Period  of  Youth— She  declines  a 
proposed  Marriage — Abandons  Hjmeand  Friends 
to  live  a  Religious  Life  in  Anglia — Settles  on  the 
Western  Shore  of  Cumberland — Description  of  St. 
Bees— The  Miracles  of  St.  Bega  and  her  Manner  of 
Life  while  there— She  receives  the  Habit  and  Veil 
from  St.  Aidan — She  founds  a  Convent  at  Heriet- 
seu,  or  Heruteu,  and  gathers  a    Religious  Com 
munity  around  her  ...  ...         108 

Chap.  II.— St.  Heru  deemed  to  be  identical  with  St.  Bees- 
She  resigns    Heretu   to   the   Government    of   St. 
Hilda — Afterwards    Heru    retires    to    Calcaria — 
Friendship   between    St   Hilda  and   St.    Beghu — 
Vision  regarding  St.  Hilda's  Death —Death  of  St. 
Bees  and  Translation  of  her  Relics — Subsequent 
Miracles — Festivals  and  Commemorations  of  the 
Holy  Virgin — Conclusion  ...  ...         115 

Article  II. — St.   Magnus,   Magobai.uus.    Magnoald,    or    Magnobaldus, 
Apostle  of  Suabia.     [Sixth  and  Seventh  Centuries'] 

Chap.  I. — Introduction — Writers  of  the  Actsof  St.  Magnoaldus 
or    Magnus — Ireland   the  Country  of  his  Birth — 
Period  of  his  Nativity — He  becomes  a  Disciple  of 
St.  Columban— Saints  Magnoald  and  Gall  remain 
in   Switzerland  —  Admonition   to   Magnoald  of  St. 
Columban  nn<l  Prophecy  before  setting  out  for  Italy         124 
Chap.  II. — St.   Magnus  becomes  the  Attendant  of  St.  Gall — 
He  is  sent  by  tne  latter  to  Bobbio—  He  brings  back 
an  Account  of  St.  Columban's  Death,  as  also  his 
Epistle  and  Staff,  to  St  Gall— Magnus  asidsts  at  the 
Obsequies   of  St.   Gall— Outrages   offered    to   the 
Remains,   and    Restoration   of  his   Tomb  by   St. 
Magnus  and  the  Monks — St.  Magnus  and  Theodore 
leave  St.  Gall's  Monastery  and  journey  eastwards 
— They  visit  Kempten,   where  a   Dragon  is  des- 
troyed by  a  Miracle — St.  Magnus  goes  to  Fussen, 
whence  Demons  are  expelled — There  he  founds  a 
Monastery  ...  ...  ...  134 

Chap.  1 1 1.  — St.  Magnus  is  patronised  by  King  Pippin — Ordained 
Priest  by  Bishop  Wictherp — Miracles  wrought  at 
Fussen — Bishop  Tozso  visited  St.  Magnus  at  the 
the  Time  of  his  Death — Interment  by  Theodore — A 
Memoir  placed  in  his  Coffin — Re>toration  of  his 
Church  by  Charlemagne — Translation  of  St.  Mag- 
noald's  Remains  to  a  new  Shrine — Miracles  then 
and    afterwards   wrought — Commemorations    and 
Festivals — Conclusion  ...  ...         148 

ARTICLE  III. — St.  Mac   Cuilinn,  Maculinus  or  Maculind.  Bishop  and   Patron  of 

Lusk,  County  of  Dublin.     [Fifth  or  Sixth  Century']  ...  165 

ARTICLE  IV.— St.  Sciath,  Virgin,  of  Fert-Sceithe,  now  Ardskeagh,  in  Muskerry  of 

the  Three  Plains,  County  of  Cork  ...  _  174 

Article  V. —  ->t.  Coluin,  of  Rosglan,  or   Domhnach-mor-Mai^he-Imchlain,  now 

Donaghmore,    near    Dun^annon,    County    of    Tyrone.      [Fifth  * 

Century]         ...  m  •  •■  '75 

Article  VI—  St.  Colman,  Son  of  Eochaidh,  probably  of  Kilclief*  County  Down  178 

Article  VII.— St.  Caencomrac,  said  to  have  been  Abbot  and  Bishop  of  Derry, 

County  of  Londonderry  ..  ...  ...         178 

Article  VIII.— St.  Dochonna  ...  ...  ...  179 

Article  IX.—  Reputed  Feast  for  the  Daughter  of  Meachar        ...  179 

Article  X.— St.  Giallan  ...  I7o 

Article  XI.—  Reputed  Feast  of  St.  ^gidius      ...  ...  179 


Srbentft  $Bag  of  September. 

Article  I.— St.  Madelberga,  Medalberta,  Amalbertk,  or  Madelberta, 
Abbkss,  at  Maubeuge,  BELGIUM.  [Seventh  and  Eighth 
Centuries']        ...  .„  ...  ...         180 


CONTENTS. 


Page 
Article  II. — St.  Elarius  or  Helair,  Patron,  Anchoret  and  Scribe  of  Monahincha, 
near  Roscrea,  County  of  Tipperary.     {Eighth  and  Ninth  Cen- 
turies]             ...                        ...                         ...                        ...  186 

Article  III.— St.  Sillan  <»r  Siollan,  Bishop         ...                        ...                        ...  191 

Article  IV. — Reputed  Feast  ot  St.  1  oit,  of  Church  Island,  Lough  Beg,  County  of 

Londonderry  ...                          ...                          ...                          ...  191 

Article  V. — Reputed  Feast  of  Siott                    ...                        ...                        ...  191 

Article  VI.— St  Molaissi        ...                       ...                       ...                       ...  191 

Article  VII. —  St.  Ultan           ...                       ...                       ...                       ...  191 

Article  VIII. — St.  Boetius       ...                        ...                        ...                        ...  192 

Article  IX. — Reputed  Festival  of  St.  Modocus                          ...                       ...  192 

Article  X. — St  Grellan  of  Craobh-Grellain       ..                        ..                         ...  192 

Article  XI. — Reputed  Feast  of  St.  Adamnan,  or  Eunan,  Abbot  of  Iona              ...  192 

Article  XII. — Reputed  Feast  of  St.  Queranus,  Abbot                ...                        ...  192 

Article  XIII. — Festival  of  St.  Summiva  or  Sunnifa,  Patroness  of  Bergen,  Norway  193 

Article  XIV. — Festival  of  St.  Sinotus,  Martyr  ..                          ...                         ...  193 

Article  XV. — Festival  of  St.  Anastasius,  at  Salona,  Dalmatia,  Martyr                ...  193 


(jBtrjt)t|)  ©ag  of  Sqjtemtor, 


Article  I. — Festival  of  St.  Disibod,    Bishop  ani>  Confessor,  Rhenish 

Bavaria.    [Seventh  Century]..                         ...  ...  194 

Article  II.— St.  Fintai\  or  Fionntan,  of  Ard-Caoin                    ...  ...  196 

Article  III. — St.  Ferghus,  the  Pict                    ...                        ...  ...  196 

Aktici.e  IV. — St.  Maelccasni  or  Maeloisne         ...                          ..  ...  197 

Article  V.—  St  Cruimther  Catha,  son  of  Aengus,  of  Cluain  Eossain  ...  197 

Article  VI. — Fea-t  ol  the  Nativity  of  the  Blessed  Virgin  Mary...  ...  198 

Article  VII. — Festival  of  St.  Timothy  and  Three  Hundred  Martyrs  ...  198 

Article  VIII. — The  Son  or  Sons  of  Talarg        ...                         ...  ...  198 


i&tntt)  ©ag  of  <&rpttmber* 


Article  I. — St.    Kierain,   Ciaran  or  Kyran,   Abbot  of  Clonmacnoisf. 
[Sixth  Century.] 

Chap.  I.— Introduction— Materials  for  the  Acts  of  St.  Kierain 
— Prophecies  regarding  his  Bir.h — His  Family  and 
Pedigree — Place   and    Time    of    his    Birth— His 
Baptism    by    St.   Justus — He   studies    under    St. 
Finian,  Abbot  of  Clonard  ...  ...  199 

Chap.  II.— St.  Kieran  leaves  Clonard  for  the  School  of  St. 
Ninnidius — Miiacl  s recorded — He  goes  to  Endeus, 
on  the  Island  of  Aran — His  Acts  while  there — His 
visit  to  St.  Senan  of  Iniscathy — Admonished  in  a 
Vision  to  become  the  Founder  of  a  great  Monastery  210 
Chap.  III. — St.  Kieran  leaves  Inis  Aingin  and  proceeds  to  Clon- 
macnoise — Tuathal  and  Diermit,  Kings  of  Ireland 
— Foundation  of  the  great  Monastery  of  Clonmac- 
noise — St.  Kieran's  Prediction — His  Virtues  and 
Miracles— Growth  of  an  Episcopal  City  at  Clon- 
macnoise — St.  Kieran  the  first  Aobot  there  ...         218 

Chap.  IV.  -Various  poetical  Pieces  stated  to  have  been  the 
Compositions  of  St.  Kieran — He  was  Author  of  a 
special  Religious  Rule — The  Year  ot  St.  Kieran's 
Death-  His  Burial  and  Relics  at  <  lonmacnoise  — 
Composition  in  Praise  of  its  Founder  attributed  to 
St.  Columba — Commemorations  and  Celebrations 
of  St.  Kieran — Memorials — Conclusion  ...         227 


CONTENTS. 


Page 

Article  II. — St.  Osmana,  or  St.  Osmanna,  Virgin,  Abbey  of  St.  Denis,  Fiance  ...  237 
Article  III.— St.  Cera,  Virgin,  ol    Kiliahear,  Parish  of  Aghnamullen,  County  of 

Monaghan.     [Sixth  Century]  ...                          .  .                          ..  242 

Article  IV.— St.  Bertellinus  or  Bettehn.  Hermit,  and  Patron  of  Stafford,  England. 

[ In  the  £i, hth  Ceiuu                 ...                           ...                           ...  244 

Artici  ;                 Stoctean,  Abbot  o.  Clonard.     \Pr*bably  in  the  Tenth  Century]...  248 

Article  VI.—  St.  Aithgein  or  Maclaithgem,  Bishop  of  Movilie,  County  ol  Down  248 

Article  VIL — St.  Finduarr  or  Fionnbharr,  ol  Cill-Cunga         ...                     ...  249 

Article  VIII.      1  be    I  ):mghter  or   Daughters  of  Enach.     [Supposed  to  be  of  the 

Fifth  Cent  my]                              ...                             .                             ...  249 

Article  IX.— St   Teiccess  or    i'ecce,  Tcga  or  Teg;«n,  said  to  have  been  of  Kil- 

tegan,  County  of  Wick  low.     [Possibly  Fifth  and  Sixth  Century]  250 

Article  X.— St.  Coi.all,  Son  ol /Engus             ...                        ...                        ...  251 

Article  XL— St.  Ferdaci  ichor  Fer-da-chrioch                         ...                      ...  252 

Article  XII.— St.  Eialan,  Fcrtach                     ...                        ...                        ...  252 

Article  XIII. — Reputed  Festival  of  St.  Babolen,  Abbot  of  Fossey                     ...  252 

Article  XIV.— St.  Dareca        ...                        ...                        ...                        ...  253 

Article  XV.— Sl  Diomman     ...                        ...                        ...  253 

Article  XVI. — St.  Cainchomrach,  Abbot  of  Iona.     [Tenth  Century]                 ...  253 

Articli  XVIL— St.  Boisil,  Prior  of  Melrose,  Scotland                ...                         ...  253 


&euuj  ©ag  of  September 


Article  L— St.  Finian,  Finnia,  Finnen,  Finnbarr,  or  Finnian,  Bishop 
of  M<>\  11.1.K,  County  of  Down.    [Sixth  Century.] 

Chap.  I. — Intiouuction~-Writers  on   St.  Finian's  Acts — His 
Family  I 'cscent— Early  Instructors — Said  to  have 
been   in    Scotland,  and  a  Disciple  of  Nennio  or 
Nei.nius — Recorded   Visit  to  Rome,  where  he  had 
been  ordained — Return  to  Ireland  ...         253 

CHAP.  II. — Time  when  St.  Finian  flourished — His  Miracles — 
Founder  of  Ma^hbile  and  Druim-Fionn  Monasteries 
— His   Relation  as  Master  to  some  distinguished 
Irish    Saints— His    last    Illness    and     Death — His 
Festivals  and  Commemorations — Conclusion         ...         257 
ARTICLE  II.— St.   Otger  or  Odgtr,    Deacon,   at    Rurimond,    Belgium.      [tiqhth 

Century]  ...  ...  ...         263 

Artici.i   III.  — m.  Senach,  son  of  Buidi.     [Possibly  in  the  Fifth  Century]  ...         267 

ARTICLE  IV. — St.   Segen  or  Sughin,  son  ol  Ua  Luinn,  Abbot  of  Bangor,  Coun'y 

Down.     [Seventh  Century]       ..  ...  ...  268 

ARTICLE  V.— St.  Finnbar  Aiac  Bincli  or  i-ionnbharr  ...  ...         269 

Akiici.e  YL— St.  Ferghus,  son  ol  Guaire  ...  ..  ...         269 

;•  IE  VIL— St.  Odian  or  CMhran  ...  269 

Article  V1IL— St.  Dachuimmne  ...  ...        269 

Articlk  IX.— St.  Ailbe  Imligh  or  Elbe  ...  ...  ...         269 

Article  X. -St.  I.ucill  or  Luiceall  ...  ...  269 

Article  XI. — Reputed  Feast  of  St.  Egiditu      ...  ...  ...        269* 

Article  XII. — Reputed  Feast  of  Gisuarius,  a  Priest  ...  ...        270 

ArticleXIIL— Reputed  Festival  of  St.  Bertellinus  ...  ...         270 


(Elebenuj  ©ag  of  September. 

Article  L— St.  Loarn  or  Loarnn,  Bishop  of  Bright,  County  of  Down. 

[ Fifth  Century]  ...  ...         270 

Article  II.— St.  Silian  or  biollan,of  Imleach  Cassain,  in  Cuailgne,  or  of  Imleach- 

caoin,  in  the  Tir-Aedha  ...  ...  ...         273 

ARTICLE  II    —Reputed  Festival  for  the    Transfer  of  St.  Bathen's  Relics,  and  the 

Miracle  of  St.  Duthac's  Arm    ...  ..  ...         274 


CONTENTS. 


Page 

Article  IV. — Reputed  Festival  of  a  St.  Batheneus                      ...                        ...  275 

Article  V.— St.  Daniel,  Bishop  of  Bangor,  County  of  Down      ...                         ...  275 

Article  VI. — St.  C<>namhail,  son  of  Failbhe,  Abbot  of  lona.     [Seventh  and  Eighth 

Centuries]        ...                          ...                          ...                          ...  276 

Article  VII. — Reputes  Festival  of  a  St.  Queranus,  Abbot  of  Foilen,  in  Scotia  ...  276 

Article  VIII. — St.  Colman,  Bishop                    ...                        ...                        ...  277 

Article  IX. — St.  Mosinu  or  Moshinu                ...                        ...                        ...  277 

Article  X.  —  Reputed  Feast  of  St.  Columbanus,  Abbot  of  Luxeu                         ...  277 

Article  XI. — Festival  of  St.  Eata,  Bishop  of  Lindis'arne           ...                        ...  278 


&toelft{)  ©ag  of  September, 


Article  I.— St.  Albeus  or  Ailbe,  Patron  and  Bishop  of  Emly.     [Fifth  ana 
Sixth  Centuries.] 

Chap.  I. — Introduction — Manuscript  and  printed  Accounts  of 
St.  Ailbe — His  Descent  and  Parentage — Probable 
Date  ot  Birth — Legends  regarding   his  Infancy — 
said  to  have  visited  Rome,  and  to  have  been  sent 
by  the  Sovereign  Pontiff  to  preach  the  Gospel  in 
Ireland — His   Arrival   there    and    Success  of  his 
Mission  ...  ...  ...         278 

CHAP.  II. — St.  Palladius  and  St.  Patrick  recognised  as  the  first 
Apostles  of  the  Irish  Church — St.  Ailbe  a  Disciple 
of  St.  Patrick — First  Meeting  of  St.  Patrick  and 
St.  Ailbe — The  Irish  Apostle  and  King  iEngus  fix 
the  See  of  St.  Ailbe  at  Emly — Description  of  the 
Locality — The  Ruie  of  St.  Ailbe—Missionary  Inci* 
dents  of  his  Career — His  Death  and  Place  of 
Burial — Festivals  and  Commemorations  —  Con- 
clusion ...  ...  ...         286 

Article  II St.  Molaissi,  or  Laisren,  of  Devenish  Island,  County  of 

Fermanagh.     [Sixth  Century.] 

Chap.  I. — Introduction  — Manuscript  and  printed  Lives  of  St. 
Molaissi  or  i.aisren — His  Family  and  Birth — His 
early  Training — He  selects  Devenish  as  a  Place  for 
his    Religious     Foundation  —  Description   of    the 
Isl.nd  and  of  its  Antiquities         ...  ...         298 

Chap.  II. — Period  of  St.  Molaissi's  Settlement  in  Devenish — 
Rute  drawn  up  by  him  ior  the  Regulation  of  that 
Monastery — His    Miracles — Virtues  and   Learning 
of  the  Saint — His  Deaih  and  Burial  at  Devenish — 
Commemorations — Conclusion     ...  ...         305 

Article  III. — St.  Mac  Lasre  or  Maclaisre,  Archbishop  and  Abbot  of  Armagh, 

County  of  Armagh.     [Sixth  and  .seventh  Centuries]  ...         311 

Article  IV.— St.  Fbdh,  Virgin,  of  Tech-Fleidhe,  County  of  Wicklow  ...         312 

Article  V.— St.  Coiman,  Bishop  of  Abhla        ...  ...  ...        312 

Article  VI.— St.  Kenan,  surnamed  Colledoc,  Bishop.     [Fifth  Century]  ...         313 


ftijuteenti)  ©ag  of  September. 


Article  I.— St.    Dagan,    Bishop  of    Achad-Dagain,    or   Ennerreii.ly, 

County  ok  W  icklow.     [S xth  and  Seventh  Centuries]           ...  315 

Article  II. — The  Daughters  of  Colum,  of  Tech-inghen-Coluim,  in  Cremhthann  325 
Article  III. — St.   Neman   or    Naemhann   Mac    Ua    Duibh.      [Probably    in    the 

Seventh  Century]                        ..                           ...                          ...  327 

Article  IV. — St.  Maeltolaigh,  of  Drumbeg  Parish,  County  of  Down         ...  327 

Article  V.— Reputed  Festival  of  St.   Batheneus,   Confessor                          ...  327 


CONTENTS. 


Article  VI. — Reputed  Festival  of  St.  Columban,  Abbot  of  Lure  ...        328 

Article   VII. — St.    Caemnach  ...  ...  ...        328 

Article  VIII. — Reputed  Festival  of  Twenty-two  Holy  Martyrs  ...        328 


JFomteentlj  3@ag  of*  September. 


AETICLK  1. — St.  Cormac  Mac  Culllnan,  King  Of  Munster  and  Bishop 
OK   Cashel.      iJVinl/i  ana   Tenth  CeuturicS.\ 

Chap.    I. — Introduction — Sources     for     St.     Cormac    Mac 
Cullenan's    Biography — His  Birth  and  Education 
— He    becomes   Bishop    of    Cashel — Description 
and      early      History     of      Cashel — Cormac      is 
elevated  to   the  Throne  of  South  Munster — His 
\  wt   to  Lorcan,   King  of  Thomond  ...         328 

CHAP.    II. — The    Invasion    of    Thomond   by   Flann    Sionna, 
Monarch      of      Ireland — His      Defeat — Cormac 
supposed    to   have  been   Author  of   the    Psalter 
of        Cashel — 'Compositions         attributed         to 
St.    Cormac    Mac   Cuillenan — Cormac's    Chapel 
on  the  Rock  of   Cashel — Visit   of   King  Lorcan 
to     Cormac — The     Sanas     Chormaic — Cormac's 
Celebration     of     Easter    at    Cashel — Hostilities 
between    the    People    of  -Munster    and    those    of 
Leinster  ...  ...  ...         336 

Chap.    III.— Contests     between     Eoghan      Mor,      King     of 
Munster,    and    Conn    of   the    Hundred    Battles, 
Monarch     of    Ireland — Division    of    the    Island 
into   Leath    Cuinn    or   Conn's   Half   and    Leath 
Modha    or    Modha's    Half — A    Council    of    the 
Munster    Chiefs    convened    by    King    Cormac    at 
Mungret — Resolution    to    declare    War    against 
Leinster — His     Will      and      Presentiment   of  a 
fatal    Result — The     Battle    of     Ballaghmoon — 
Defeat   and   Death   of   King   Cormac — Place  of 
Interment — Festivals — Erection    of    Cashel    into 
a    See — Memorials — Conclusion  ...  352 

Article  II. — St.  Caemhan  Brec,  Bishop  of  Ross-each,  now  Russagh,  County 

of   Westmeath  ...  ...  ...         372 

ARTICLE  III.— St.   Celcdabhaill,   Abbot  of  Bangor,   County  of  Do'.mi  ...         373 

Article  IV. — The  Daughters  of  Colum,  in  Cremtannaibh  ...         373 

ARTICLE  V. — Reputed   Feast   of   a  St.    Faghna  ...  ...         374 

Article   VI. — Maeltolaig  of  Droma   Faindle  ...        374 

Article  VII. — Festival  of  St.    Cyprian,   Bishop,   Doctor  and  Martyr  ...        374 

Article   VIII.— Feast  of  St."  Cornelius,   Pope   and   Martyr  ...         375 

Article  IX. — Festival  of  One-and-Twenty   Martyr  ...        375 

Ar  1  icle  X.— The  Feast  of  the  Exaltation  of  the  Holy  Cross      ...  ...         376 


JHfteentt)   ©ag  of  September. 


Article  I.— St.  Mirinus  or  Meadhran,  Patron  of  Paisley,  Scotland 

\SixthCentmy\                          ...                          ..  ...  377 

Article  II. — St.  Anmeir  or  Ainmire,  of  Cluain-fodn             ...  ...  381 

Article  HI.— St.  La-sa  <>i  Ctonmore               ...  ...  382 

Article  IV.— The  Sons  of  Tadhg                  ...                       ...  ...  382 

Article  V. — St.  Cyrinus  and  his  Companions,  Ifftrtjm  ...  383 

Article  VI.— Octave  of  the  Nativity  of  the  Blessed' Virgin  Mary  ...  383 

Article   VII.— Reputed  Feast  of  St.   Muredac                        ...  ...  584 

Article  VIII.— Reputed  Feast  of  St.  Cormac,  of  Munster  ...  ...  384 

Article  IX.— Feast  of  Nicomedes,   Martyr     ..                         ...  ...  384 


CONTEXTS. 


Sixteenth   ©ag  of  September. 


Page 


Article  I. — St.  Monenn  or  Maoineann,  Bishop   of  Cloncurrv,  County 
of    klldare,   and  supposed   to   have   been   identical 
with   St.    Ninian,   Apostle    of   the    Southern    Picts. 
[Fourth  ana  Fifth  Centuries.  J 

Chap.   I. — Introduction — Writers    of    St.  Ninian's    Acts — 
Supposed   Identity   of   Ninian   with    Moneen   or 
Maoinean — Birth   and  early  Years  of  Ninian — 
His  Journeys  to  Gaul,  on  his  Way  to  Rome — 
His    Studies    there — His    Ordination    as    Priest 
and    his   Consecration   as    Bishop — His  Visit   to 
St.    Martin,    Bishop    of    Tours — His   Return    to 
Scotland  ...  ...  ...         j&5 

Chap.  II.— The  Roman  Province  of  Valentia — Withern  and 
Candida   Casa — Monastic  Institute   there   estab- 
lished   by    St.    Ninian — His   Apostolate    to    the 
Picts — Its  Success — Miracles  of   the  Saint        ...         393 
Chap.  III. — St.  Ninian  is  said  to  have  sought  a  Retreat  in 
Ireland    towards    the    Close    of    his    Life — The 
Place     was     called     Cloneonrie-Tomayne,     now 
Cloncurry,    in    the    County    of    Kildare — Death 
and    Burial   of   St.    Ninian — Pilgrimages   to   his 
Shrine   and   Miracles   there   wrought — Religious 
Memorials — Conclusion  ...  ...         398 

Article  II. — St.   Laisren,  Abbot  of  Iona     [Sixth  and  Seventh  Centiuies]       ...         410 
Article  III. — St.  Laisren,   of  Menadrehid,    Queen's  County.         [Sixth     and 

Seventh  Centuries]  ...  ...  ...         412 

Article   IV. — St.    Criotan,    or    Critan    Certronnach    of    Bangor,    County    of 

Down.     [Seventh  Century]       ...  ...  ...  415 

Article  V. — St.  Anfadan       ...  ...  ...  ...        415 

Article  VI.— Reputed  Feast  of  a  St.   Golan  ...  ...        415 

Article    VII. — St.    Senan  ...  ...  ...         416 

Article  VIII. —St.    Saran  ...  ...  ...         416 

Article    IX. — St.    Caemhan   or    Coeman  ...  ...        416 

Article  X. — St.    Colman  ...  ...  ...        416 

Article   XL — St.    Cathbhadh,   or  Cathbad  ...  ...         416 

Article  XII. — St.   Airen  ...  ...  ...        417 

Article  XIIL— St.  Auxilius  ...  ...  ...        417 

Article  XIV.— Death   of   St.    Cormac   Mac   Cullinan,    King   and  Bishop   of 

Cashel  ...  ...  ...  ...         417 

Article  XV.— Reputed  Feast  of  St.  Miodu,  Son  of  Mael  ...  ...         417 

Article  XVI.— Festival  of  St.  Euphemia,  Virgin  and  Martyr  ...         418 

Article  XVII. — Festival  of  Saints  Lucia  and  Geminianus,  Martyrs  ...         418 


Sebenteentt)    Bag  of  September. 

Article  I. — St.   Grellan,  Patron  of  Hy-Maine,  Counties  of  Galway 
and  Roscommon.     [Fifth  or  .\txih  Centuries.] 

Chap.  I. — Introduction — Hy-Maine,  its  Boundaries  and 
original  Inhabitants — The  Firbolgs — Maine 
Mor  succeeds  and  gives  name  to  the  Territory 
— Afterwards  occupied  by  the  O'Kellys — 
Authorities  for  the  Acts  of  St.  Grellan — His 
Descent  and  Birth — Said  to  have  been  a 
Disciple  of  St.  Patrick — A  Great  Miracle 
wrought  by  St.  Grellan  at  Achadh  Fionnabrach  419 
Chap.  II.— A  Tract  of  Land  bestowed  on  St.  Grellan  by 
Duach  Gallach,  and  afterwards  known  ar 
Craobh    Greallain — War    between     the    Firbolg.' 


CONTENTS. 


Page 
and  Maine      Mor — St.    Grellan    settles    at    Kil- 
clooney — Destruction  of  the  Firbolg  Host — The 
I ly- Maine  occupy  their  Territory,  and  bind  them- 
selves   to  pay  an  annual  Tribute  to  St.  Grellan 
— Festival — His      Crozier      preserved      by      the 
O'Cronellys — Fortunes     of      the     O'Kellys,     or 
House   of  Hy-Maine — Conclusion  ...         425 

Article  II.— St.   Roding   or   St.    Rouin,   Abbot   of   Beaulieu,    France  ...         431 

Article  III. — St.   Brogan  Cloen,  Abbot  of  Rostuirc,   in  Ossory.        [Seventh 

Centu  y]  .  ...  ..  ...         435 

Article   IV. — St.   Riagail,   Patron   of  Tyrella   Parish  ...  ...        440 

Article    V.     St.  Earc,   or  Eric,    Bishop  of  Donoghmore,   of  Magh   Cobha, 

or  of  Maighe  Damhairne,  Counties  of  Down  and  Antrim  ...         441 
Article  VI.— St.  Feme,  Daughter  of  Cairell,  Virgin  and  Martyr  ...        442 

Article  VII. — St.  Cuimmen,  Abbot  of  Bangor,  County  of  Down.       \&venth 

Century]  ...  ...  ...  ...  443 

Article  VIII.— St.  Coindere,  of  Cuil-liag     ...  ...  443 

Article  IX. — Monachus  ...  ...  •  ••        444 

Article  X. — St.    Sanctin  ...  ...  ...        444 

Article  XI. — Anniversary    of    the    Birth    of    St.    Cornelius,    Archbishop    of 

Armagh  ...  ...  ...        445 

Article  XII.— Feast  of  the  Translation   of  St.  Fursey's  Relics  ...        445 

Article  XIII. — St.   Justin    or   Justus  ...  ...  ...         446 

Article  XIV.— St.    Laureint     '  ...  ...  ...        447 

Article  XV.— St.   Lambeirt  ...  ...  ...        447 

Article  XVI.— Reputed   Festival  of  St.   Pantaleon  ...  ...        447 


(fBigtjtcentt)   ©ap.  of  .September. 

Akiicle  I.— St.  Endeus,  Abbot  of  Emlaghfad,  County  of  Sligo.    [Sixth 

Century]          ...                           ...                           ...  ...  448 

Article  II.— St.    Fergna,    Priest                    ...                       ...  ...  448 

Article  III. — St.    Edain,    of    Droma    Rath,    most    probably    Drumrath,    or 

Drumrany,    County    of   Westmeath                ...  ...  449 

Amu  i.e  IV. — Feast  of  St.  Richarde  or  Richardis,  Empress  and  Virgin      ...  450 

Article  V. — St.  Foendelach  or  Faoindelach                            ...  ...  451 

Article  VI. — St.    Gema,   Virgin   of  Riacc  Innse                  ...  ...  451 

Article  VII.— St.    Greallan  Lainne                ...                        ...  ...  451 

Article  VIII. — St.    Maelcanaigh,   of  Rusgach,   in   the   County  of   Louth    ...  451 

Article  IX. — St.   Meno,  a  Deacon  and  Martyr                      ...  ...  451 

Article  X. — One   Hundted   and   Seven   Thousand                 ...  ...  451 

Article  XI. — Dedication  of  a  Basilica          ...                        ...  ...  452 

Article  XII.— Reputed   Festival   of   Columban,    Bishop       ...  ...  452 

Article  XIII.-  Reputed  Feast  of  St.   Ninian   of  Candida  Casa  ...  452 

\rii<  i.e  XIV. — Festival  for  Saints   Piala  and  Hia,   Virgins   and  Martyrs   ...  452 

Article  XV.— Festival  of  St.  Eutroip  or  Eutropius                ...  ...  452 

Article  XVI.— Feast  of  St.    Meiteit   or   Medetus                  ...  ...  452 

Article  XVIT.  -Festival   of   St.    Methoit  or   Methodius        ...  ...  453 


jfrtneteenti)  UBap  of  September. 

Article  I. — St.  Fionutain,  Abbot,  thought  to  have  been  the  Son  of 

Ainu    Kimni.iaih.     [Sixth  Century]               ...  ...  453 

Article  II.— Reputed   Feast  of  St.    Saran   Mac   Trenaich    ...  ...  454 

Article  III.— St.   Mac  Oigi,  Priest               ...                       ...  ...  455 

Article  IV.— St.    Fergus,   Cruithnech,  or  the  Pict  455 

Article  V.— Reputed  Feast    of  St.   Faendalech                      ...  ...  455 


CONTENTS. 


Page 

Article  VI. — St.    Seachan                                ...                        ...  ...  455 

Article  VII.— St.    Comgell    or   Caomhgheall,   Virgin            ...  ...  455 

Article  VIII. — St.  Anci  or  Ainchi                ...                        ...  ...  456 

Article  IX. — Reputed  Feast   of  St.   Sezin,   Abbot  in  Amu  ...  456 

Article  X. — Reputed    Feast    of    St.    Kortila                           ...  ...  456 

Articik  XI — R<  puled    Festival   ol  a  (  oliunban  in  Scotland  ...  456 

Article  XII.— St.  Egbinus,  a  Levite             ...                        ...  ...  457 

Article  XIII.— St.    Zephanus                          ...                        ...  ...  457 

Article  XIV. — Feast  of  St.   Januarius,    Bishop   of  Beneventum  and   Martyr  457 

Article  XV. — Achuit    or   Acutus                     ...                        ...  •••  458 

Article  XVI.— St.    Festus                               ...                       ...  •••  458 

Article  XVII. — Procul   or  Proculus               ...                        ...  •••  458 

Article  XVIII.— Eutic                                     ...                       ...  ...  458 

Article  XIX. — Felix  and  His    Companions,    Martyrs,    at   Nuceria,    Italy   ...  458 

Article  XX. — St.   Constaint  or  Constantia                               ...  ...  459 

Article  XXL— Pilip  or  Philippus                   ...                        ...  ...  459 


&toentietf)  JBag  of  .September. 

Article  I. — St.  Moghaidh,  Priest              ...                       ...  "...  459 

Article  II. — St.   Aedhan,    Son  of  Oissin                                ...  ...  459 

Article  III. — Festival  of  Doroma                   ...                        ...  ...  460 

Article  IV. — Privatus                                       ...                        ...  ...  460 

Article  V. — Dionysius            ...                        ...                        ...  ...  460 

Article  VI. — Fausta,    Martyr                          ...                        ...  ...  460 

Article  VII. — Evilasius  and   Eulogius           ...                        ...  ...  461 

Article  VIII. — Elevation    of   the  Relics  of   St.   Landalin    ...  ...  461 

Article  IX. — Reputed  Festival   of   St.    Cuthbert,   Bishop  of  Lindisfarne    ...  461 

Article  X. — Vigil  of  St.  Matthew  the  Apostle                       ...  ...  461 


CtonUp4irst  JDap.  of  September. 

Article  I. — St.    Edilhun,   Monk  in   Ireland.      [Seventh  Century]  ...  461 

Article  II. — St.    Landelinus,   Solitary   and    Martyr               ...  ...  462 

Article  III. — St.  Saran  mac  Tiagharnaigh  of  Lesan,  on  Mount  Callan,  and 

of    Cluain    da-acra   in    Cheachair                    ...  ...  465 

Article  IV. — Feast   of  St.   Caidoc,  Abbot  of  Lanncarvan,   in  Wales  ...  465 

Article  V. — St.    Maninius,    or  Naninus,    Confessor               ...  ...  465 

Article  VI. — St.  Pampil  or  Pamphilus,   Martyr  at  Rome  ...  ...  466 

Article  VII. — St.   Alexander,    Bishop   and  Martvr                 ...  ...  466 

Article  VIII. — St.    Clemeint   or  Clemens      ..."                    ...  ...  466 

Article  IX. — Reputed  Feast   of   Ciricc,    or  Cyricus              ...  ...  466 

Article  X.— Claudus               ...                       ...                       ...  ...  467 

Article  XI. — Laudus              ...                       ...                       ...  ...  467 

Article  XII. — St.    Matthew,    Apostle            ...                        ...  ...  467 


Ctoent^seeonti  jsag  0f  September. 

Article  I. — St.  Colum,   or  Colomb  Crag,  Priest  at  Enach,  County 

of    Londonderry.      [Sixth  Cen'ury\           ...  ...  468 

Article  II. — St.  Colman,  Son  of  Cathbhadh,  of  Midhe-iseal  ...  47° 

Article  III. — St.   Barrfhinn,    said   to   have   been   a  Son  of  Ernin  ...  47° 

Article  IV.— St.    Aedh,    or   Aidus,    Son    of  Senach            ...  ...  471 


CONTENTS. 


Page 

Article  V. — Martyrdom   of  St.    Maurice   and  his   Companions                     ...  471 

Article  VI. — St.  Hygbald,  Abbot                  ...                        ...                        ...  472 

Article  VII. — St.    Lolan,    Bishop  and   Confessor,    of   Kincardine,    Scotland  473 
Article  VIII. — The    Sons    of    Krnin,    of    Imis-mac-n-Ernin,     of    Loch    Ce, 

now  Lough   Key,   County  of   Roscommon   ...                         ...  474 

Article  IX. — Festival  of  St.  Ladelin,   a  Scot,  Diocese   of  Fribourg             ...  475 


492 


fttoent^ttjirti   $a]3   ot  September. 

Article  I. — St.    Adamnan,   ABBOT   of  Iona.    [Seventh  and  Eighth  Centuries. \ 

CHAP.  I. — Introduction. — Writers  of   St.   Adamnan's  Acts 

— Changes   of   his   Name — His   Parentage    and 

Descent — Place     ol      his      Birth — Early     Life 

spent    in    Ireland — Becomes  a    Monk    at   Iona 

— Occupations    in    that    Capacity — Reign    of 

Finnachta    Fleadhach    or    the     Festive    over 

Ireland — Foundations  attributed    to   Adamnan 

in  Ireland — Adamnan  elected  Abbot  of  Iona — 

Alfrid's  Exile  in  Ireland  and  subsequent  Return 

to    Northumbria — Invasion    of    Ireland  by   the 

Saxons — Adamnan     at     the     Request     of     his 

Countrymen    undertakes    an    Embassy    to   the 

Court     of     King    Aldfrid — He     procures     the 

Release  of  the  Captives  ...  ...         476 

Chap.  II. — The  Vision  of  Adamnan — His  Sojourn  in 
Ireland — Raphoe  and  its  Church  dedicated 
to  the  Patron  Saint — The  Shrine  of  Adamnan 
—Virtual  and  Accomplishments  01  the  Saint — 
Bishop  Arculf's  Visit  to  Iona — Adamnan 
writes  the  Tract  De  Locis  Sanctis — His  Life 
of  St.  Columba — Adamnan's  genuine  Writings 
and  those  attributed  to  him  ... 
Chap.  III.— The  Visit  of  Adamnan  to  Ireland  during  the 
Reign  of  Finnachta  Fledach,  and  his  Return  to 
Iona — Again  he  re-visits  Ireland — Remission 
of  the  Boromean  Tribute — Adamnan's  Temp- 
tations— Death  of  King  Bruide,  and  Legend 
of  his  Resuscitation  from  Death  by  Adamnan 
— The  Life  of  St.  Columba  written  in  Iona — 
Supposed  Sojourn  of  our  Saint  inDerry — The 
great  Synod  at  which  Flann  Febhla,  Abbot 
of  Armagh,  presided,  and  at  which  Adamnan 
assisted — His  disciplinary  Recommendations 
to  the  Irish  Clergy  and  Laity  ...         504 

I  map.  IV. — Return  of  Adamnan  to  Iona — He  again  sails  for 
Ireland  in  696  or  697,  and  convenes  a  Mordail 
or  general  Convocation — The  Synod  at  Tara 
and  Promulgation  of  the  Law  of  the  Innocents 
with  other  Enactments — Return  to  Iona — 
Another  Embassy  to  King  Aldfrid's  Court — 
Adamnan  is  there  converted  to  the  Adoption 
of  the  Roman  Usages — He  fails  in  his  Effort 
to  introduce  them  at  Iona,  but  visits  Ireland 
once  more,  where  he  succeeds — His  reputed 
Connection  with  Mayo — His  Return  to  Iona 
and  Death — Festivals — Commemorations  in 
Ireland  and  Scotland — St.  Eunan's  Catholic 
Cathedral  in  Letterkenny — Relics  of  Adamnan 
pre»^rve<l  at  Iona — Their  Removal  to  Ireland 
— Return  to  Iona — Once  more  removed  tn 
Ireland — Conclusion  ...  .  .         $\2 

Arthif.  II.     Si.    Tonaing,    or    Oonnioh    Mic  Luachain  ...  ...         533 


CONTENTS. 


Page 

Article  III. — St.    Comnat    or   Coirnnatain  ...  ...  534 

Article  IV. — St.    Saran          ...                       ...  ...  ...  534 

Article  V. — St.  Teck,   Virgin  and  Martyr   ...  ...  ...  534 

Article  VI.— Reputed  Festival   of    St.    Lolan,    Scottish  Bishop  ...  535 

Article  VII.— Reputed   Festival   of   St.    Hildulph  ...  ...  535 

Article  VIII. — Reputed    Festival    of    St.    Kynnera    or  Canera,  Virgin,    at 

Inis  Cathaigh                        ...  ...  ...  535 


Cfomip-fourijj  -§an  oi  Sbtyhmbtx. 

Article  I. — Saints      Chunibaldus     ur      Cunialdus      and      Gislarius, 
Priests  and  Missionaries  in  Bavaria.    {Seventh  and  Eighth 

Centuries}        ...  ..  ...  ...  536 

Article  II. — St.   Foelchu,  of  Finglas,    County  of  Dublin   ...  ..  541 

Article  III. — St.    Ceallachan,  of  Clontibret,   County   of  Monaghan  ...  542 

ARTICLE  IV.— The      Daughters      01      Cainnceh,     of     Maghlocha,      County  i>l 

Tipperary.     [Sixth.  Century]   ...  ...  ...  543 

Article  V. — St.    Cailcon  or   Caolchu,    of  Cluana  Airthir  or   Lui-Airthir  ...  544 

Article  VI.— Festival    of    Felix  ...  ...  ...  545 

Article  VII. — Festival  of  Androchius  ...  ...  ...  545 

Article  VIII. — Festival    of   Thyrsus  ...  ...  ...  545 

Article  IX. — Festival  of  the  Conception  of  St.  John  the  Baptist  ...  545 

Article  X.— Feast  of  the  Translation  of  St.  Rupert's  Relics  ...  546 

Articlk  XT. — Reputed   Feast  of  St.  Lolan      ...  ...  ...  547 

Article  XII. — Reputed   Feast  for  Barrea,   Bishop  and  Confessor  ...  547 


Cfaenig -fifty  $aij  ai  September. 

Article  I. — St.  Bairre  or  Finbar,  First  Bishop,  and  Patron  of  Cork. 
[Sixth  and  Seventh  Centuries. \ 

Chap.  I.   -Introduction  —  Materials     for    the    Acts    of    St. 
Bairre     or    Finbar — His    Race     and     Birth- 
Miracles     recorded  —  His     early     Instructors — 
His    Acts    while    remaining    in  Leinster — His 
Return   to  Munster — Miracles     while     there— 
St.     Finbar's    Contemporaries — Said    to    have 
visited   Rome  ...  ...         547 

Chap.  II. — St.  Bairre  founds  a  School  for  Religious  at 
Gougane  Barra — Names  of  his  Disciples,  Men 
and  Women — He  is  admonished  by  an  Angel 
to  leave  for  Cloyne — Afterwards  he  goes  to 
Cork,  where  he  establishes  a  famous  School 
and  Monastery — Names  of  his  Cork  Scholars 
— Period  of  his  Episcopacy  and  See  in  that  City 
— Legends  regarding  his  Consecration  as 
Bishop — Death  and  Burial  of  Bairre's  Master 
Maccuirp — Origin  of  Cork  Citv  ...         558 

Chap.  III.— Period  of  St.  Finbarr's  Sojourn  at  Cork- 
Death  of  his  Master,  Bishop  Maccuirp,  and 
his  Burial  there — Finbarr's  Selection  of  a 
Spiritual  Director — He  visits  Fiama  at  Desert- 
more  to  obtain  Relics — Finbarr's  Visit  to 
Cloyne,  where  his  Death  takes  place — His 
Interment  at  Cork — Ecclesiastical  Traditions 
of  the  See — Calendar  Celebrations  of  St. 
Finbarr's    Feast — Memorials — Conclusion      ...         570 

Article  II. — St.    Colman,    of    Comhruire,    now    Kilcomreragh,    at    Uisneach 

Hill,  County  of  Westmeath.     [Seventh  Century]  ....         585 


CONTENTS. 


Article  III.-    Reputed    St.    Colman,    Sci      ...  ...  ...         586 

Article  IV.— St.  Iomchaidh,  of  Kill  Drochoid,  County  of  Down  586 

Article  V. — St.   Coelan  or  Caelan,   of  Echinis  ...  586 

Article  VI.— St.  Ainmire,  of  Ross-na-Chonna,  in  Mughdhorna  587 

Article  VII. — St.    Sineall,   of  Pniim-Broan  ...  587 

Article  VIII. — St.    Seanan   or  Senan,    Bishop    of    Cork  ...         587 

Article  IX. — St.   Modain  or  Modoe,  in  Ailbhe  ...  ...        588 

ARTICLE  X. — Feast  of  Firmin  or  Firminus,  First  Bishop  of  Amiens,  by  some 

writers   reputed  an   Irish   Saint  ...  ...         588 

Article  XL— St.   Ruine                                  ...  ...  592 

Article  XII.— Reputed  Feast   of  St.   Adamnan,   Abbot  of  Iona  ...         592 

Article  XIII.— Cleophas                                ...  ...  •••        592 

Article  XIV.— St.   Lupus                               ...  •••  •••        593 

Article  XV.— St.   Eusebius                             ...  ...  593 


cTnuntn-SH-tb   Bag   of  Sipfemfeer, 

Akime  I. — St.    Colman    Eala,    or   Elo,   Abbot    of  Lann    Elo,    now 
Lynally,  King's  County.     [Sixth  and  Seventh  Centuries.'] 
I  11  IP.   I.  —  Introduction — Family  arul  Biuh  of  St.  Colman  Eala 
— Hi*    Early    Instruction   imder  St.    Caeman   of 
Sliabh    Bloom — Miracles — Colman    is   said    to 
have  spent  some  Time  at  Connor — Confounded 
with  St.  Colm-in  of  Dromore     ...  ...  503 

t  hat.  II. — Return  of  St.  Colman  Eala  to  his  ancestral  Pro- 
vince—  His  Visits  to  St.Columbainlona — Escape;- 
the  Dangers   of   Courebrecain  Whirlpool — Con- 
vention  at  which  St.  Colman  obtains  a  Grant 
of  Land    to   found   his  Monastery   and  Church 
at  Lynally — Record  of  various  Miracles — Fore- 
knowledge of  his  Death — His  Visit  to  Clonard 
in   Anticipation  of  it — His   Return  to  Lynally 
and  Departure  from  Life — St.    Colman     Eala's 
Commemoration    and    Memorials — Conclusion         598 
Article  II.— St.    Colman,    of    Ros    Branduibh  ...  ...        607 

Article  III.— Feast  of  St.  Natalis,  at  Kinnawley  ...  ...        607 

Article  IV. — St.  Justina,  Martyr,   near  Nicomedia,  in  Bithynia  ...        607 

Article  V. —  St.   Cyprian,  Bishop  and  Martyr,  near  Nicomedia,  in  Bithinia         608 
Article  VI.— St.    Faustinus,    Martyr  ...  ...        608 

Article  VII.— Eusebius  ...  ...  ...  ...        608 

AlTICLI  VIII. —Translation  of  the  Relics  of  St.  David,  Patron  of  Wales  608 
Article  IX.— Translation  of  the  Relics  of  St.  Virgilius,  Bishop  of  Saltzbmg  609 
Article  X. — Reputed  Anniversary  of  the  Death  of  St.   Raban  Maur  ...         6oq 


Jtoentij-sebentl)    Dap,   of  September. 

Article  I. — St.    Lupait    or    Lupita,    also    thought    to   have 
Liamain  or  Liemania,  Sister  of  St.  Patrick. 
Century] 

Article  II. — St.    Fionntain,    or    Fintan 

Article  III. — St.     Columm    or    Columban    ... 

AlTICLI  TV. — St.    Suibni,    or    Suibhne 

Article  V. — St.    Finnen   or   Finnian,  Bishop 

AlTICLI   VI.  —  St.    Finnanie    Mac    Coppain     ... 

Article  VII.— Festival    for  the   Translation  of   St.    Gibrian'i   Relics 

AlTICLI  VIII.— St.    Ernin    Ua   Briuin 

Article  IX. — Si.     Orannus    or    Oranus,   Bishop 


BEEN 

[  Fifth 

609 

614 

616 

616 

617 

617 

617 

617 

618 

CONTENTS. 


Article  X. — Reputed      Feast   of   Marcellus,      Scottish 

Balbulus,    St.    Gall,   Switzerland 
Article  XL — Festival    of   St.    Barry,    in    Scotland 


Tutor      of     Notker 


Article  XII. — Festival  of 
Article  XIII. — Leoint  or 
Article  XIV.— Antim    or 
Article  XV. — Adulf 
Article  XVI.— Petar 
Article  XVII.— Eupreip 


Saints   Cosmas   and    Damian 

Leontius 

Anthimus 


Page 

618 
619 
619 
620 
620 
620 
620 
621 


Article  I. — St.  Sinach  Mac  Dara,  of  Inis  Cruach  Mac  Dara  County 

of    Galway                         ...                      ...  ...  621 

Article  II. — Feast    of    St.    Fursey                ...                        ...  ...  624 

Article  III. — St.   Fiachrach    or    Fiachra,    Bishop   of   Cuil   Eachtrann,    now 

Culfeightrin    Parish,    County    of   Antrim    ...  ...  628 

ARTICLE  IV. — St.    Diarmait,    Bishop  of  Cluain,    Finn-Aighne  ...  629 

Article  V. — The  Two   Findias    and   Lobhar                          ...  ...  629 

Article  VI. — Reputed   Feast  for   St.   Junill   or   Junaill,    Infirmus  ...  630 

Article  VII. — St.    Dairi,   a   Holy  Widow                              ...  ...  630 

Article  VIII. — St.    Machan,    Bishop    and    Confessor           ...  ...  630 

Article  IX. — Festival    of   St.    Conval            ...                        ...  ...  63 x 

Article  X. — Faust    or    Faustus                        ...                        ...  ...  631 

Article  XI. — Ianair  or  Januarius                   ...                        ...  ...  632 

Article  XII. — Martial  or   Martialis                ...                        ...  ...  632 

Article  XIII.— Exuperius                               ...                       ...  ...  632 

Article  XIV.— Solon                                        ...                       ...  ...  633 

Article  XV.— Reputed  Feast    of  a    Marcellus                        ...  ...  633 

Article  XVT.-Zaeheus                                     ...                        ...  ...  633 

Article  XVII.— Reputed  Feast   of  St.   Gilda                         ...  ...  633 

Article  XVITT.— Translation    of    St.   Dvsibod's    Relics         ...  ...  633 


Ctomtg-nintfr  §ap   of  jJcpfemlxer. 

Article  I. — St.  Murghal,     Abbot    of     Rathlin,     County  of  Antrim. 

[Eio/ifh  Century} 
Article  II. — St.    Oolumba,    or    Columm 
Article  III. — St.    Ciaran,    Son    of    Iar,   Bishop 
Article  IV.— St.    Nessan,    of  Uladh 
Article  V. — St.    Sedrach,    Bishop 
Article  VI. — St.     Caiman 
Article  VII.— St.    Comgill    or  Comghall 
Article  VIII.— Feast  of  St.    Michael   the   Archangel 
Article  IX.— Eutic    or    Eutvchius 
Article  X. — Reputed   Feast  for   St.    Barr 

Article  XI.— Feast   of  Goganus,   Abbot  ...  "... 

Article  XII.— Festival   of   St.   Disibod 
Article  XIII.— Reputed  Feast  for  St.   Firminns,  Bishop  of  Amiens 


634 
635 
636 
636 
636 
637 
637 
637 
638 
638 
638 
638 
638 


@t!rtrfot(r  gag  erf  S*ptemfor. 


Article  I.— St.    Mochonna,   of   Cluain  Airdne.      [Seventh    and   Eighth 

Centuries'] 
Article  II.— Reputed  Feast  of  a  St.    Conna 


639 
640 


CONTEH  IS. 


Page 
Article  III. — St.   Brigid,  of  Cluainfidhe,  or  perhaps  of  Kilbreedy,  Queen's 

County                                     ...                        •••                        •••  640 

Article  IV.— St.    Mobi,    Nun,   of  Domhnach    Broc,    Donnybrook,    County    of 

Dublin                                       ...                         ...                          ••  642 

Article  V.— St.  Ainner  or  Airinne.  the  Pious,  of  Breachmhagh                         ...  643 

Article  VI.— St.  Faolan,  of  Rath-aine,   in  Dal   Araidhe  644 

Article  VII.— St.  Faelan                                ...  644 

Article  VIII.— St.  Daighre,  of  Cluain  Accair,  in  Ardgail    ...                         ...  644 

Article    IX. — St.    Lassar,   Daughter   of  Lochain                  ...  645 

Article  X.— St.   Lugaid  or  Lughaidh,   of  Airther-Acbadh   ...                        ...  645 

Article  XI. — St.    Laeghaire,    Bishop   of  Lough    Conn,    County  of    Mayo   ...  645 

Article  XII.— St.    Corcan,    the   Pilgrim,   Bishop                    ...                         ...  645 

Article  XIII.— Reputed    Feast    of   Ailithir,    a    Bishop          ...                        ...  645 

Article  XIV. — St.  Comesd  or  Coimsigh,  Priest,  of  Domhnach  Airis         ...  646 

Article  XV.— St.  Coininn,   Virgin                  ...                        ...                        ...  646 

Article  XVI.— St.    Rodan    or   Rotan             ...                        ...                        ...  646 

Article  XVII. — St.    Broncein  or  Bronchan,    of   Lethet  corcraidhe                ...  646 

Article  XVIII.— St.  Bresal,  of  Derthaig       ...                        ...                        ...  646 

Article  XIX. — St.     Seanan,     or    Senan        ...                        ...                        ...  647 

Article  XX.— St.    Creber                                 ...                        ...  647 

Article  XXI. — St.   Colman,    of    Cluain-tioprat,    now    Clontibret,    County    of 

Monaghan                                ...                         ...                          ...  647 

Article  XXII. — Reputed    Festival    for   St.    Machanus          ...                        ...  647 

Article  XXIII.—  Reputed  Feast   of   St.    Coganus    Abbot    ...                        ...  648 

Article  XXIV.— Reputed  Feast  of  St.  Malchus,  Bishop  of  Sodor,  Scotland  648 

Article  XXV. — St    Victor  «>f  the  Tbeban  Leeion.  Martyr         ...                          ...  64S 

Article  XXVI. — Ursus,    of    the   Theban    Legion,    Martyr    ...                         ...  648 

Article  XXVII. — St.    Jerome,    Priest    at    Bethlehem,    and    Doctor    of    the 

Church                                                                     ...                          ...  64* 


SUPPLEMENTAL  LIST  OF  SUBSCRIBERS. 


Carbray,  Felix,  Esq.,  Portuguese  Consulate 
Quebec,  Canada. 

Chadwick.  J"hn,  Esq.,  Jun.,  18  Patrick- 
street,  Kilkenny. 

Begley,  Rev.  John,  C.C.,  Tournafulla,  New 


Library  of  the  Monastery,   Pantasaph,  Holy 

Well,  North  Wales. 
McKeefy,   Rev.  Joseph,    C.C.,    Waterside, 

Derrv. 
O'Boylan,     Very    Rev.     B.     M.,     Catholic 


castle  West,  Countv  Limerick.  Rector,  Newark,  State  of  Ohio,  U.S.A. 


Doherty,  Rev.  William,  C.C  ,  St.  Coluroba's 

Presbytery,  Derry. 
Gibney,  Most  Rev.  Matthew.  D.D.,  Bishop 

of  Perth,  Western  Australia. 
Gilbert,  Henry  March,  Esq.,  26  Above  Bar, 


O'Reilly,  Patrick  J.,  Esq.,  7  North  Earl- 
s'reet,  Dublin. 

Ormond,  Rev.  William,  C.C,  Grange 
Mockler,  Callan,  County  Kilkenny. 

Robh,  Mrs.   Alice  G.,  Sauaymount,  Ough- 


Southampton,  England.     (Two  Copies.)  terard,  County  Galway 


DIRECTION  TO  THE  BINDER. 

flr  The  Binder  will  please  prefix  the  Frontispiece  and  Title  Page,  contained  in  Part  90. 
and  first  of  Vol.  IX.  to  the  present  Table  of  Contents,  which,  in  order  of  binding,  should 
precede  the  various  Parts  to  99,  which  Part  closes  the  present  Volume. 


LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS. 


jftrst  IBajj  of  September. 


ARTICLE     I.— ST.      .EGIDIUS     OR     GILES,      ABBOT     OF     ST.      GILLES, 

FRANCE. 


{SEVENTH  AND  EIGHTH  CENTURIES.} 


CHAPTER     I. 

INTRODUCTION— WRITERS  OF  LIVES  OF  ST.  /EGIDIUS — HIS  ORTGIN,  BIRTH  AND  EARLY 
DISPOSITIONS — EDUCATION  AND  EMIGRATION  FROM  GREECE — HE  ARRIVES  AT  MAR- 
SEILLES—AFTERWARDS HE  GOES  TO  ARLES— HE  THEN  SEEKS  A  PLACE  FOR  RETREAT 
NEAR  THE  RIVER  GARD— LIVES  WITH  THE  HERMIT  FERODEMOS  AND  AFTERWARDS 
PARTS  WITH  HIM  FOR  A  SITUATION  OF  STILL  GREATER  RETIREMENT— NIMES  AND  ITS 
GOTHIC  KINGS— ST.  AGIDIUS  IS  URGED  TO  THE  ERECTION  OF  A  RELIGIOUS  HOUSE. 

NOTHING  afforded  the  saints  more  pleasure  and  happiness  than  to 
understand  the  will  of  God  in  their  regard.  Only  to  learn  what  was 
required  of  them  was  sufficient  to  engage  all  their  desires.  The  prompting 
of  duty  became  the  rule  which  governed  their  lives.  It  mattered  not  how 
great  was  the  sacrifice  demanded,  or  how  continuous  the  exertion  ;  all  labours 
were  lightened  by  that  complacency  taken  in  their  performance,  and  by  the 
testimony  of  a  good  conscience,  which  guided  their  motives.  Such  ready 
submission  to  the  Divine  will  was  the  secret  of  their  strength,  and  it  pro- 
cured that  love  of  things  heavenly,  which  served  to  lessen  their  love  for 
worldly  objects.  Men  willingly  perform  those  actions,  which  but  accord 
with  their  tastes  and  enjoyments.  These  latter  are  too  frequently  depraved 
and  sinful ;  hence  it  happens,  that  in  following  the  bent  of  evil  inclinations, 
folly  and  vice  will  bring  many  to  the  depths  of  infamy  and  misery.  But,  the 
holy  ones  of  God  have  learned  to  control  evil  desires,  and  to  practise  good 
works  ;  thus,  virtue  grew  into  a  habit,  while  their  consciences,  sensitive  and 
responding  only  to  the  calls  of  grace,  formed  those  holy  resolutions,  which 
exalt  and  crown  the  supernatural  life.  Moreover,  as  in  their  respective  spheres 
of  duty,  they  were  only  solicitous  to  learn  and  fulfil  their  various  avocations 
in  the  service  of  their  Divine  Master;  so  were  they  solely  devoted  to  Him, 
seeking  in  their  pilgrimage  here  the  Kingdom  of  Heaven  as  their  reward,  and 
disregarding  in  comparison  with  it  as  mere  illusions  the  passing  comforts 
and  ambitions  of  those  who  are  bent  on  procuring  earthly  enjoyments. 

The  principle  on  which  the  present  work  has  been  compiled  only  restricts 
the  writer  to  include  the  lives  of  saints,  connected  with  Ireland  by  birth, 
missionary  career,  or  death,  with  occasionally  the  introduction  of  some  Celtic 

Vol.  IX.— No.  i.  a 


LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS.      [September  i. 


forms  of  name,  and  more  especially  confined  to  Scotland  or  Wales,  while 
owing  to  want  of  record  it  seems  doubtful  if  they  be  not  of  Irish  birth,  as 
undoubtedly  they  were  of  Irish  parentage  or  descent.  In  the  present 
instance,  however,  it  seems  allowable  to  enter  an  exception,  in  the  case  of 
St.  iEgidius — better  known  in  the  British  Islands  as  St.  Giles — because  he 
is  not  only  specially  commemorated  in  our  national  Calendars,  but  because 
he  was  likewise  specially  venerated  in  Ireland,  as  in  other  countries  on  the 
Continent  of  Europe.  The  life  and  actions  of  the  present  saint  have  been 
greatly  confused  by  an  old  writer  of  his  Acts,  and  as  there  was  an  earlier 
abbot,  bearing  the  same  name,  and  who  lived  near  the  city  of  Aries  in  the 
sixth  century,  the  memorials  collected  for  his  biography  introduced  matters 
referable  to  both  holy  men.1 

Our  St.  ^Egidius  is  said  to  have  flourished  in  the  south  of  France, 
according  to  some,  at  a  time  when  St.  Caesarius  was  bishop  over  the  See  of 
Aries.3  This,  however,  is  a  mistake,  and  he  is  not  to  be  confounded  with 
/Egidius,  an  abbot  near  that  city,  and  who  had  been  sent  to  Rome  with 
Messianus,3  in  514,  to  Pope  Symmachus.*  The  circumstances  of  time  and 
place  are  sufficient  to  disprove  any  such  supposition.*  The  present  St. 
Giles,  a  Greek  by  birth,  lived  only  in  the  seventh,  and  in  the  beginning  of 
the  eighth,  century.6 

The  praises  of  St.  Egidius  have  been  sung  by  St.  Fulbert  of  Chartres, 
in  an  office,  which  he  composed  to  honour  that  holy  Abbot.?  Franciscus 
Haraeus,8  Petrus  de  Natalibus,  and  Florarius,  have  accounts  of  ^Egidius, 
taken  chiefly  from  his  ancient  incorrect  Acts,  to  which  they  have  added 
errors  of  their  own,  according  to  the  statement  of  Father  John  Stilting.  An 
anonymous  Life  of  this  saint  has  been  published  in  the  "  Acta  Sanctorum  "9 
of  the  Bollandists.  Again,  at  the  present  date,  they  have  given  another 
Life  of  this  holy  man  in  three  chapters,10  with  notes  appended  and  a 
Preface."  This  latter  Life  has  been  edited  by  Father  John  Stilting.  How- 
ever, besides  the  evident  anachronism  of  confounding  him  with  an  Egidius, 


Article  1.— '  See  Mabillon's  "Annales 
Ordinis  S.  Benedicti,"  tomus  i.,  lib.  iv., 
sect,  xxvii.,  pp.  99,  100. 

a  The  old  writer  of  St.  Giles'  acts  makes 
him  a  contemporary  with  St.  Caesarius,  who 
died  a.o.  542,  and  with  Charles  Martel, 
King  of  France,  who  died  A.D.  751  ;  this 
shows  how  inaccurate  such  record  is,  at 
least  in  its  earlier  statements. 

1  Secretary  to  St.  Caesarius.  This  bishop 
desired  to  obtain  a  confirmation  of  the 
privileges  of  the  metropolitical  church  of 
Aries,  as  a  result  of  their  embassy.  See 
Rev.  Alban  Butler's  "  Lives  of  the  Fathers, 
Martyrs  and  other  principal  Saints,"  vol. 
ix.,  September  i. 

4  He  ruled  over  the  Church,  from  a.d. 
498  to  A.D.  514. 

5  He  lived  at  Aries  but  for  a  short  time, 
so  that  he  probably  knew  little  concerning 
the  statutes  of  that  church,  or  may  not  have 
been  well  versed  in  the  Latin  language,  nor 
as  a  stranger  likely  to  have  been  selected  as 
an  envoy  to  Rome  by  St.  Caesarius.  More- 
over, his  love  of  solitude,  and  the  fact  that 
as  abbot  afterwards,  he  was  a  resident  of 
the  diocese  of  Nimes,  rather  than  that   of 


Aries,  show  that   an   earlier  /Egidius   had 
been  charged  with  such  a  mission. 

6  Yet  owing  to  the  confusion  of  statements 
made,  some  writers  have  not  hesitated  to 
style  our  saint  Abbot  of  Aries. 

7  Mabillon  adds,  "sed  nullo  pcene  relato 
historico  facto,  nisi  quod  eum  Graicum 
fuisse,  et  in  Galliam  accessisse  dicit." — 
Annales  Ordinis  S.  Benedicti,  tomus  i., 
lib.  iv.,  sect,  xxvii.,  p.  100. 

8  See  "  Vitae  Sanctorum  ex  probatissimis 
Authoribus,  et  potissimum  ex  Rmo.  D. 
Aloysio  Lipomano  et  R.  P.  Laur.  Sin  io, 
brevi  compendio  summa  fide  collectae,"  p. 

657. 

9  See  tomus  i.,  Junii,  pp.  284  to  304. 

10  Containing  25  paragraphs  and  a  previous 
commentary  in  six  sections  and  65  para- 
graphs. See  "Acta  Sanctorum,"  tomus  i., 
Septembris  i.  De  Sanclo  <Egidio  Abbate 
in  Fano  S.  ^Egidii  Occitaniae,  pp.  284  to  304. 

11  This  Preface  is  contained  in  four 
different  copies  of  our  saint's  Acts,  but  in 
other  copies  it  is  omitted.  However,  from 
the  words,  "  Sanctus  igitur  /Egidius,"  with 
which  the  Life  opens,  we  may  infer,  that 
it  belonged  to  the  original  composition. 


September  i.]      LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS. 


who  lived  contemporaneously  with  St.  Caesarius,  Bishop  of  Aries,  there  are 
other  objections  to  its  entire  accuracy  of  statement.12 

The  Acts  or  notices  of  St.  Egidius  or  St.  Giles  have  been  published  by 
Andrew  Sausay,J3  by  Joannes  Trithemius,1*  by  Mabillon/s  by  the  Maurist 
Fathers,16  in  the  "  Histoire  Generale  de  Languedoc,1?  by  Rev.  Alban  Butler,18 
by  Rev.  S.  Baring-Gould, *'  and  by  Les  Petits  Bollandistes.20 

St.  Egidius  is  supposed  to  have  been  of  Greek  origin,  and  born,  about 
the  year  640,  of  noble  parents,  who  lived  at  Athens.21  His  father  was  named 
Theodore,  and  his  mother  was  Pelagia.  Distinguished  for  innocence  and 
holiness  of  life  from  his  early  years,  he  well  profited  by  the  example  and 
advice  of  pious  parents.  He  at  length  resolved  to  leave  his  native  country, 
that  he  might  more  securely  and  religiously  live  in  solitude.  Already,  he 
had  been  placed  under  the  charge  of  the  most  illustrious  teachers  of  his 
period  and  nation  ;22  while  he  soon  manifested  those  great  natural  scintilla- 
tions of  intellect  by  the  progress  he  made  in  humanities.  However,  he  pre- 
ferred the  study  of  sacred  literature,  and  it  served  still  more  to  foster  in  his 
soul  the  love  of  God,  and  to  cause  his  estrangement  from  earthly  ambition 
and  worldly  pleasures. 

When  Egidius  had  attained  the  twenty-fourth  year,  his  father  first  died, 
and  soon  afterwards  his  mother.  The  pious  young  man  was  most  sensibly 
afflicted  at  this  double  privation ;  but  he  resolved  to  make  account  of  it,  by 
reflecting  on  the  transitory  nature  of  all  earthly  things.  Falling  on  his  knees, 
he  invoked  the  Supreme  Consoler,  and  asked  for  light  and  grace  to  conduct 
him  on  the  path  to  Heaven.  Nor  was  he  long  left  in  ignorance  of  a  course 
to  take,  for  he  had  resolved  on  making  generous  sacrifices,  which  were 
destined  to  gain  for  him  the  eternal  crown.  His  charity  towards  the  poor 
was  remarkable.  One  day,  while  going  to  the  church  to  practise  his  cus- 
tomary devotions,  he  met  a  poor  man  who  was  ill  and  miserably  clad.  Asking 
alms  from  the  pious  young  man,  the  latter  took  off  his  own  outer  garment, 
which  was  even  necessary  for  the  preservation  of  his  health. 

Soon,  Egidius  became  distinguished  for  the  gift  of  miracles.  When 
leaving  the  church,  on  a  certain  occasion,  seeing  a  person  who  had  been 
bitten  by  a  serpent,  and  whose  wound  was  of  a  deadly  nature,  the  interven- 
tion of  our  saint  procured  his  recovery.  Another  time,  while  in  the  church, 
a  possessed  man  disturbed  the  congregation  by  his  cries  and  howlings. 
However,  Egidius  expelled  the  demon  from   the   body   of  that   unhappy 


12  This  appears  to  have  come  under  the  tines  de  la  Congregation  deS.  Maur.  Tome 
notice  of  Mabillon,  with  two  other  Lives,  i.,  liv.  v.,  pp.  257,  258,  and  note  lxv.,  pp. 
and  they  are  characterised  by  him  as  faulty.  666,  667.     A  Paris,  1730  to  1745,  fol. 

See  "  Acta  Sanctorum  Ordinis  S.  Benedicti,"  lS  See  "  Lives  of  the  Fathers,  Martyrs  and 

tomus  i.  in  Catalogo  Prsetermissorum.  other  principal  Saints,"  vol.  ix.,  Sept.  i. 

13  In  his  "  Martyrologium  Gallicanum,"  I9  See  "Lives  of  the  Saints,"  vol.  ix., 
at  the  1st  of  September.  September  i.,  pp.  8  to  10. 

14  See  "De  Viris  Illustribus  Ordinis  S.  20  "Les  Vies  des  Saints,"  tome  x.,  premier 
Benedicti,"  lib.  it,- cap.  xxii.,  lib.  iii.,  cap.  jour  de  Septembre,  pp.  401  to  406. 

clxii.  2I  The   present   account   of  our   saint   is 

15  See  "  Annales  Ordinis  S.  Benedicti,"  drawn  chiefly  from  the  Vita  auctore  anonymo, 
tomus  i.,  lib.  iv.,  sect,  xxvii.,  pp.  99,  100.  as  published  by  the  Bollandists.  The  time 
Also,  in  the  "  Acta  Sanctorum  Ordinis  S.  when  he  lived  has  not  been  determined,  but 
Benedicti,"  s<ec.  iii.,  in  Prolegomena.  it  is  thought  to  have  been  written  before  the 

16  In  "  Histoire   Literaire  de  la  France,"  ninth  or  tenth  century. 

tome  iii.,  pp.  243,  244.  22  One  of  the  Manuscript  Codices  of  the 

■7  Avec  des  Notes  et  les  Pieces  justifica-  Life  of  St.    ^Egidius  by    the    anonymous 

tives,  &c„  par.  Fr.  Claude  de  Vic,  et  Fr.  author  has  "  Spiritus  sancti  gratia   perlus- 

Joseph  Vaissete,  cdeux  Religieux  Benedic-  tratus  ;"  another  reads,  "  prse  scientiargratia 


LIVES   OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS.       September  i. 


creature.23  His  reputation  for  sanctity  then  spread  abroad  through  his  own 
country,  and  turned  the  regards  of  all  its  inhabitants  towards  him.  This 
approval  alarmed  his  humility,  nor  could  he  bear  to  remain  longer  in  his 
native  land.  Having  sold  all  his  effects,  and  distributed  the  proceeds  among 
the  poor,  he  went  on  board  a  vessel  bound  for  the  Western  parts  of  Europe. 
During  that  voyage,  a  great  tempest  arose,  and  to  the  terror  of  all  on  board, 
their  ship  was  likely  to  be  submerged,  when  Egidius  prayed  for  deliverance 
from  shipwreck.  Immediately  the  storm  was  appeased.  Then  his  fellow- 
passengers  were  profuse  in  their  protestations  of  gratitude,  and  rendered  him 
unbounded  thanks  for  their  deliverance.  Yet,  fearful  of  having  his  praises 
further  proclaimed,  Egidius  asked  to  be  disembarked  on  the  first  island, 
where  they  might  anchor,  nor  could  his  request  be  refused. 

Having  landed  on  its  shores,2*  one  of  the  first  objects  noticed  was  the 
track  of  a  man's  feet  in  the  sand.  Resolving  to  pursue  this  track  farther, 
the  print  of  footsteps  led  him  to  a  small  grotto.  This  was  hidden  among  a 
thick  jungle  of  thorns,  and  in  a  very  lonely  place.  There  he  found  a  vener- 
able old  man,  who  for  twelve  years  passed  a  solitary  life  in  that  wilderness, 
where  he  lived  only  on  herbs  and  roots.  Casting  himself  at  the  hermit's 
feet,  Egidius  besought  his  benediction.  For  three  days  he  remained  there, 
united  in  prayer  and  fasting  with  the  recluse.  The  youthful  pilgrim  thought 
he  had  then  discovered  a  spot  conformable  to  the  design  he  had  entertained  of 
separating  himself  entirely  from  the  world. 

As  the  island  was  not  very  remote  from  his  native  country,2*  the  idea  ot 
Egidius  was,  that  his  retreat  might  be  discovered  by  some  of  the  surviving 
members  of  his  family,  who  would  be  likely  to  press  for  his  return. 
Accordingly,  he  again  sought  a  vessel,  which  might  bear  him  away  to  a  more 
distant  country. 

After  a  voyage,  which  lasted  for  some  days,  he  arrived  at  the  port  of 
Marseilles,26  anciently  called  Massilia,  a  city  situated  at  the  mouths  of  the 
River  Rhone.  It  is  at  present  the  most  important  seaport  in  France,  with 
a  large  and  constantly  increasing  population.  It  is  also  a  city  of  great 
antiquity.2?  According  to  French  historians,28  a  colony  from  Phoccea,  on  the 
Ionian  coast,  had  settled  at  a  very  early  period  in  the  southland  the  founda- 
tion of  Marseilles   by   the   Phocceans  3°   dates    back    to    the    Forty- fifth 


perlustrans  ;     while  the  text  published  by  2?  Herodotus  is  the  earliest  historian,  that 

ilandists    runs:     "  Pnedictus    vero  gives  an  account  of  its  settlement  by  the 

iEpdius  xvo  tener  ad  liberalia   rudimenta  Greeks. 

dispositus.doctoressumniosSpiritusscientioe  a8  See    L.     P.    Anquetil's    "  Histoire   de 

fratia      perlustratus     brevi     aequiparavit."  France,"  sect,  ii.,  p.  4. 
'ather  Stilting  had  six  different  copies  of  «9  Rather  than  submit  to  Cyrus,  King  of 
that  Life  to  collate,    and   these   contained  Persia,    the    Phocoeans    left    their     native 
various  verbal  changes.  country,  Asia  Minor,  with  their  wives  and 
'i  See  Les  Petits  Bollandistes,  "Vies  des  children,    and   sought  for    liberty    on    the 
Saints,     tome  x.,  premier  jour  de  Septem-  barbarous  coasts  of  Gaul.     To  this  emigra- 
te, Saint  Gilles,  &c,  p.  401.  tion  allusion  is  made  by  Horace  : 
3*  According  to  Father  Stilting,  this  mail  «  Phocceorum 
have  happened  ftboot  a.d.  665  or  666.  Velut  profuget  execrata  civitas, 

■  b\y  one  of  that  group  of  Agros  atque  lares  patrios,  habitandaque 

Is,    known    as  the  Cyclades,    in   the  rura 

Grlci™  A'cMpe!-1  Apris  reliquit  et  rapacibus  lupis  : 

lne   accompanying   engraving  of  the  Ire   pedes   quocunque   ferent,  quocun- 

former  old  Port  of  Marseilles,  copied  from  que  per  undas 

an    approved     engraving,    and    represent-  Notus  vocabit,  aut  protervus  Africus." 

ing   its  present  state,  has  been  transferred  *>  Herodotus  gives   an   account   of  their 

to   the  wood  and  engraved  by  Mr.  Gregor  spirit  of  freedom,  and  of  their  prowess  in 

°rey'  navigation,  in  his  history,  book  i. 


September  i.]      LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS. 


Olympiad,31  or  the  year  599,  before  the  birth  of  Christ.33  It  is  likely  enough 
their  descendants  had  been  there,  and  had  received  through  their  ancestors 
the  Grecian  learning  and  culture,33  which  survived  to  the  time  when  Egidius 


Old  Port  of  Marseilles,  France, 
landed  on  the  Gaulish  coast.     The  distinction  of  Marseilles  34  was  maintained 
during  the  time  of  the  Roman  Republic,35  and  it  was  continued  during  the 
middle  ages,  as  head  of  an  independent  State.36 

At  first,  Egidius  chose  a  place  for  retreat,  near  the  mouth  of  the  Rhone.3? 
There  he  made  every  effort  possible  to  conceal  his  spiritual  gifts,  but  it  was 
the  Almighty's  design,  that  the  virtues  of  his  servant  should  be  discovered. 
Thence  as  a  pilgrim  begging  his  way,  Egidius  proceeded  to  Aries,38  then  the 


31  According  to  the  historian,  Solinus.  In 
the  first  instance  the  Phocceans  took  refuge 
in  the  Island  of  Cymus — so  called  by  Pliny, 
lib.  hi.,  12. — now  Corsica.  However,  the 
ruin  of  Phoccea  took  place  about  twenty 
years  before  the  foundation  of  Marseilles. 

32  The  settlers  were  favourably  received 
by  the  inhabitants  in  that  part  of  Gaul,  while 
their  colony  soon  increased  and  prospered. 
They  became  great  proficients  in  commerce 
and  navigation. 

33  In  his  oration  for  Flaccus,  Cicero 
declares  that  Greece  alone  could  compete 
with  Marseilles  as  a  seat  of  learning.  Taci- 
tus likewise  calls  her  "  magistram  studio- 
rum." 

34  The  Romans  sought  and  esteemed  the 
Massilians  as  allies. 

35  The  Massilians  wished  to  remain  neutral 
in  the  wars  between  Caesar  and  Pompey. 
However,  they  finally  sided  with  the  latter. 
Afterwards,  Massilia  was  besieged,  reduced 
to  great  distress,  and  taken  by  the  former. 


Csesar  records,  that  he  preserved  it,  "magis 
pro  nomine  et  vetustate  quam  pro  mentis 
in  se." 

36  She  elected  her  own  magistrates,  and 
formed  alliances  with  other  states.  Alone 
she  furnished  all  the  galleys  required  by  St. 
Louis,  to  transport  his  army  to  Palestine. 
See  Jean  Sire  de  Joinville's  "  Histoire  de 
Saint  Louis,"  &c,  par  M.  Natalis  de 
Wailly,  Membre  de  PInstitut,  chap,  xxvii., 
xxviii.,  pp.  68  to  71.  Paris,  seconde 
edition,  1874,  Imp.  8vo. 

3?  Fr.  Claude  de  Vic  and  Fr.  Joseph 
Vaissete  place  the  coming  of  St.  Gilles  into 
France  at  A.D.  514,  in  their  "  Histoire 
Generale  de  Languedoc,"  tome  i.,  liv.  v., 
p.  257.  His  coming  there,  however,  was 
more  than  a  century  later. 

38  Aries  is  one  of  the  most  ancient  cities  of 
France,  and  Ausonius  calls  it  the  Rome  of 
Gaul,  "  Gallula  Roma  Arelas."  It  was  for- 
merly the  residence  of  a  Roman  Prefect.  It 
is  rich  in   ancient   remains  of  the   Roman 


LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS.      [September  i. 


metropolis  of  southern  Gaul,  and  a  city  of  great  celebrity.  He  sought  to 
live  a  retired  life,  but  the  fame  of  his  virtues  spread  abroad,  and  such  was 
the  impression  it  made  on  the  minds  of  men,  that  a  person,  who  had  long 
suffered  from  a  fever,  recommended  himself  to  the  fervent  prayers  of  the 
servant  of  God,  and  recovered  his  health. 39  This  miracle  greatly  increased 
his  popularity,  and  that  whole  neighbourhood  became  anxious  to  learn  his 
name  and  that  of  the  country  from  which  he  came,  so  that  due  honour  should 
be  paid  him  in  the  land  of  his  adoption.  But,  these  demonstrations  of  affec- 
tion and  respect  only  alarmed  his  humility  the  more ;  and  to  avoid  human 
applause,  he  again  resolved  on  seeking  a  place  more  suitable  for  perfect 
retirement.40     Afterwards,  he  crossed  the  Rhone,  and  sought  a  desert  near  the 


Old  Roman  Bridge  near  Nimes. 

River  Gardon,4'  now  known  as  the  Gard,  where  steep  rocks  arose,  and  in  a 
place  little  resorted  to  by  men.  One  of  the  most  remarkable  specimens  of 
Roman  grandeur  extant  is  the  Pont  du  Gard,42  about  twelve  miles  distant  from 


E 

i 


period.  After  the  fall  of  the  Roman  Empire, 
a.i>.,  876,  it  became  the  capital  of  the 
Kingdom  of  Aries,  or  of  Trans-Jurane  Bur- 
undy.  See  Murray's  M  Hand-book  for 
Travellers  in  France,"  sect,  vi.,  Route  127, 
pp.  51610523. 

39  Probably  relying  on  the  authority  of  his 
life,  by  the  anonymous  author,  or  from  some 
other  sources,  St.  ,Kgidius  is  stated,  to  have 
spent  this  period  of  his  career  in  Aries,  while 
St.  CWMHUI  had  been  its  Bishop.  Such 
are  the  statements  by  Vicentius  Bellova- 
censis,  Petrus  de  Natalibus,  John  of  Tritten- 

nd  other  celebrated  writers.  Father 
Stilting  proves  the  falsity  of  such  supposition. 

40  TheMaurists,  in  "Histoirc  Literaire  de 

ce,"  state:  "  Ce  qu'il  y  a  de  plus 
certain,  e'est  qu'il  passa  quelque  temps  sous 
la  discipline  de  Saint  Cesaire,  qui  le  deputa 


a  Rome  en  514  avec  Messien. — Tome  hi., 
p.  244.  This,  however,  is  a  mistake,  our 
saint  having  been  confounded  with  a  l'Abbe 
Gilles,  who  lived  a  century  previous  to  his  time. 

41  In  some  instances,  Latin  writers  have 
styled  it  Vardum  or  Wardum. 

42  It  consists  of  three  tiers  of  arches  :  the 
lowest  of  six  arches  supporting  eleven  of 
equal  span  in  the  central  tier,  surmounted 
by  thirty- five  of  smaller  size  in  the  upper 
ranges.  The  whole  is  in  a  simple  style  of 
architecture,  but  especially  wonderful  for  the 
enormous  blocks  of  stone  and  skill  employed 
in  its  construction.  It  was  formerly  used  as 
an  aqueduct  for  conveying  water  to  Nimes, 
and  the  highest  range  of  arches  still  carries  a 
covered  canal,  about  five  feet  high,  and  two 
feet  wide,  yet  retaining  a  coating  of  Roman 
cement.      See    Murray's    "  Handbook    for 


September  i.]      LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS. 


Nimes.  The  River  Gardon,  or  Gard,  gives  name  to  a  modern  French 
Department  on  the  right  bank  of  the  Rhone,  and  it  runs  through  the  central 
part  of  that  districts 

There  lived  in  that  region  a  holy  solitary,  named  Ferodemos,  or  Vere- 
demus,44 a  Greek  like  himself,  and  who,  inspired  by  a  pious  motive  of  like 
sort,  had  quitted  his  native  country,  to  seek  repose  in  a  strange  land.  In  this 
place,  he  had  formed  a  hermitage  in  a  cave,  the  entrance  to  which  was  closed 
from  observation  by  brambles  and  thickets.  Nor  was  St.  Giles — as  he  was 
afterwards  called — long  in  that  quarter,  until  Divine  Providence  brought  him 
into  the  presence  of  the  pious  solitary ;  and  great  indeed  were  their  transports 
of  joy  to  find,  that  not  only  were  they  fellow-countrymen,  speaking  the  same 
noble  language,  but  having  their  souls  inflamed  with  like  devout  sentiments, 
and  filled  with  the  love  of  God.4*  Soon  they  became  mutual  and  ardent 
admirers  of  each  other's  virtues,  and  their  hearts  were  united  by  an  indissoluble 
friendship. 

For  two  years  they  remained  together  \  still,  Egidius  longed  for  that  per- 
fect abstraction,  which  held  possession  of  his  soul,  as  so  many  of  the  neigh- 
bouring people,  led  through  pious  motives,  came  to  visit  them.  At  length 
he  ventured  to  open  his  mind  to  Ferodemos,*6  by  stating,  that  the  crowd  of 
people,  who  flocked  thither  was  a  cause  of  great  disquiet  to  him,  and  that 
often  he  had  desired  to  seek  greater  solitude.  "  Then,"  replied  Ferodemos, 
"  let  us  invoke  the  Divine  Spirit  together,  and  hesitate  not  to  follow  His 


Travellers  in  France,"  sect,  vi.,  Route  126, 
p.  507.  The  annexed  illustration,  from  an 
approved  view,  was  drawn  on  the  wood  and 
engraved  by  Mr.  Gregor  Grey. 

43  For  a  description  of  its  features,  history, 
and  resources,  the  reader  is  referred  to 
Elisee  Reclus'  "Nouvelle  Geographie  Uni- 
verselle,"  tome  ii.,  liv.  ii.,  chap,  iii.,  sect, 
vi.,  pp.  285  to  293. 

44  Writers  have  been  divided  in  opinion 
regarding  his  identity.  Some  think  there 
were  two,  bearing  the  same  name,  but  dis- 
tinct persons  :  one  who,  from  having  been 
an  eremite,  became  Bishop  of  Avignon  ;  and 
the  other,  an  eremite,  who  lived  in  the 
country,  known  as  Uzeta,  in  Languedoc. 
Others  maintain  that  the  latter  had  been  pro- 
moted to  the  See  of  Avignon,  and  that  he  was 
identical  with  the  former.  See  Benedictus 
Gononus,  in  "Vitee  Patrum  Occidentis,"  lib. 
iii.  At  p.  160,  and  subsequently,  he  gives  the 
Life  of  Veredemus,  Bishop  of  Avignon,  taken 
partly  from  archives  of  that  church,  and  partly 
from  Raulin,  a  learned  monk  of  Cluny. 

45  The  church  of  Usez  has  placed  Vere- 
deme  in  the  Catalogue  of  its  saints.  See 
"Histoire  Generate  de  Languedoc,"  tome  i., 
liv.  v.,  p.  257. 

46  Cointe  contends,  that  there  were  two 
distinct  persons,  named  Ferodemos  or  Vere- 
demus;  and  he  thinks,  that  the  one,  who 
lived  with  St.  /Egidius  in  the  desert,  was  the 
hermit  venerated  in  the  church  of  Uzeta,  or 
Uzes.  The  chief  reason  assigned  for  this 
opinion  is  a  supposition,  that  as  /Egidius 
lived  contemporaneously  with  St.  Coesarius, 
Bishop   of  Aries,  he  must  have   flourished 


nearly  two  centuries  before  the  time  of  Vere- 
demus, Bishop  of  Avignon.  See  "Annates 
Francorum,"  ad  Annum  531,  num.  xi.  The 
Bollandist  writers  have  treated  on  this  sub- 
ject, at  the  23rd  of  August,  where  Pinius 
seems  to  favour  Cointe's  opinion  as  probable. 
However,  Father  Stilting  holds  the  contrary 
one,  and  with  good  reason ;  although,  as 
Gononus  states,  in  the  Breviary  of  Uzeta 
church,  there  is  a  festival  for  Veredemus, 
the  hermit,  Confessor,  and  not  Pontiff,  on 
the  23rd  of  August,  and  his  body  is  said  to 
rest  there,  while  there  is  a  feast  for  Vere- 
demus, Bishop  of  Avignon,  at  the  17th  of 
June.  Now,  the  hermit,  Veredemus,  lived 
in  the  village  of  Uzeta,  and  he  was  after- 
wards bishop,  according  to  Gononus,  and  the 
diocese  of  Uzes  extends  from  the  Gard  to  the 
Rhone.  The  other  objection  of  one  Vere- 
demus being  venerated  as  Pontifex^  and  the 
other  as  non  Ponlifex,  is  thought  to  arise  from 
the  circumstance,  that  Veredemus  having 
lived  at  Uzes  as  a  hermit,  so  only  in  that 
capacity  had  he  been  regarded  as  non  Ponli- 
fex, while  the  difference  of  festival  may  be 
assigned  to  some  special  cause.  Moreover, 
Claude  Castellan,  writing  to  the  Bollandists, 
states,  at  the  23rd  of  August,  that  although 
there  are  two  distinct  festivals,  yet  Dom 
Sanguin,  a  Canon  of  Avignon,  believed  them 
to  refer  only  to  the  same  saint,  and  that  some 
of  his  relics  had  been  preserved  in  the  church 
at  Uzes.  See  "  Acta  Sanctorum,"  tomus  i., 
Septembris  i.  De  Sancto  /Egidio  Abbate  in 
Fano  S.  /Egidii  Occitanix.  Commentary's 
proevius,  sect,  vi.,  num.  59,  60,  61,  62,  63, 
pp.  297,  298. 


LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS.      [September  i. 


inspired  counsels,  however  distressing  they  may  prove  for  our  mutual  affection. " 
Accordingly  the  advice  was  followed,  and  having  ascertained  the  Divine  Will 
in  their  regard,  they  gave  each  other  the  kiss  of  peace,  and  thus  separated.4? 
Afterwards,  Egidius  treaded  his  difficult  journey  through  devious  bye-paths, 
and  at  the  close  of  a  long  day's  march,  he  came  to  the  borders  of  a  deep  and 
thick  forest.  He  rested  for  the  morning's  light,  and  then  entered  it,  forcing 
his  way  through  gigantic  trees,  and  tangled  brakes,  quite  pleased  to  think  this 
must  afford  a  safe  retirement  from  all  worldly  intrusion.  At  length  he  found 
a  cave,  which  was  shaded  by  four  enormous  oak-trees,  and  near  it  flowed  a 
rivulet  of  pure  water,  which  disappeared  under  a  verdant  covering.  This 
stream  is  still  traditionally  shown  between  the  city  of  St.  Gilles  and  the  wood 
of  Ribasse. 

The  holy  hermit  desired  to  be  entirely  disengaged  from  all  earthly  con- 
cerns, so  that  he  might  devote  himself  altogether  to  religious  contemplation. t8 
Thus  was  his  soul  perfectly  purified,  so  that  with  ardent  desires  and  constancy 
of  purpose  his  thoughts  were  ever  fixed  on  heavenly  things.  In  fine,  St.  Giles 
took  up  his  abode  in  that  forest  within  the  Diocese  of  Nismes,49  and  there  he 
resolved  on  that  contemplative  and  penitential  course  of  life  he  had  practised 
with  Ferodemos.  The  wild  roots  and  herbs  of  the  forest  furnished  his  sole 
support,  and  the  stream  served  to  appease  his  thirst.  A  hind  of  the  forest 
gave  him  milk,  and  shared  his  caresses  with  gentleness,  whenever  she  saw  him 
rise  from  his  devotions.  That  innocent  animal  excited  the  more  his  gratitude 
towards  the  Almighty,  who  rewards  His  servants  with  unexpected  and  extra- 
ordinary succours. 

It  is  said,  that  in  the  country  about  Nimes,  the  local  deity,  adored  by  the 
native  Celts,  Iberiens  or  Ligures,  was  named  Namaous,  Nemausos,  or 
Nemausus.  To  him  the  Greeks,  and  afterwards  the  Romans,  erected  altars, 
some  of  which  still  remain. 5°  Nimes  is  supposed  to  have  been  built  by  a 
Greek  colony ;  and  afterwards,  for  about  500  years,  it  was  in  possession  of 
the  Romans.51  After  Marseilles  and  Toulon,  Nimes  is  still  the  largest  city 
of  southern  France  adjoining  the  Mediterranean  Sea;52  but,  it  has  the  dis- 
advantage of  being  separated  from  any  water-course.53  With  the  falling 
fortunes  of  the  Roman  Empire,   the  Goths 54  extended  their  incursions  to 


47  According  to  Father  Stilting,  this  event  tions  Lexicon,"  vol.  v.,  p.  237. 

took  place  about  A.D.  670  or  671.  SJ  The  Maison  Carrce,  now  converted  into 

48  The  Religious  Benedictines  of  the  Con-  a  Museum,  the  old  Roman  Amphitheatre, 
gregation  of  St.  Maur  state  "  l'amour  de  la  the  Temple  of  Diana,  and  other  antiquities 
solitude  le  portat  a  se  retirer  pres  du  Rhone  of  Nismes,  have  been  pleasingly  described  in 
auK  extremites  de  Diocese  de  Nimes." —  the  Countess  of  Blessington's  "Idler  in 
"  Histoire  Literaire  de  la  France,"  tome  iii.,  France,"  vol.  i.,  chap,  i.,  pp.  I  to  25.  Lon- 
p.  244.  don,  1 84 1,  8vo. 

4»  The  Latin  name,  Nemausum  or  Nemau-  s3  See  Elisee  Reclus'  "  Nouvelle  Geogra- 

sus,  was  applied  to  the  present  ancient  city  phie  Universelle,"  tome   ii.,    liv.    ii.,  chap. 

of  Xismes,  the  head  of  that  See,  by  Strabo,  iii.,  sect,  vi.,  p.  288. 

Pomponius  Mela,  and  Ptolemy.     See  Bau-  54  They  were  first  kown  to  the  Romans 

drand's    ••  Novum  Lexicon  Geographicum,"  under  this  name,  about  the  commencement 

tomus  i.,  p.  515.  of  the  third  century.     In  a.d.  249  and  250, 

s0  See  Menard's  "  Histoire  des  Antiquities  they  ravaged  Thrace,  and  took  Philippopolis ; 

de  Nimes,"  Em.   Desjardins,  Notes  Manu-  A.D.  255,  256,  they  invaded  Illyricum  ;  A.D. 

scrites,  8vo,  1822.  259,    they  penetrated  into   Bithynia ;    A.D. 

51  Next  to  Rome,  Nimes  and  its  vicinity  262,  they  entered   Thrace,    and   devastated 

contain    the   most  remarkable  and  greatest  Macedonia ;    A.D.  267,   they  ravaged  Asia, 

number   of  Roman   antiquities.      Very  fine  After  various  wars  with  the  Romans,  under 

Mosaics    have    been   found    there,   besides  their  famous  King,  Alaric,  elected  A.D.  382, 

numerous   fragments   of   ancient   buildings,  Greece  was  plundered  A.D.    395,  396,  and 

with   Greek  and  Roman  inscriptions.     See  Alaric  entered  Italy  A.D.  402;  but  he  was 

the    "  Popular  Encyclopedia  ;  or  Conversa-  defeated  in  the  battle  of  Pollentia,  fought 


September  i.i      LIVES  OF  THE  fRISH  SAINTS. 


Gaul,55  and  over-ran  that  country,  under  Adolphus,  the  brother-in-law  of 
Alaric,  in  the  beginning  of  the  fifth  century.  His  troops  occupied  the  cities 
of  Narbonne,  Toulouse  and  Bordeaux,  with  the  whole  country  surrounding 
them.s6  The  successors  of  Alaric  fixed  their  royal  residence  at  Toulouse  ; 
and  the  Gothic  limits  contained  the  territories  of  seven  cities,  namely, 
Bordeaux,  Perigueux,  Angouleme,  Agen,  Saintes,  Poitiers  and  Toulouse. 
Hence,  their  Kingdom  is  said  to  have  obtained  the  name  of  Septimania.57 
The  Goths  then  in  possession  were  generally  professors  of  Arianism,  and  an 
edict  of  the  Emperor  Honorius  appointed  an  annual  assembly  for  the  seven 
Provinces  at  Aries,  to  consist  of  the  Praetorian  prefect  of  the  Gauls,  of  seven 
provincial  governors,  one  consular  and  six  presidents,  of  the  magistrates,  and 
perhaps  the  bishops  of  about  sixty  cities;  as  also  of  a  competent,  although 
an  indefinite,  number  of  the  most  opulent  possessors  of  land,  who  might 
justly  be  considered  as  representatives  of  their  country.s8  This  order  pre- 
vailed, until  the  Franks, 59  having  made  incursions  from  Germany  into  Gaul 
so  early  as  the  fourth  century,  established  their  domination  over  Roman  Gaul 
under  Clovis  the  Great,60  in  486,  by  the  celebrated  victory  of  Soissons.  This 
monarch,  crowned  at  Rheims,  a.d.  496,  reduced  the  Allemannion  both  banks 
of  the  Rhine,61  the  Bretons  in  Armorica,62  and  the  Visigoths  in  Aquitania.63 
The  Goths  6*  or  Visigoths  6s  had  possession  of  the  country  about  Nismes,  but 


about  the  Easter  of  A.D.  403,  and  he  re- 
crossed  the  Po  during  the  summer  season. 
After  the  death  of  the  celebrated  Roman 
general,  Stilicho,  Alaric  moved  from  Nori- 
cuin,  and  marched  upon  Rome,  A.D.  408, 
which  he  besieged,  but  withdrew  upon  terms 
into  Tuscany.  Again  his  demands  having 
been  rejected  by  the  Emperor  Honorius, 
a.d.  409,  Alaric  advanced  to  Ravenna,  A.D. 
410,  and  afterwards  to  Rome,  winch  he 
besieged  and  captured  in  August,  but  he 
died  before  the  close  of  that  year.  See 
Henry  Fynes  Clinton's  "Fasti  Romani." 
The  Civil  and  Literary  Chronology  of  Rome 
and  Constantinople,  from  the  death  of 
Augustus  to  the  death  of  Justin  II.,  vol.  i., 
pp.  268,  278,  282,  288,  294,  302,  492,  502, 
534,  536,  548,  550,  554,  57o,  572,  574,  576, 
578. 

55  Already  had  the  Vandals  invaded  this 
Roman  province,  A.D.  406.  They  entered 
Spain  a.d.  409.  A  war  was  waged  by  the 
Goths  against  them,  and  they  were  routed, 
A.D.  417,  by  King  Wallia.  He  was  re- 
warded by  the  Roman  Emperor  Constantius 
with  a  donation  of  the  Gallic  district  of 
Aquitain,  which  extended  from  Toulouse  to 
the  Mediterranean  Sea.  See  ibid.,  pp.564, 
576,  582,  594. 

56  At  that  time  the  Romanized  provincials 
had  introduced  the  laws,  manners,  and 
learning  of  the  Roman  Empire. 

57  This  name  was  first  given  to  it  by  Sido- 
nius  Apollinaris,  ad  Avitum,  lib.  iii., 
epist.  1.  The  Gaulish,  however,  is  not  to 
be  confounded  with  the  Roman  Septimania. 
The  writers  of  "Historian  Occitanise  "  give 
us  various  opinions  concerning  the  origin  of 
that  name. 

s8  **  They  were   empowered   to   interpret 


and  communicate  the  laws  of  their  sove- 
reign ;  to  expose  the  grievances  and  wishes 
of  their  constituents  ;  to  moderate  the  ex- 
cessive or  unequal  weight  of  taxes  ;  and  to 
deliberate  on  every  subject  of  local  or 
national  importance  that  could  tend  to  the 
restoration  of  the  peace  and  prosperity  of  the 
seven  provinces." — Edward  Gibbon's  "  His- 
tory of  the  Decline  and  Fall  of  the  Roman 
Empire,"  vol.  iv.,  chap,  xxxi.,  p.  135. 

59  Originally  a  German  tribe,  who  were 
known  in  284,  a.d.,  as  living  between  the 
Weser  and  the  Lower  Rhine. 

60  Of  the  Merovingian  race. 

61  After  the  battle  of  Zulpich. 

62  a.d.  507. 

63  The  maritime  district,  extending  from 
the  Garonne  to  the  Pyrenees. 

64  The  origin  oi  this  people  is  lost  in 
obscurity,  yet  they  are  generally  supposed 
to  have  inhabited  the  northern  parts  of 
Germany,  before  their  incursions  were  made 
on  the  Roman  provinces.  Their  native 
name,  as  we  learn  from  Bishop  Ulphilas, 
who  lived  in  the  fourth  century,  was  Gut- 
thiuda,  rendered  by  the  Greek  and  Roman 
writers  Gotones,  Gothones,  Guttones,  Guthse, 
and,  last  of  all,  Gothi.  Cassiodorus,  the 
Roman  Chief  Minister  of  Theodoric  the  Great, 
wrote  a  History  of  the  Goths,  which,  un- 
fortunately, is  now  lost.  He  lived  during 
the  first  half  of  the  sixth  century.  Jornan- 
des,  a  Goth,  and  Secretary  to  the  King  of 
the  Alani,  in  the  time  of  Justinian,  also 
wrote  a  work,  "De  Getarum  Origine  et 
Rebus  Gestis."  He  became  a  Christian, 
and  held  a  bishopric  in  Italy. 

65  At  a  time,  when  the  Goths  became  more 
numerous  and  rapacious,  they  were  divided 
into  two  great  branches,  called  Austrogothi, 


LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS.      [September  i. 


relinquished  it,  when  the  Franks  captured  Aries,  a.d.  541.66  Afterwards, 
the  Goths  succeeded  in  obtaining  possession  of  that  territory,  in  which  St. 
Giles  lived.  According  to  the  old  writer  of  his  Acts,  Flavius  was  their  con- 
temporaneous King.  However,  this  was  a  common  name  for  all  the  Gothic 
Kings,  nor  is  it  easy  to  authenticate  some  of  the  matters  thus  related.67  The 
identity  of  this  Flavius  has  been  contested.68  That  a  potentate  thus  designated 
was  the  real  founder  of  a  monastery  for  St.  u^Egidius  has  been  unquestionably 
established.6^  The  writers  of  the  "  Historian  Occitanise,"  however,  have  too 
hastily  assumed,  that  Theodoric,  King  of  the  Ostrogoths  in  Italy,  was  the 
founder,  because  he  is  known  to  have  been  styled  Flavius.  Nevertheless, 
their  calculations  are  based  on  the  error  of  supposing,  that  an  ^Egidius,  sent 
by  Csesarius  as  a  representative  to  Rome,  a.d.  514,  was  identical  with  our 
saint.  But,  it  seems  most  probable,  that  one  of  the  principal  seigneurs  of 
the  Visigoths,  named  Vamba  or  Wamba,7°  who  had  been  elected  as  their 
thirtieth  King,  had  been  his  generous  patron.71  Following  the  spirit  of 
that  age,  Vamba  had  impoliticly  banished  the  Jews  from  his  Kingdom,  and 
these  were  accorded  protection  by  Hilderic,  Count  of  Nimes,  by  the  Bishop 
of  Maguelonne,  and  by  other  seigneurs  of  the  Septimania.  While  the  pro- 
vinces of  Biscay  and  Navarre  were  in  revolt  against  the  Visigoth  King,72 
those  discontented  nobles  entered  into  a  league  to  subvert  his  authority  over 
them.  However,  Vamba  raised  an  army  which  he  led  through  Catalonia 
against  his  traitorous  chieftain,  the  Duke  Paul,  who  had  proclaimed  himself 
King  of  Gothic  Gaul.  On  Vamba's  approach  to  Narbonne,  Paul  retired  to 
Nimes.  There,  after  an  obstinate  resistance,  and  horrible  in  its  details,  the 
besieged  surrendered  and  besought  the  conqueror's  clemency.  There  was 
a  King  of  the  Goths  in  Spain,  named  Flavius  Ervigius,  who  succeeded  Flavius 
Wamba,  when  the  latter  abdicated  his  rule  a.d.  680,  He  was  contempo- 
raneous with  Pope  Benedict  II.,  who  only  presided  over  the  Church  a.d.  684 
and  685  for  the  short  term  of  ten  months  and  twelve  days.73  Although  it  is 
established,  that  ^Egidius  presented  to  that  Pontiff  his  monastery,74  it  is  not 
therefore  to  be  inferred,  that  the  latter  had  not  been  erected  many  years 
previous  to  his  rule.  Wherefore,  to  Wamba  must  be  referred  the  pious 
inspiration,  that  urged  him  to  press  upon  ^Egidius  the  erection  of  a  religious 
house. 

or  Ostrogoths,  inhabiting  the  sandy  steppes  Reccared,  who  ruled  towards  the  close  of 

of  the  East,    and  Wesegothi,  or  Visigoths,  the  sixth  century.     After  Adrian  Valesius, 

occupying   the    more    fertile   and    wooded  this  is  stated  by  the  writers  of  "  1  listeria: 

countries  of  the  West.     See  Philip  Smith's  Occitania,"  tomus  i.,  p.  64.      Also  consult 

"  Ancient  History  from  the  Earliest  Records  "  Rerum  Francicaium,"  lib.  xiv.,  p.  351. 

to  the  Fall  of  the  Western  Empire,"  vol.  iii.,  *  This  is  stated  in  the  Acts  of  Tope  John 

chap,  xlii.,  pp  620,  621,  and  notes.  VIII.,  in  these  words  :  "Quam  vallem  Fla« 

60  This  was  the  year  previous  to  the  death  vius  quondam  rex  B.  ^Egidio  donavit." 

of  St.  Casarius,  as  stated  by  Messanius  and  7°  He  is  said  to  have  reigned  from  672  to 

Stephen,  in  the  Life  of  that  holy  Abbot.  680.  See  the  chief  events  of  Wamba's  life  and 

67  Mabillon  states  :  **  Dicebantur  quidem  reign  in  "  I  Iistona  General  de  Espana,:'com- 
Flavii  omnei  Gotthorum  reyes  :  se<l  cum  puesta,emendaday  anadida  por  eljPadreJuan 
omnes  Ariana:  secte  addieti  fuerint,  quis  putet  de  Mariana  de  la  Compania  de  Jesus,"  tomo 
Amalarictim,  qui  tempore  Casarii  Septima-  primero,  lib.  vi.,cap.xii.,xiii.,xiv.,xv.,xvi.,pp. 
main  oblinuit,  ant  quemvis  aliuin  de  con-  24610259.  Valencia,  CID.,I3CC.,XC1  v.,  4K). 
dendo  monasterio  fflfffftttr?  Ad  haec,  ''  lie  succeeded  Recesvind,  \.  i>.  672. 
monasteiium  istud  mulio  post  tempore  con-  72  The  Spanish  historians,  as  also  the 
ditum  dici  debet,  quam  ./Kgidius,  transmisso  writers  of  "  Historic  Occitaniae,"  treat  about 
Rliodano,  dicessit  a  Cacsario ;  nee  /Egidius  the  wars  of  Wamba,  in  the  Septimania, 
ante  condituin  monasterium  abbas  fuit." —  under  the  year  673. 

"Annales   Ordinis  S.   Benedicti,"  tomus  i.,  73  See  Abbe  Fleury's  "  Histoire  Ecclesi- 

bb.  iv.,  sect,  xxvii.,  p.  100.  astique,"tome  ix.,  liv.  xl.,  sect,  xxxiii.,  p.  78. 

68  The  first  Visigoth  King  in  the  south  of  74  Such  is  a  statement  in  the  Acts  of  Pope 
France  to  assume  the  title  of  Flavius  was  John  VIII. 


September  i.]      LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS.  n 


CHAPTER     II. 

WRITINGS  ATTRIBUTED  TO  ST.  /EGIDIUS— HIS  LIFE  OF  SOLITUDE— ACCIDENTAL  DISCOVERY 
OF  THE  SAINT'S  HERMITAGE— FOUNDATION  OF  HIS  MONASTERY  AND  ITS  ENDOWMENT 

— HIS  RULE  OF  DISCIPLINE HIS  VISIT  TO    KING  CHARLKS   MARTEL  AT  ORLEANS— 

HIS  HOSPITABLE  RECEPTION — HIS  MIRACLES  AND  PROPHETIC  SPIRIT— HIS  VISIT  TO 
THE  SOVEREIGN  PONTIFF,  BENEDICT  II.— THE  SARACENS  INVADE  SOUTHERN  GAUL, 
AND  DESTROY  THE  MONASTERY  OF  SAINT  GILLES — THE  HOLY  ABBOT  AND  HIS  MONKS 
FLY  FOR  PROTECTION  TO  CHARLES  MARTEL  AT  ORLEANS. 

It  has  been  stated,  that  the  Abbot  ^Egidius,  a  Greek  by  birth,  was  profoundly 
versed  in  scriptural  and  secular  learning,1  but  apparently  without  sufficiently 
ancient  authority ;  that  being  a  philosopher,  poet,  and  distinguished  "  medi- 
cus," 2  excelling  in  prose  and  metrical  composition,  he  wrote  in  verse  a 
remarkable  work,  "De  Pulsibus,"  One  Book,  and  another,"  De  Venis,"  also  in 
verse,  and  in  One  Book. 3  Yet,  it  does  not  seem  probable,  although  ascribed 
to  our  saint,  that  such  treatises,  if  they  exist,  had  been  composed  by  him.4 

For  many  years,  St.  ^gidius  lived  in  close  solitude,  in  the  Flavian  valley,* 
and  conversing  only  with  God.  However,  owing  to  a  strange  adventure,  the 
place  of  his  concealment  became  known.6  At  one  time,  certain  magnates  of 
King  Vamba's  court,  who  loved  the  sport  of  hunting  through  the  woods,  dis- 
covered that  hind,  which  nourished  the  saint  with  her  milk.  This  animal 
they  pursued  to  the  hermitage  of  St.  Giles,  where  the  affrighted  creature 
sought  a  refuge.?  From  her  peculiar  and  unusual  hinning,  the  saint  ran  from 
his  cell,  and  soon  found  the  dogs  and  hunters  in  full  chase,  while  the  hind's 
tongue  protruded  from  her  open  mouth,  as  if  gasping  for  breath.  Then  pray- 
ing to  the  Almighty  to  save  his  favourite  hind  from  her  pursuers,  she  sank  at 
his  feet,  and  ceased  her  hardly  drawn  respiration.  The  dogs  could  not 
approach  within  a  stone's-throw  of  the  cave  ;  but,  with  disappointed  bowlings, 
they  returned  to  the  hunters.  These  being  wearied  with  the  chase,  and  night 
coming  on,  they  resolved  on  seeking  rest  in  their  own  dwellings.  Next  morn- 
ing, they  resolved  on  chasing  that  beautiful  hind,  but  again  their  designs  were 

Chapter    ii. — J  Joannes    Jacobus    Hof-  sanctus   iEgidius  ante  conversioneur  suam 

mann,  when  treating  of  vEgidius  Atheniensis,  philosophise   ac  medicinse  operam  dederit. 

states,  that  he  lived  under  Tiberius  II.,  A.D.  Claruit  circa  annum  Domini  dccx." — "  De 

700,   and  states  "  multa  scripta  posteritati  Viris  Illustribus  Ordinis  S.   Benedicti,"  lib. 

reliquit,   ut  de   Pulsibus  librum  unum,   de  ii.,  cap.  xxii. 

Venenis (forsitan Venis)  unum." — "Lexicon  4  See  Father   Stilting,   in  "Acta    Sanc- 

Universale."  torum,"  tomus  i.,  Septembris  i.,  in  Commen- 

2  Jacobus  Philippus  Bergomensis  writes  at  tario  prsevio,  sect,  vi.,  num.  65,  pp,  298,  299. 
the  year  714  :  "  Egidius  philosophus,  Grse-  s  The  Vallis  Flaviana  received  its  name 
cus  monachus  per  hos  dies  scientia  et  from  the  Visigoth  Kings,  who  ruled  there, 
religione  clarus  fuit :  qui  praeter  ccetera  a  se  and  who  assumed  the  title  of  Flavius  as  a 
edita  etiam  in  medecinis  librum  de  Pulsu  prefix  to  their  names. 

metrice  composuit,    cujus   principium  est  :  6  According  to  Fr.  Claude  de  Vic  and  Fr. 

Ingenii    vires    modicis    conatibus    impar."  Joseph  Vaissete,  the  discovery  of  St.  Gilles 

Item  alium  de  venis,  qui  incipit :  "  Dicitur  was  made  by  the  officers  of  the  King  "sans 

{fort}  dicetur)  vena,  quandofit  renibusuna."  doute  le  meme  que  Theodoric,  roi  d'ltalie, 

— "  Chronicorum,"  lib.  x.,  in  supplemento.  lequel  possedoit  alors  ce  pays." — "  Histoire 

3  Trithemius  adds:  "Si  quid  amplius  Generate  de  Languedoc,"  tome  i.,  liv.,  v., 
edidit,  ad  notitiam  meam  non  pervenit.  p.  257,  This  latter  statement,  however,  is 
Hunc     nonnulli    sestimant    sanctum   ilium  incorrect. 

fuisse  abba  tern,  cujus  festum  Kalend.  Sep-  7  According  to  some,  the  anecdote  here 

tembris  colitur  :  quod  an  ita  sit,  non  satis  related   has  reference  to  the  Gothic  King 

perspicuum  habeo.     Hoc  autem  scio,  quod  Wamba  ;  while  others  refer  it  to  Childebert, 

tempus  et  patria  in  eum  consentiunt,  nee  duo  King  of  the  Franks.     See  Rev.  S.  Baring- 

hujus  nominis  monachi  in  Chronicis  reperi-  Gould's   "Lives  of  the   Saints,"   vol.   ix. 

untur,  sed  unus.     Et  verisimile   est   quod  September  i.,  p.  9. 


LIVES  OE  THE  IRISH  SAINTS.      [September  i, 


frustrated,  as  on  the  former  occasion.  These  circumstances,  having  been 
related  to  the  King,8  urged  him  to  inform  the  bishop  of  Nismes.  Both  agreed 
to  join  a  hunting  party  on  the  following  day ;  and  with  such  intent,  they  pro- 
ceeded to  the  forest,  and  found  the  hind,  that  was  once  more  chased  to  the 
cave  of  her  protector.  Again,  the  dogs  found  no  entrance  there,  but  one  of 
the  hunters, drawing  an  arrow  and  fitting  it  to  his  bow,  shot  through  the  thicket 
of  thorns  surrounding  the  cave  of  ^Egidius,  who  happened  to  be  without,  and 
it  inflicted  on  him  a  grievous  wound.9  The  soldiers  present  insisted  on 
cutting  a  way  through  the  brushwood,  until  they  reached  his  hermitage. 
There  the  venerable  saint  was  found  bleeding,  and  dressed  in  a  monk's  habit, 
while  the  hind  lay  at  his  feet.  Then  the  King  and  bishop,  having  directed 
the  others  to  leave,  approached  and  enquired  who  he  was,  why  he  took  up 
his  abode  in  so  solitary  a  spot,  and  by  whom  he  had  been  wounded.  To  all 
these  enquiries  the  saint  candidly  replied.  They  proposed  to  send  for  phy- 
sicians to  heal  his  wound, and  to  compensate  him  for  it  so  far  as  they  could; 
but  he  would  hear  of  no  such  offers,  and  mindful  of  the  scriptural  maxim, 
that  virtue  is  rendered  perfect  in  infirmity,  he  prayed  that  henceforth,  he 
might  bear  the  pain  to  his  death.  Charmed  and  edified,  by  such  a  living 
exampleof  abstinence,humility,courage  and  magnanimity,  the  King  and  bishop 
took  their  leave,  while  commending  themselves  to  the  prayers  of  ^Egidius.10 
This  incident  has  been  assigned  to  the  year  673.11 

Afterwards,  the  aforesaid  King  paid  him  frequent  visits,12  desirous  of  pro- 
filing by  the  holy  hermit's  conversations  and  counsels.  However,  the  saint 
refused  to  accept  any  personal  gift.  Still,  he  advised  the  monarch  to  found 
there  a  monastery,  to  which  a  community  of  regular  monks  should  be  attached, 
and  who  might  serve  God  by  day  and  night.  This  the  King  promised  to  do, 
provided  ^gidius  himself  would  become  their  spiritual  superior.  For  a  long 
time,  he  resisted  such  a  proposal,  urging  as  reasons,  that  he  had  not  capacity 
or  inclination  for  such  a  charge.  At  length,  he  yielded  assent  to  the  King's 
importunate  wishes,  and  having  fixed  on  a  site  near  his  cave,  two  churches 
were  built ;  one  in  honour  of  St.  Peter  and  of  all  the  Apostles,^  the  other  to 
the  memory  of  St.  Privatus  the  Martyr.'*  In  his  cave,  the  holy  hermit  lived 
alone.  There  he  spent  whole  days  and  nights  in  prayer  and  vigils.  The 
Visigoth  King  conceived  a  very  high  esteem  for  St.  Giles,  but  on  no  account 

8  The  anonymous  author  of  our  saint's  sanorum  "  supposes,  that  the  palace  of  the 
Acts  calls  him  Flavius.  However,  in  an  Gothic  King  was  near  to  the  hermitage  of 
ottice  of  St.  /Egidius,  recited  in  the  Diocese  St.  /Egidius,  and  with  many  others,  the 
of  Antwerp,  Charles  Martel  is  stated  to  have  writers  of  "  I  [iftorise  Occitanise  "  think,  that 
been  the  King  who  discovered  the  holy  the  Gothic  Kings  resided  there,  so  as  to 
hermit  on  the  occasion  of  hunting  in  that  enjoy  the  pursuits  of  hunting  in  the  adjoin- 
forest.  Such  an  opinion  has  been  adopted  ing  forest.  See  tomus  i.,  p.  257.  These 
in  many  other  offices  of  particular  churches,  references  to  the  Gothic  palace  are  based 
and  it  has  been  followed  by  Saussay  in  his  on  the  authority  of  Godefrid  Viterbiensis 
'•  Maitytologium  Gallicanum."  and  Otho  of  Frisengen. 

9  This  incident  la  represented  in  a  figure  ,3  Originally  the  Monastery  of  the  holy 
— supposed  to  be  of  our  saint — on  a  tomb  Abbot  was  called  Monasteriuin  S.  Petri  in 
in  the  church  of  St.  Serum  of  Toulouse.  Valle  Flaviana,  and  afterwards  it  was  known 
See  "Histoire  Generale  de  Languedoc,"  as  Monasterium  S-  /Kgidii  in  Valle  Flaviana. 
tome  ii.,  liv.  xiii.,  p.  173.  Catellus  relates,   that  he  saw  ancient  docu- 

10  See  the  Bollandists'  "  Acta  Sanctorum,"  ments  of  the  Abbey  of  St.  /Kgidius,  in  which 
tomus  i.,  Septembris  i.  Vita  S.  /Egidii,  the  wood  of  that  monastery  was  titled  La 
auctore  pnonymo,  cap.  ii.,  sect.  12,  13,  14,  Selva  Gotesca,  meaning  the  Gothic  wood. 
15,  p.  301.  See    "Historia    Comitum    Tolosanorum," 

"  SeeMichaudV'BiographieUniverselle,  p.  5. 
Ancienne    et    Moderne,      tome   xvi.,    Art.  u  Probably,    the    Bishop    of    Mende,    a 

Gilles  (Saint),  p.  458.  Martyr  of  the  third  century,  and  whose  feast 

"  Catellus  in  "  Historia  Comitum  Tolo-  is  kept  on  the  2ist  of  August. 


September  i. 


LIVES  OE  THE  IRISH  SAINTS. 


13 


could  the  holy  man  be  induced  to  leave  his  solitude.  There,  however,  was 
founded  a  monastery,  to  which  he  admitted  several  disciples,  and  these  lived 
under  the  rules  which  he  established.15  By  some  writers,  it  was  thought,  St. 
Gilles  had  been  abbot  over  that  institution,  so  early  as  the  beginning  of  the 
sixtli  century  ;l6  whereas,  in  reality,  it  only  dates  from  the  close  of  the  seventh. »» 
According  to  the  learned  Father  Stilting,  the  building  was  begun  in  the  year 
673  or  674. 

That  religious  house  is  said  to  have  been  endowed  with  an  ambit  of  land 
extending  for  five  miles.18  It  would  appear,  that  hitherto,  ^Egidius  had  not 
been  raised  previously  to  the  priesthood ;  but  now,  at  the  special  request  of 
the  King,J9  the  monks,  the  nobles  and  people  of  all  that  place — afterwards 
named  from  him — such  a  dignity  he  attained.20  The  position  of  St.  Gilles 
lies  west  of  the  Petit  Rhone,  after  this  branch  of  the  River  separates  from  the 
main  channel  at  the  city  of  Aries.21  It  is  said  to  have  been  a  town  of  great 
antiquity,  and  to  have  formerly  taken  the  name  of  Rhoda  Rodiorum." 
From  the  Phocean  period,  Saint-Gilles  was  a  sea-port  much  frequented  ;  and 
in  the  twelfth  century,  it  was  the  southern  provencal  harbour,  whence  pilgrims 
set  out  on  their  voyage  to  Palestine.^ 

Although  their  rule  of  discipline  was  very  rigorous,  yet  the  religious  under 
St.  yEgidius,  moved  by  his  example  and  precepts,  were  cheerful  and  obedient 
to  all  its  requirements.  The  anonymous  writer  of  his  Acts  states,  that 
Charles  Martel,2*  King  of  France,  who  then  lived  at  Orleans,25  sent  an  earnest 


15  Having  vainly  attempted  to  solve  un- 
certain historic  statements  in  the  old  acts 
regarding  this  foundation,  Mabillon  writes  : 
"  Utcumque  sit,  antiquum  est  sancti  ^Egidii 
monasterium  in  valle  Flaviana,  quod  inter 
Septimanioe  monasteria,  quae  regi  solas  ora- 
tiones  debebant,  primum  nominatur  in  Con- 
stituto  Ludovici  augusti,  cognomento  Pii, 
de  monasteriis  regni  Francorum.  Haec 
abbatia  ex  ordine  sancti  Benedicti  ad  secu- 
lares  canonicos  translata  est." — "Annales 
Ordinis  S.  Benedicti."  tomus  i.,  lib.  iv.,  sect. 
xxvii.,  p.  100. 

16  Thus,  according  to  Fr.  Claude  de  Vic 
and  Fr.  Joseph  Vaissete,  the  Abbey  of  St. 
Gilles  was  founded  so  early  as  A.D.  514. 
See  "  Histoire  Generale  de  Languedoc," 
avec  des  Notes  et  les  Pieces  justificatives, 
&c,  tome  i.,  liv.  v.,  p.  257,  and  note  Ixv., 
p.  667. 

17  According  to  some  writers  the  situation 
of  Heraclea  Gallise  was  identical  with  that 
of  St.  Gilles  in  Occitania.  But  Pliny,  who 
described  it  as  destroyed,  states  that  its  site 
was  at  the  mouth  of  the  Rhone  and  the 
Fossas  Marianas.  The  latter  denomination 
corresponds  with  the  village  called  Les 
Saintes  Maries.  See  Baudrand's  "Novum 
Lexicon  Geographicum, "  tomus  i.,  p.  346. 

18  According  to  the  anonymous  author  of 
our  saint's  acts,  "  eo  quod  tantundem  spatii 
Sanctus  /Egidius,  a  spelunca  sua  quadum 
yice  digressus,  occurrenti  sibi  regi  Flavio 
collocuturus,  ut  fertur,  obviavit." 

'9  This  must  have  happened  after  King 
Wamba  had  established  his  authority  in  the 
south  of  France,  and  before  his  return  to 


Spain.  See  an  interesting  tract  on  this 
subject,  Historia  Wamba  Regis  Toletani,  in 
Du  Chesne's  Historic  Francorum  Scriptores 
Coaetanei,"  tomus  i,  appendix  i.,  pp.  821  to 
831. 

20  The  anonymous  author  adds:  "  Cujus 
honoris,  sed  sibi,  ut  verius  dicatur,  impne- 
sentiarum  oneris,  apice  sublimatus,  noctumis 
vigiliis,  diurnis  jejuniis,  assiduisque  orationi- 
bus  ccepit  adeo  corpus  jam  diu  satis  absti- 
nentia  tenuatum  affligere,  ut,  si  cceptam 
modo  illius  vitam  attenderes,  transactam 
dixisses  voluptuosam  fuisse." 

21  See  the  elegantly  delineated  and 
coloured  map,  Delta  du  Rhone,  in  Elisee 
Reclus'  "Nouvelle  Geographie  Universelle," 
tome  ii.,  liv.  ii.,  chap,  iii.,  sect,  ii.,  pp.  240, 
241. 

22  Said  by  Pliny  to  have  been  a  colony 
founded  by  the  Rhodians. 

23  See  Elisee  Reclus'  "  Nouvelle  Geo- 
graphie Universelle,"  tome  ii.,  liv.  ii.,  chap, 
iii.,  sect  ii.,  p.  247. 

24  This  warlike  monarch  is  particularly 
distinguished  in  the  history  of  the  second  or 
Carlovingian  race.  See  Michelet's  "  His- 
toire de  France,"  tome  i.,  liv.  ii.,  chap,  ii., 
pp.  287  to  302.  Deuxieme  edition,  Paris, 
1835,  8vo- 

25  Having  twice  conquered  Chilperic, 
King  of  Neustria  and  Burgundy,  Charles 
Martel  came  to  Orleans,  a.d.  719,  according 
to  Pagius  and  other  writers.  That  very 
same  year,  Zama,  General  of  the  Saracens  in 
Spain,  invaded  the  Septimania  with  a  great 
army,  and  subjugated  it,  a.d.  720.  See 
"  Historic  Occitanise,"  tomus  i.,  p.  390. 


i4  LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS.      [September  i. 


request  by  special  messengers,  that  their  Abbot  should  visit  his  Court.  To 
this  royal  mandate  he  yielded  assent,  having  first  regulated  monastic  affairs 
during  his  temporary  absence.26  Taking  with  him  some  necessaries,  he  set 
out  for  Orleans.  When  arrived  there,  he  paid  a  first  visit  to  the  Church  of 
the  Holy  Cross,  where  he  healed  a  paralytic,  in  the  presence  of  numbers, 
who  admired  his  miraculous  gifts,  and  who  spread  the  report  far  and  wide. 
At  this  time,  the  Franks  of  Anstrasia  were  united  under  the  sway  of  a 
renowned  monarch,  who  was  recognized  as  all-powerful  in  Gaul.3? 

Then  our  saint  went  to  the  King's  palace,  where  he  was  honourably 
received,  and  hospitably  treated.  He  remained  there  for  many  days,  and 
held  several  colloquies  with  the  monarch  on  spiritual  topics.  The  monarch 
asked  his  prayers,  stating,  also,  he  had  committed  a  crime,  so  revolting  in 
its  nature,  that  he  was  ashamed  to  confess  it.28  The  following  Sunday,  while 
celebrating  the  Holy  Sacrifice  of  Mass,  and  praying  in  the  Canon  for  the 
King,29  an  Angel  appeared,  and  laid  a  scroll  on  the  Altar.  In  this  was  fully 
revealed  to  him  the  nature  of  the  monarch's  crime,  and  it  was  told  y£gidius 
it  should  be  pardoned,  if  only  the  criminal  would  desist  from  it  in  the  future. 
Moreover,  it  was  added,  that  whosoever  would  invoke  St,  yEgidius  on  account 
of  a  sin  committed,  should  obtain  pardon  from  the  Almighty,  provided  the 
person  should  abstain  from  repeating  such  a  crime.  On  seeing  this,  the 
servant  of  God  gave  thanks  for  that  favour,  and  having  celebrated  the  holy 
function,  he  laid  the  scroll  before  the  King,  who  then  acknowledged  that 
crime.  Falling  at  the  saint's  feet,  he  asked  prayers  to  be  offered.  The 
holy  Abbot  then  admonished  him  never  to  relapse  into  the  same  crime,  and 
prayed  the  Almighty  fervently  on  behalf  of  his  royal  client. 

After  a  considerable  time  spent  in  Orleans,  the  saint  obtained  permission 
from  King  Charles  Martel  for  a  return  to  Provence.  Loaded  with  various 
royal  gifts,  he  reached  Nimes.3°  There  the  governor's  son  had  died,  but  once 
more  through  the  Abbot's  prayers,  he  was  restored  to  life.  Thence  directing 
his  course  to  the  monastery,  he  abode  with  his  monks.  The  holy  Abbot 
had  prophetic  warnings,  that  enemies  would  invade  that  province  in  which 
his  monastery  was  situated,  and  violate  many  of  its  sanctuaries.  Wherefore, 
he  resolved  with  a  few  of  his  brethren  to  visit  Rome,  and  place  it  under  the 
protection  of  the  Holy  See,  so  that  it  might  be  spared  from  the  violence  of 
laics,  then  too  ruthlessly  exercised.  In  685, 3r  he  laid  at  the  feet  of  Pope 
Benedict  II.  an  authentic  act  of  donation  of  his  monastery.     This  the  Vicar 

26  It  seems  very  probable,  that  the  fame  of  at  the  age  of  fifty-one,  and  he  was  buried  in 
his  virtues,  and  a  desire  for  his  security,  the  Church  of  St.  Denis.     See  Henri  Mar- 
impelled  the  French  monarch  to  extend  that  tin's  "  Histoire  de  France,"  tome  ii.,  pre- 
invitation  to  St.  .^gidius,  and  that  it  took  miere  partie,  liv.  xi.,  p.  217. 
place  in  the  year  719  or  720.  29  This  was   probably   a  formula  in  the 

a?  Mons.  Guizot  further  remarks  :  "  Dans  old  Gallic  Missal, 

les  expeditions  de  Charles-Martel,  ils  avaint  3°  This  was  probably  in  the  year  721  or 

parcouru,  a  so.  suite,  la  Gaule  toute  entire  :  722,    when  Eudes,  Duke  of  Aquitain,  had 

la  France  romaine  cecla  a  l'ascendant  de  la  routed  the  Saracens  with  great  slaughter,  in 

France   germaine  ;    les  rois  de   la  France  a  battle  fought  near  Toulouse,  when  a  part 

romaine  nc  purent  se  soutenir  en  face  deces  of  the  Septimania  was  recovered  from  them, 

chefs  de  guerriers  venus  encore  des  rives  du  See  Michelet's"  Histoire  de  France,"  tomei., 

Rhin.  —  "  Essaissur  l'Histoire  de  France."  liv.  ii.,  chap,  ii.,  pp.  301,  302. 

Troisiemc  Essai.     Des  Causes  de  la  Chute  3I  Natalis  Alexander  has  placed  theacces- 

des  Meiovingiens  et  des  Carlovingiens,  p.  77.  sion  to  the  Pontificate  of  Benedict  II.  at  the 

28  The    earlier  part   of  Charles   Martel's  20th  of  August,  684,  and  after  a  term  of  only 

career  was  stained  with  many  and  grievous  eight  months  and  seventeen   days  he   died 

crimes,  for  which  he  made  amends  towards  the  year  following.     See  "  Historia  Eccle- 

the  close  of  his  life.     I  laving  subjected  many  siastlca  Veteris  Novique  Testamenti,"  tomus 

States  to  the  Empire  of  the  Franks,  he  died  xii.       Saeculi    Septimi    Synopsis,    cap.    i., 

of  fever  on  the   22nd  of  October,  A.D.  741,  art.  vi.,  p.  10. 


September  i.l      LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS.  15 


of  Christ  accepted,  and  declared  exempt  for  the  future  from  all  episcopal 
jurisdiction  that  property  which  he  possessed.32 

The  immunities  thus  sought  were  obtained  from  the  Sovereign  Pontiff, 
and  the  holy  Abbot  returned  to  Gaul.  The  troubles  foreseen  afterwards  fell 
on  its  southern  territories.  The  Saracens  33  had  entered  Europe  in  711,34 
and  had  extended  their  conquests  over  Spain.  In  712  and  succeeding  years, 
with  great  fury  their  hordes  had  crossed  the  Pyrenees  into  Gaul.35  The 
people  in  alarm  saw  their  towns,  castles  and  monasteries  demolished  and 
plundered,  while  they  were  powerless  to  prevent  such  ravages.  Among  the 
rest,  who  fled  for  their  safety,  was  St.  ^Egidius  with  his  band  of  religious. 
Taking  with  them  their  relics  and  sacred  vessels,  they  set  out  for  Orleans, 
and  placed  themselves  under  the  protection  of  Charles  Martel.  However, 
their  exile  was  of  short  duration.  Eudes,  Duke  of  Aquitaine,  took  upon 
himself  to  oppose  the  fanatical  invaders,  and  his  efforts  were  crowned  with 
success. 


CHAPTER     III. 

EXPULSION  OF  THE  SARACENS— REBUILDING  OF  HIS  MONASTERY  BY  ST.  /<EGIDIUS — HIS 
DEATH — THE  CHURCH,  MONASTERY,  AND  SHRINE  AT  SAINT-GILLES — VENERATION 
FOR  THE  HOLY  ABBOT  IN  FRANCE  AND  ON  THE  CONTINENT  OF  EUROPE— VENERA- 
TION FOR  HIS  MEMORY  IN  THE  BRITISH  ISLANDS  AND  CHURCHES  DEDICATED  TO 
ST.  GILES — COMMEMORATION  OF  HIS  FESTIVAL  IN  THE  CALENDARS— CONCLUSION. 

When  the  Saracens  had  been  driven  beyond  the  Pyrenees,1  St.  Gilles  and 
his  monks  returned,  but  only  to  find  their  monastery  in  ruins.  At  this  doleful 
sight,  the  holy  Abbot  was  greatly  distressed,  but  he  prayed  the  Almighty  to 
give  him  courage  for  the  work  of  restoration.  Soon  the  church,  cloister,  and 
monastery  were  raised  to  their  former  noble  proportions. 

The  saint  had  now  attained  a  very  advanced  age,  and  the  term  for  his 
sojourn  on  earth  was  drawing  rapidly  to  a  close.  With  Holy  Simeon,  he 
could  repeat  the  canticle,  "  Nunc  dimittis  servum  timm."2  Having  regulated 
the  monastic  affairs,  and  receiving  a  heavenly  admonition  regarding  his 
approaching  dissolution,  he  asked  the  monks  to  pray  for  him.  Towards 
midnight,  and  on  a  Sunday,  the  1st  day  of  September,  about  a.d.  720,3  his 

32  The  Bull  of  Benedict  II.  is  to  be  found  Mahammed  and  his  Successors,  to  the  Death 
in  the  parochial  archives  of  Saint-Gilles.  of  Abdulmelic,  the  Eleventh  Caliph.  The 
Pope  John  VIII.,  in  a  Bull,  addressed  to  author  did  not  live  to  complete — as  he  had 
Leo,  Abbot  of  St.  Gilles'  Monastery,  and  intended — their  European  invasions, 
dated  July  21st,  878,  affirms  moreover  he  35  See  an  account  of  this  invasion  of  El 
found  that  act  of  donation  in  the  Vatican  Frandjat,  as  the  Mussulmans  denominated 
archives.  See  "  Les  Petits  Bollandistes,"  France,  in  Henri  Martin's  "Histoire  de 
Vies  des  Saints,"  tome  x.,  premier  jour  de  France,"  tome  ii.,  premiere  partie,  liv.  xi., 
Septembre,  p.  404  and  n.  1.  pp.  191  to  217. 

33  An  interesting,  but  abridged  account  of  Chapter  hi. — *  The  first  invasion  of 
Mahomet,  his  career,  and  doctrines,  is  to  be  France  by  the  Saracens  was  that  conducted 
found  in  Natalis  Alexander's  "  Historia  by  Alhorr,  a.d.  718.  Eudes,  Duke  of 
Ecclesiastica  Veteris  Novique  Testamenti,"  Aquitain,  had  then  usurped  the  authority, 
tomus  xii.  Sseculi  Septimi  Synopsis,  cap.  and  even  the  title,  of  King,  in  the  southern 
ii.,  Art.  ii.,  pp.  31  to  38.  provinces  of  France,  and  he  repelled  their 

34  Their  previous  conquests  in  Asia  and  first  invasion,  when  Zama,  lieutenant  of  the 
Africa  are  very  lucidly  set  forth  in  that  most  caliph,  lost  his  army  and  his  life,  under  the 
instructive  and  readable  work  of  Washington  walls  of  Toulouse.  See  Edward  Gibbon's 
Irving,  "Mahomet  and  his  Successors,"  in  "History  of  the  Decline  and  Fall  of  the 
two  handsome  illustrated  volumes,  published  Roman  Empire,"  vol.  vi.,  chap,  lii.,  p.  385. 
by  Putnam,  New  York  and  in  London,  188 1,  2  St.  Luke  ii.,  29. 

sm.  410.   Also,  in  Simon  Ockley's  "  History  3  Father  Stilting  considers  his  death  should 

of  the  Saracens,"  comprising  the  Lives  of      be  before  the  second  invasion  of  the  Saracens, 


i6 


LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS.      [September  i 


soul  was  received  into  Heaven,  and  the  faithful  then  heard  a  choir  of  angels 
welcome  him  to  their  happy  company.  He  is  reputed  to  have  been  eighty- 
three  years  old  at  the  time  of  his  departure.4  Other  writers,  who  have 
incorrectly  assigned  him  to  the  time  of  St.  Caesarius,  have  placed  his  death 
about  the  middle  of  the  sixth  century.s 

The  body  of  St.  Giles  was  buried  in  a  plain  stone  coffin,  and  soon  his  place 
became  the  object  of  frequent  pilgrimages.6  However,  in  or  about  a.d.  925,7 
while  some  of  his  bones  and  a  portion  of  iron— supposed  to  have  been  the 
arrow-head  that  pierced  his  hand — were  left  in  the  original  sarcophagus,  it  is 
stated  his  remains  were  translated,  on  the  15th  of  June,  to  a  shrine,  artistically 
wrought.8  Reverence  for  his  memory,  and  the  establishment  of  his  monastic 
institute,  drew  numbers  to  St.  Gilles,  and  it  soon  grew  into  a  considerable 
city.9  Notwithstanding  the  traditional  exemption  of  the  abbey  from  episcopal 
jurisdiction  ;  yet,  at  different  times  this  had  been  assumed,  and  a  Diploma  of 
Ludovicus  Pius  exists,10  in  which  he  grants  to  Christianus,  Bishop  of  Nimes, 
such  exercise  of  right  over  it.  Even  Pope  Nicholas  confirmed  this  to  that 
bishop's  successor,  Isnardus."  Hence  arose  a  controversy  between  Gilbert, 
Bishop  of  Nimes,  and  Leo,  Abbot  of  St.  ^Egidius,  before  the  Sovereign  Pontiff 
in  878,  when  Pope  John  VIII.12  came  into  Gaul,  and  remained  for  some 
time  at  Aries.  This  cause  was  decided  in  favour  of  the  Abbot. x3  So  early 
as  1044,  the  pilgrimage  to  the  Shrine  of  Saint-Gilles  was  regarded  as  one  of 
the  most  celebrated  in  the  world.  In  1066,  the  Abbey  was  subjected  to  the 
Congregation,  or  Order  of  Cluny,1*  which  caused  great  contention  between 
the  respective  abbots;  but  Pope  Innocent  II.  decided  in  1 132,  that  such 
dependence  should  cease,  and  that  thenceforth  the  religious  of  St.  Giles 
should  have  liberty  to  elect  their  own  abbots.15 

The  great  abbey  church  of  St.  Gilles — designated  the  Lower  Church,  on  a 


who  took  possession  of  all  Septimania  in  the 
year  725. 

*  See  Les  Petits  Bollandistes,  "  Vies  des 
Saints,"  tome  x.,  premier  jour  de  Septem- 
bre,  pp.  404,  405. 

5  The  Maurists,  in  "  Histoire  Literaire  de  la 
France,"  state  that  he  died  about  the  year 
547.     See  tome  iii.,  p.  244. 

6  Before  the  ninth  century,  his  veneration 
as  Patron  was  recognised  in  the  Monastery 
of  Saint-Gilles,  as  we  read  from  a  Council 
of  Aix-la-Chapelle,  held  A.D.  817  :  "  Monas- 
terium  Sancti  ^Egidii  in  Valle  Flaviana."— 
Labbe,  "Concilia,"  tomus  vii.,  col.  1514. 
This  veneration  probably  extended  at  that 
time  over  the  whole  of  Nismes  diocese,  and 
through  the  adjoining  districts  of  Languedoc. 

7  According  to  the  writer  in  "  Gallia  Chris- 
tiana," tomus  vi ,  col.  483,  during  the  year 
mentioned  in  the  text,  one  Autulphus,  or 
Antulphus,  was  Abbot  at  Saint-Gilles,  and 
while  he  was  incumbent,  the  sacred  relics  of 
the  Patron  were  raised  from  the  earth.  For 
this  account,  Saxius  is  quoted,  "  in  Pontificio 
Arelatensi."  while  he  cites  a  Breviarium  S. 

Iii,  for  such  statement. 

her  John  Stilting  suspects,  that  besides 
the  church  dedicated  to  St.  Peter,  there  must 
have  been  at  the  time  another  still  larger, 
and  dedicated  to  the  Patron  at  Saint-Gilles. 
To  this  latter  the  translation  probably  took 


place.  In  1 1 16,  a  new  church  was  dedicated 
to  him.  This  beautiful  structure  was  among 
the  greatest  in  France,  until  in  1562  and 
1622,  when  it  was  reduced  to  a  heap  of 
ruins,  during  the  Calvinist  wars.  It  seems 
to  have  been  in  that  church,  the  body  of  St. 
^igidius  had  been  kept  to  the  time  of  those 
disturbances. 

9  In  old  documents  it  is  called  Fanum  S. 
/Egidii,  and  at  the  present  time,  in  France, 
it  is  named  Saint-Gilles. 

10  See  "Gallia  Christiana,"  tomus  vi.,  col. 

l65-  .     „ 

"  See  "Historian  Occitanioe,     tomus  11., 

inter  Probationes,  col.  10. 

M  He  reigned  from  a.d.  872  to  882. 

1 '  These  matters  may  be  found  in  Baiuzius' 
"  Miscellaneorum,"  tomus  vii.,  p.  349.  De 
Gestis  Joannis  VIII.  However,  the  bishop 
still  refused  to  accept  this  decision  ;  but  the 
Pope  wrote,  that  he  should  be  mindful  of 
his  duty,  and  if  he  refused  to  do  so,  he  must 
be  excommunicated.  See  Labbeus,  "  Con- 
ciliorum,"  tomus  ix.,  col.  124. 

14  In  a  provincial  assembly  held  in  the 
Monastery  of  St.  Bausile,  Nimes.  See 
"Histoire  Generale  de  Languedoc,"  tome 
ii.,  liv.  xiv.,  sect,  lvii.,  p.  21 1. 

«S  However,  the  abbey  of  St.  Gilles  had 
to  pay  the  costs  of  this  process.  See  ibid. , 
liv,,  xvii.  sect.  xx. 


September  i.I      LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS. 


level  with  the  cloister — is  thought  to  have  been  built  in  the  eleventh  century, 
having  been  consecrated  by  Pope  Urban  II.,  in  1096,  The  west  front  is  a 
master-piece  of  the  Romanesque  style,  upon  which  every  species  of  ornamental 
decoration  and  rich  sculpture  seems  to  have  been  lavished.16  In  1074,  Pope 
Gregory  VII.17  reprehends  Froterius  II.,  Bishop  of  Nimes,  because  he  had 
assumed  too  much  authority  over  the  Abbey  of  St.  ^Egidius.  To  many  other 
vicissitudes  was  this  venerable  institute  subjected.18  The  upper  church  was 
begun  on  a  scale  of  great  magnificence  by  Alphonso,^  son  to  Raymond  IV.,20 
Count  of  St.  Gilles,21  in  the  year  n  16.  In  1 1 59,  Pope  Adrian  IV.,22  granted 
indulgences  in  favour  of  the  church  and  monastery  of  Saint  Gilles ;  as  did 
also  Pope  Gregory  IX.,23  in  1233.  However,  the  rights  and  privileges  of  that 
abbey  were  frequently  infringed  upon  by  the  Counts  of  Toulouse.  An  age 
later  the  usages  of  the  pilgrimage  to  Saint-Gilles  were  somewhat  modified,  as 
the  Albigenses,24  ill  the  thirteenth  century,25  disturbed  the  country  around.26 
It  is  not  well  known,  at  what  particular  date  the  remains  of  ^Egidius  had  been 
translated  to  Toulouse.2*  In  1326,  during  the  month  of  September,  one 
hundred  Belgian  pilgrims  arrived  at  St.  Gilles,  to  ratify  a  clause  in  the  treaty 
between  Charles  the  Fair  and  the  Flemish.  In  the  year  1423,  the  head  of 
St.  iEgidius  was  kept  within  his  church  in  a  silver-gilt  shrine.28  What  has 
become  of  this  relic  is  unknown  ;  but  Father  Stilting  thinks,  it  may  not  have 


16  See  Murray's  "  Handbook  for  Travellers 
n  France,"  sect,  vi.,  Route  126,  p.  508. 

*l  His  Pontificate  lasted  from  a.d.  1073 
to  1085.  An  admirable  narrative  of  his  Ponti- 
ficate may  be  found  in  J.  Voigt's  History  of 
Gregory  VII.,  published  at  Weimar  in  1813. 
It  has  been  translated  into  French,  under 
the  title,  "  Histoire  du  Pape  Gregoire  VII. 
et  de  son  Siecle,"  issued  in  two  octavo 
volumes,  at  Paris,  in  1839. 

18  See  in  Catalogo  Abbatum  S.  iEgidii, 
in  u  Gallia  Christiana,"  tomus  vi.,  at  col.  482. 

'9  He  was  called  Alphonse-Jourdain, 
because  he  had  been  baptized  in  the  River 
Jordan.  He  died  in  the  middle  of  April, 
a.d.  1 148,  at  the  age  of  forty-five  years. 
See  "Histoire  Generale  de  Languedoc," 
tome  ii.,  liv.  xvii.,  sect,  lxxx.,  p.  452. 

20  He  was  son  to  Pons,  Count  of  Toulouse, 
who  died  towards  the  end  of  1060,  or  the 
commencement  of  the  following  year.  See 
ibid.,  notes,  xxxii.,  col.  2,  p.  609. 

21  This  title  he  assumed,  because  this 
portion  of  the  diocese  of  Nimes  was  his  first 
inheritance,  and  on  account  of  his  devotion 
to  the  holy  patron.  See  ibid.,  liv.  xiv., 
sect,  ii.,  p.  179. 

22  He  presided  in  the  Chair  of  St.  Peter, 
from  a.d.  1 1 54  to  1 159. 

23  He  ruled  from  a.d.  1227  to  1241. 

24  These  heretics  of  the  twelfth  century 
were  so  called,  because  their  first  assemblies 
were  held  in  the  town  of  Albi.  They  held 
that  God  had  first  created  Lucifer  and  his 
angels ;  that  having  revolted  against  God, 
Lucifer  was  banished  from  Heaven,  and  pro- 
duced the  visible  world,  with  evils  then 
prevailing  ;  while  to  establish  order  in  it, 
God  created  a  second  son,  Jesus  Christ,  who 


was  to  be  the  spirit  of  good,  as  Lucifer  had 
been  the  spirit  of  evil.  They  rejected  the 
Old  Testament  and  the  history  of  the  Crea- 
tion, as  given  by  Moses.  They  inveighed 
against  the  authority  of  the  Church  and  its 
ministers,  as  also,  they  rejected  the  Sacra- 
ments. See  L'Abbe  Pluquet's  "  Diction- 
naire  des  Heresies." 

25  See  an  impartial  account  of  the  war 
waged  against  the  Albigenses,  in  Pere 
Vaissette's  "Histoire  du  Languedoc,"  tome  i. 

26  Saussay  remarks,  that  at  this  time,  the 
relics  of  St.  ^Egidius,  that  had  been  pre- 
served for  many  ages  in  his  own  monastery, 
were  raised  from  the  earth,  and  were  found 
to  be  incorrupt.  Thence,  they  were  trans- 
ferred to  Toulouse,  and  deposited  in  the 
Church  of  St.  Saturninus,  with  those  of  many 
holy  Apostles,  Martyrs  and  Confessors. 
Saussay  adds,  "  condigno  cultu  hue  usque  in 
ara  sui  nominis  arcaque  preciosa  obser- 
vatur." 

2?  Although  Saussay  refers  this  Translation 
to  the  time  of  the  Albigensian  heresy — in 
the  twelfth  or  thirteenth  century — yet,  the 
writers  of  "Gallia  Christiana"  state,  it 
must  have  been  so  late  as  the  sixteenth  cen- 
tury or  somewhat  before,  since  Nicholas  Ber- 
trand,  who  wrote  in  the  beginning  of  that 
century,  records  as  being  in  the  possession 
of  Toulouse,  "corpus  beati  Egidii  abbatis." 
For  this  account  De  Gestis  Tolosanorum,  fol. 
5,  is  quoted. 

*8  In  a  Manuscript  Kalendar,  brought  to 
light  by  Chifilet,  at  the  2nd  of  July,  there  is 
an  entry:  "S.  ./Egidii  inventio  Capitis." 
But,  nothing  more  seems  to  be  known 
regarding  that  head,  or  the  festival  associated 
with  it. 

B 


1 8  LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS.       [September  i. 


escaped  destruction  with  other  holy  relics,  and  even  the  church  itself,  when 
the  Calvinists  were  in  possession  of  Saint-Gilles,  during  the  year  i562.a9  At 
Grado,  a  town  in  the  Venicean  province,  and  in  the  Collegiate  Church  of  the 
Blessed  Virgin,  Gelenius  states,  that  the  head  of  the  Abbot  yEgidius  was 
kept  ;3°  but,  whether  this  is  the  head  to  which  allusion  has  been  made,  or  only 
a  portion  of  it,  is  not  known. 

In  the  year  1538,  the  Abbey  of  St.  Gilles,  with  many  other  houses, 
became  secularized.31  During  the  religious  wars  in  France  of  the  sixteenth 
century,32  in  1562,  the  Huguenots33  converted  this  church  into  a  fortress. 
The  Marechal  de  Damville34  besieged  St.  Gilles  on  the  2nd  of  June,  1570, 
however,  and  took  possession  of  it  in  three  days.35  Again,  in  1575,  the 
Duke  of  Usez  attacked  and  occupied  that  city.36  In  162 1,  the  canons  and 
religious  were  obliged  to  seek  refuge  in  Provence.  An  expedition  that  parted 
from  Lyons,  July  2nd,  1622,  under  the  Duke  d'Hallwin,  on  arriving  in  Lower 
Languedoc,  again  took  possession  of  St.  Gilles,  from  which  the  Reformers 
were  then  driven. 37 

When  no  longer  tenable  as  a  fortress,  the  Church  of  Saint-Gilles  was 
demolished  by  the  Due  de  Rohan,  in  1622.  Some  time  afterwards,  the  wars 
between  the  Huguenots  and  Catholics  ceased  under  Louis  XIII.,  King  of 
France,  and  peace  was  established.38 

The  old  abbey  was  destroyed  in  the  sixteenth  century  ;  but  a  detached 
pile  of  the  ruin  remains.  It  contains  a  spiral  staircase,  called  le  Vis  de  St. 
Gilles,^  and  it  is  remarkable  as  a  fine  specimen  of  masonry.  The  ancient 
church  has  been  replaced  by  a  structure  of  late  date,  but  of  greatly  inferior 
architecture. 

The  relics  of  the  holy  Abbot  were  preserved  at  St.  Sernin,  in  Toulouse,40 
a.d.  1562.  There  the  Canons  of  the  Collegiate  Church  of  Saint-Gilles 
concealed  them,  while  the  disturbances  and  wars  of  that  period  prevailed. 
In  1865,  the  shrine  of  the  saint,  with  his  relics,  had  been  discovered,41  and 
on  the  22nd  of  October,  1867,  that  event  was  celebrated  in  a  public  manner, 
and  with  a  religious  ceremony, at  which  a  great  number  of  the  faithful  assisted. 
Since  that  time  the  pilgrimages,  which  had  so  long  been  interrupted,  were 
resumed  by  the  clergy,  religious  and  others,  whole  parishes  sending  numerous 


39  According  to   the   writers   of  "Gallia  toire   de    France,"    tome    ix.,     cinquieme 

Christiana,"  col.  506.  partie,  liv.  li.,  p.  28.  n.  2. 

30  See  "  De  Admiranda  Colonise  Magni-  34  Appointed  to  the  government  of  Lan- 
tudine,"  p.  311.     Cologne,  1634,  4to.  guedoc    in    1563.      See   Pere   G.   Daniel's 

31  See  "  Histoire  Generate  de  Languedoc,"  '*  Histoire  de  France,"  tome  viii..  Charles 
tome  v.,  lib.  xxxvii..  sect,  lxxii.,  p.  159.  IX.,  p.  484. 

38  These  disturbances  commenced  in  1559,  3S  See  "  Histoire  Generate  de  Languedoc," 

during  the  reign  of  Francis  II.  tome  v.,  liv.  xxxix.,  sect,  lxvii.,  p.  305. 

33  This  was  the  term  employed  to  designate  36  See  ibid.,  liv.  xl.,  sect,  xiii.,  p.  341. 

the   Calvinists   as    distinguished    from    the  3?  See  ibid.,  liv.   xlii.,  sect,  lxii.,  p.    530, 

Lutherans.     According  to  Henri  Martin  the  and  sect.  Ixxiv.,  p.  538. 

word   Huguenot,    for  which   many   bizarre  38  See   Pere   G.    Daniel's    "  Histoire    de 

derivations  have  been  given,  is  traceable  to  France,"   tome   x.,  Journal   Ilistorique  de 

the  German  eidgenossen,  meaning  "allies  "  Louis  XIII.,  p.  xxvii. 

or  "confederates."    The  Genevan  reformers  39  It  was  saved  from  destruction  at  the 

were  named  eigtiots,  when  they  were  allied  period  of  the  Revolution,  through  the  in- 

with   a   part   of  the   German   Swiss,    who  fluence    of    M.    Michel,    a    lawyer  of    St. 

desired   to   render  themselves  independent  Gilles. 

from  the  Duke  of  Savoy.     "  Lescatholiques  A°  See  Rev.  S.  Baring-Gould's  "  Lives  of 

firent  de  ce  nom  une  injure  :  les  protestants  the  Saints,"  vol.  ix.,  September  I,  p.  10. 

en  firent  un  titre  de  gloire  et  voulurent  que  4I  An  account  of  this  may  be  seen  in  a 

huguenots  signifiat  ddfenseurs  de  la  race  de  work  of  M.  l'Abbc  Trichaud.  "  Histoire  de 

Hugues  Capet  contre  les  Lorrains." — "  His-  ['Invention  du  Tombeau  de  Saint-Gilles." 


September  i.]      LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS.  r9 


bands  to  St.  Gilles'  shrine.  His  church  had  also  attracted  the  attention  and 
admiration  of  tourists  and  archaeologists.'*2 

In  a  very  remarkable  manner,  veneration  for  St.  ^Egidius  was  introduced 
at  Leodium,  a.d.  976,43  while  Notger  was  its  prelate.  One  Gorderan,  from 
Gallia  Narbonensis,  was  accustomed  to  traverse  the  country  with  a  bear  and 
an  ape,  with  which  he  gave  popular  exhibitions. 44  However,  in  his  old  agt;, 
having  selected  a  place  among  the  woods,  and  Latinized  Publicus  Mons,45  for  a 
station  ;  he  then  erected  houses  and  cottages,  where  he  received  the  poor 
with  hospitable  care.  Even  robbers,  who  infested  that  country,  flocked 
thither  to  receive  the  devout  man's  exhortations,  and  frequently  were  they 
thus  induced  to  reform  their  lives.  But,  his  work  was  not  deemed  to  be 
complete,  until  he  had  there  erected  a  church  to  his  patron,  St.  ./Egidius,  for 
the  stranger  had  been  a  native  of  Saint-Gilles.  Moreover,  that  humble  man 
had  contrived  to  gather  pious  women,*6  to  form  a  religious  society,  in  those 
houses  he  had  built  near  the  church.*?  In  that  place,  Goderan  closed  his 
earthly  career,  and  departed  this  life,  venerated  as  a  saint  in  popular 
estimation.48 

So  great  was  the  veneration  of  the  French  for  St.  Gilles,  that  besides  the 
chief  city  in  the  Isle  of  Reunion,  and  which  took  its  name  from  him,  no  less 
than  eighteen  other  towns  have  a  similar  name  throughout  France.  Between 
Peronne  and  Abbeville,  in  Picardy,  a  beautiful  Gothic  church  has  been 
erected  to  Saint-Gilles,  near  the  ruins  of  Mount  Saint-Quentin,  which  formerly 
had  an  oratory  and  altar  dedicated  to  him.49  In  the  forest  of  Ardennes,  St. 
Theodore,  Abbot  over  the  monastery  of  St.  Hubert,  constructed  a  church  in 
honour  of  St.  ^Egidius,  after  the  middle  of  the  eleventh  century.5°  With  a 
desire  to  obtain  some  relic  of  the  holy  Abbot,  Theodore  made  a  pilgrimage  to 
his  tomb,  and  took  Troy  es  on  his  way.  He  returned,  having  obtained  the  desired 
relics.s1  From  the  Church  of  Saint-Gilles,  divers  relics  of  its  holy  patron 
have  been  procured,  and  they  were  preserved  in  various  churches  and  cities. 
Among  these  may  be  mentioned  the  cathedral  city  of  Strigonia,*2  St. 
Saviour's,"  at  Antwerp,  in  Lisbon,  in  Saint-Gilles  of  Bruges,  Saint-Gilles  of 
Paris,  Saint-Gilles  of  Bamberg,s*  Saint-Gilles-sur-Vic,  Saint-Gilles  of  Noir- 
moutiers,    Saint-Gilles   of  Vannes,    Saint-Gilles    of   Saint-Omer,ss    Avesne, 


42  See  Les  Petits  Bollandistes,  "Vies  des  ad  S.  /Egidii  quotannis  susceperunt  cereum, 
Saints,"  tome  x.,  premier  jour  de  Septembre,  proximo  Mercurii  die  post  S.  Joannis  Bap- 
pp.  405,  406.  tistae   natalem.    Hodieque   post  tot   saecula 

43  See  at  this  year,  Fisenius,  in  "  Historiae  antiquum  tenent.  Ista  sunt  ^Egidiani  ccenobii 
Ecclesire  Leodiensis,"  lib.  vii.  incunabula." — "  Historia  Ecclesiastica  Leo- 

44  As  in  so  many  other  instances  recorded  diensis,"  lib.  vii. 

in   the   Acts   of  the   Saints,    we   are    here  49  This  is  to  be  gleaned  from  the  monk 

furnished  with   an   illustration    of   customs  Nicholas'   Vita   S.  Godefridi,  Ambianensis 

prevailing  in  the  Middle  Ages.  Episcopi,  as  introduced  by  Surius,  at  the  8th 

43  This  may  be  rendered  in  English  "  the  day  of  November, 

public  Mount,"  probably  in  relation  to  the  3°  This  is  related  by  Mabillon  in  his  Acts 

civitas  Leodii  which  was  near  it.  of  St.  Theodoric  in  the  "  Acta  Sanctorum," 

45  Among  these  one  Judila  was  especially  srec  vi.,  Benedict,  pars  ii.,  pp.  573,  574. 
distinguished  for  her  sanctity.  3I  These  he  divided  into  two  parts  :  one 

"7  In  the  twelfth  century,  the  Church  of  of  them  he  reserved  for  his  own  monastery, 

St.  yEgidius  was  served  by  Canons  Regular,  the   other  he   gave   to   the   Church   of  St. 

while  the  succession  of  Abbots  and  Priors  yEgidius,  over  which  he  placed  a  priest, 

is  enumerated  by  Dionysius  Sammarthann,  52  In  Hungary, 

in  "Gallia  Christiana,"  tomus  hi.,  a  col.  1009.  53  Belonging  to  the  Cistercians. 

48  He  was  buried   in  front   of  the   altar  54  In  the  twelfth  century,  St.  Otho,  Bishop 

dedicated  to  Saints  Dionysius  and  Lambert.  of  Bamberg,    obtained   the  thumb    of    St. 

Fisenius  adds  :  "  Histriones,  et  citharaedi,  qui  yEgidius,  which  was  kept  with  other  relics 

sodalem  a  pio  instituto  primum  revocare  ten-  on  an  altar  dedicated  to  him. 

tarant,  Jn  demortui  memoriam  deferendum  55  In  the  English  Jesuits'   College   there 


LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS.      [September 


Tournai,56  Walcourt,57  Cambrai,ss  Cologne^  Prague,60  Bologne,6'  and  in 
Rome,  where  they  were  preserved  in  the  church  of  St.  Agatha.  Having 
thus  parted  with  so  many  portions,  the  city  and  church  of  Saint-Gilles  only 
possesses,  at  present,  some  parcels  of  the  patron's  relics.  However,  Monsig- 
neur  Plantier  obtained  from  Toulouse  a  considerable  part ;  and,  on  the  27  th 
of  July,  1862,  a  translation  to  the  parent  church  took  place  with  solemn 
ceremonies.63  Although  the  Festival  of  St.  ^Egidius  had  been  previously 
celebrated  in  the  Church  Aniciensis,  yet  would  Raymund,  Count  of  Toulouse, 
have  it  commemorated,  in  a  more  solemn  manner,  a.d.  1096  ;  and,  as  an 
expiation  for  his  sins,  he  endowed  it  with  certain  possessions.  This  appears 
from  a  charter  still  extant  and  published.63 

After  the  death  of  St.  Gilles,  the  reputation  of  this  holy  Abbot  for  working 
miracles  rendered  him  celebrated,  not  alone  throughout  France,  but  also  in 
the  Low  Countries,  throughout  Germany,  Poland,  and  all  over  the  European 
Continent,  as  also  in  Great  Britain  and  in  Ireland.  From  these  countries, 
also,  crowds  of  pilgrims  resorted  to  his  shrine,  imploring  the  saint's 
intercession.  In  1115,  Gertrude,  Countess  of  Northeim,  wife  of  Henry, 
founded  the  monastery  of  St.  ^gidius,  without  Brunswick,6*  and  this  was 
known  as  the  "  ccenobium  Bursfeldense."  About  the  same  time,  a  noble  con- 
vent for  nuns,  and  dedicated  to  St.  ^Egidius,  was  built  in  Munster,  Westphalia. 
Another  monastery,  also  dedicated  to  the  holy  abbot,  was  erected  in  the 
diocese  of  Halberstad.  Also  at  Bamberg,  in  the  twelfth  century,  St.  Otho, 
Bishop  over  that  See,  resolved  on  founding  a  monastery  dedicated  to  St. 
^Egidius,  at  a  certain  eligible  place,  called  Lugenhubel,65  without  the  city. 
It  was  levelled  at  that  spot,  and  there  he  built  the  church.  A  domicile  for 
the  poor  and  pilgrims  was  attached ;  so  that,  what  had  been  heretofore  a 
disreputable  locality,  might  become  thenceforward  a  source  of  relief  for  the 
destitute,  of  salvation  for  souls,  and  of  praise  to  the  Lord.66  Again,  at 
Nuremburg,  a.d.  1140,  having  entertained  an  exalted  opinion  of  the  services 
rendered  to  religion  in  Germany  by  the  Irish — then  called  Scottish — monks 
on  the  Continent,  the  Emperor  Conrad  III.  built  a  magnificent  monastery, 
dedicated  to  St.  iEgidius,  and  he  placed  them  in  charge  of  it.     This  was 


was  a  bone  of  St.  /Egidius.  France  in  the  year  1356,   "teste  Phosphoro 

s6  The  Abbey  of  St.  Nicholas  de  Pratis,  Pragensi,"  p.  517. 

belonging  to  the  Canons  Regulars,  preserved  a  6l  These  relics  were  kept  in   the  Church 

considerableportionofthearmofSt/Egidius.  ot  St.  Stephen,  and  in  the  Jesuits'  Church 

"  In  the  Collegiate  Church  of  the  Blessed  of  St.    Ignatius,   according   to    Masinus  in 

Virgin,    Rayssius  relates,    that   in  a   large  "  Bononia  perlustrata,"  p.  439. 

Cross,   adorned   with    gems    and    precious  6l  See  Les  Petits  Bollandistes,  "  Vies  des 

stones,  in  which  are  kept  relics  of  various  Saints,"  tome  x.,  Septembre  i.,  p.  405. 

saints,   among    those    are    included    relics  6i  By  the  writers  of  "  Historic  Occitania\" 

of  St.  /Egidius — incorrectly  styled  Abbot  of  tomus  ii.,  inter  Instrumenta,  col.  343. 

Aries.  See "  Hierogazophylacium  Belgicum,"  64  See   an   account  of  this  city,    in    the 

p.  330.  "  Gazetteer  of  the  world,"  vol.  iii.,  pp.  92,93. 

s8  In  the   Abbey  Church    of    the    Holy  6s  In   Latin   its   translation   is  rendered, 

Sepulchre  was  kept  a  small  portion  of  the  "  collis  mendacii." 

arm  of  St.  /Egidius.  6j  And  roes,  who  describes  what  is  in   the 

59  Gelenius  assigns  relics  of  St.  y£gidius  text,  adds  :  "Eo  tempore  canonicus  quidam 
to  various  churches  of  that  city  :  viz.,  to  the  eccleske  S.  Jacobi,  Wichodo  nomine,  Orttio- 
Collegiate  Church  of  St.  Gereon,  to  the  nis  causa,  beatum  vi«itam;/Egidium,  reliquias 
Collegiate  of  St.  Cunibert,  to  the  Church  of  magnificas,  id  est,  pollicem  ejus,  comparavit ; 
St.  Pantaleon,  and  to  the  parochial  Church  quern  pius  Otto,  ab  eodem  sagaciler  impetra- 
of  St.  Lupus.  See  "  De  Admiranda  Colonise  turn,  altario  S.  /Egidii  cum  aliis  multiplici- 
Magnitudine,"  pp.  264,  289,  372,  412.  bus  reliquiis  inclusit,  ecclesiamque  solenniter 

60  A  pait  of  the  arm  and  two  other  small  dedicans,  memoriam  ejus  per  omnem  locum 
portions  w«re  deposited  in  the  Metropolitan  celebriorem,  quam  eatenus  fuisset.  instituit." 
Church   of    St.    Vitus,    when   brought  from  — "  Vita  S.  Ottonis,"  num.  3. 


September  i.l      LIVES  01  THE  IRISH  SAINTS. 


governed  and  regulated  by  monks  from  Ireland,  until  a.d.  1418,  when  the 
succession  from  Ireland  failing,  German  monks  of  the  Benedictine  Order 
were  substituted.67  In  Germany,  St.  Giles  is  reckoned  as  one  of  the  Vierzehn 
Noth-halfer.6S  Towards  the  end  of  the  eleventh  century,  the  veneration  of 
St.  /Egidius  extended  in  Hungary,  while  the  saintly  King  Ladislaus,  son  of 
the  Champion  Bela,  ruled  there.  He  founded  a  monastery  and  church 
dedicated  to  the  holy  abbot,  at  Semichen,  and  this  religious  house  was 
subjected  to  the  parent  one,6?  already  established  in  the  Flavian  Valley. 
In  that,  also,  only  French  monks  were  to  be  received.70  To  the  discretion 
of  the  Hungarian  monarch  was  left  certain  affairs  connected  with  that 
monastery.71  Besides,  at  Rome  itself,  were  churches  and  religious  places 
connected  with  a  veneration  for  the  Blessed  Abbot  ^Egidius.72 

On  the  1  st  of  September,  the  feast  of  their  patron,  at  Saint-Gilles-Vieux- 
Marche,  at  Saint-Gilles-Pligneaux,  and  at  Saint-Gilles  du  Mene,  in  Bretagne, 
a  great  number  of  pilgrims  annually  assemble  to  invoke  his  intercession. 

After  the  middle  of  the  thirteenth  century,  Pope  Urban  IV."  ordered  an 
Office  of  Nine  Lessons  for  St.  yEgidius  to  be  inserted  in  the  Roman  Breviary, 
and  it  was  to  be  recited  as  a  semi-double.7*  But,  about  the  middle  of  the 
sixteenth  century,  that  office  was  reduced  to  a  simplex?*  and  as  thus  regulated 
by  Pope  St.  Pius  V.,  it  has  since  been  observed.  However,  in  many 
dioceses,  especially  in  France  and  Belgium,  the  office  of  our  saint  has  had  a 
higher  position.  Hence,  the  Lessons  recited  on  the  Festival  of  St.  ^Egidius 
are  varied  according  to  the  circumstances  of  churches  and  provinces.  In 
Ireland,  it  is  a  simplex,  the  third  Lesson  of  which  is  a  proper  one,76  dealing 
with  the  acts  of  St.  /Egidius  and  having  a  special  prayer.  With  fifteen  other 
saints,  for  many  ages  in  various  churches  of  Western  Christendom,  he  was 
invoked  by  the  special  title  of  "  Auxiliator."77  This  must  be  attributed  to 
the  confidence  felt  by  the  faithful  in  the  efficacy  of  his  intercession.78 


67  Bucelin,  who  records  these  facts,  adds  ;  statement,  <;  Arelatem  ad  beatum  Ccesarium 

"  Patet    hodie    magistratui,    extinctis    post  contendit." 

mutatam  religionem  in  urbe  monachis,  cele-  77  Father  Papebroke,  when  treating  of  St. 

braturque   summopere  amplissimce  basilicce  George  in  the  "  Acta  Sanctorum,"  tomus  iii., 

architectura,  egregium  prisci  splendoris  argu-  for  April,   and  at  p.   149,   investigates  the 

mentum." — '*  Germania  Sacra,"  parsii.,p.  3.  reasons  for  such  a  title  ;  but  he  has  only  a 

63  See  Rev.  S.  Baring- Gould's  "Lives  of  conjecture  to  offer,  that  such  appellation  had 

the  Saints,"  vol.  ix.,  September  I,  p.  10.  been  given,  because  each  of  those  saints  was 

69  This  is  to  be  seen  in  the  Letter  of  Pope  venerated  and  invoked  for  some  special 
Paschal  II.,  in  1106,  and  directed  to  Hugh,  necessity.  In  certain  Missals  is  the  Mass, 
Abbot  of  St.  /Egidius  in  Septimania.  See  De  Quindecim  Sanctissimis  Auxiliatoribus. 
Baluzius,  in  "  Miscellaneorum,"  tomusii.,  p.  In  some  old  Missals,  there  is  a  Mass  thus 
183.  intituled,  Missa  de  Quinque  Sanctis  Privile- 

70  This  is  stated  by  the  monk  Albericus,  in  giatis.  In  the  Collect  for  both  these  Masses, 
his  Chronicle,  at  A.D.  1078.  St.  /Egidius  is  specially  numbered. 

71  See  Mabillon's  "  Annales  Ordinis  S.  ?8  To  the  prayers  offered  for  his  interces- 
Benedicti,"  tomus  v.,  lib  lxv.,  num.  xlviii.,  sion,  by  Judith  Wladislai,  wife  of  the  King 
p.  137.  of  Poland,  she  is  believed  to  have  given  birth 

71  See  the  Bollandists'  "  Acta  Sanctorum,"  to  a  son,  afterwards  known  as   Boleslaus, 

tomus  i.,  Septembris  i.     De  Sancto  ^Lgidio  King  of  Poland,  in  the  beginning  of  the 

Abbate  in  Fano  S.  ^Egidii  Occitaniae.  Com-  twelfth  century.     When  the  latter  grew  up, 

mentaiius  Praevius,  sect.  i.     Veneratio  Sancti  with  a  few  priests  and  other  pious  men,  that 

longe  lateque  propagata,  pp.  284  to  287.  prince  made  a  pilgrimage  in  a  plain  habit  to 

73  He  ruled  from  a.d.  1261  to  a.d.  1264.  the  tomb  of  St.  yFgidius.     A  great  part  of 

74  Father  Stilting  adds,  "  ut  ex  Gavanto  this  journey  he  accomplished  in  his  bare  feet, 
scribit  Bailletus  ad  I.  Septembris  in  S.  and  on  the  way,  he  bestowed  liberal  alms  on 
yEgidio."  the  churches,    monasteries  and  poor.     He 

75  He  presided  over  the  Church  from  a.d.  remained  in  fastings  and  prayers  fifteen  days 
1566  to  a.d.  1572.  before  the  tomb  of  the    holy    Abbot,   as 

76  In  this  single  Lesson   is  inserted   the  related  by  Joannes  Herburtus.     See  Bene- 


LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS.      [September 


In  art,  St.  Giles  is  represented  as  wearing  a  monastic  habit,  with  his 
beloved  hind?9  beside  him,  the  saint's  hand  pierced  with  an  arrow  and  resting 
on  its  head.  When  his  festival  takes  place  at  Valencia,  it  is  customary  to 
bless  a  sprig  of  fennel.80  His  devout  clients  invoke  his  intercession,  more- 
over, to  avert  fire,  the  falling  sickness,  weakness  of  mind,  and  fear. 

Jn  England,  in  Ireland,  and  also  in  Scotland,  for  many  ages  past,  St.  Giles 
has  been  held  in  great  veneration ;  while  in  those  countries  many  elegant 
and  noble  churches  have  been  erected  in  his  honour.8'  About  the  year 
1090,  Alfime,  the  first  master  of  St.  Bartholomew's.  Hospital,  London, 
founded  the  old  church,  dedicated  to  St.  Giles,  in  Cripplegate,  anciently  a 
fen  or  moor,  the  houses  and  gardens  of  which  were  counted  a  village,  called 
Mora,  without  the  walls  of  that  city.82  The  patronage  of  this  church  was 
formerly  in  private  hands,  until  one  Alemund,  a  priest,  granted  the  same  to 
the  Dean  and  Chapter  of  St.  Paul.  In  the  year  1545,  the  old  Church  of 
St.  Giles  was  destroyed  by  fire.  Afterwards,  a  fine  Gothic  church  was 
erected,  114  feet  in  length,  by  63  in  breadth,  33  feet  high  to  the  roof,  and 
122  feet  to  the  top  of  the  tower.  It  is  one  of  the  few  London  churches  that 
escaped  the  dreadful  conflagration  in  1666.  The  monuments  of  several 
celebrated  persons  are  to  be  found  within  this  church. 83  Fragments  of  the 
old  Roman  wall  may  still  be  seen  in  the  churchyard  of  St.  Giles',  Cripple- 
gate.8'*  A  village,  called  from  a  church  standing  there  a.d.  1222,  St.  Giles 
in  the  Fields — to  distinguish  it  from  St.  Giles,  Cripplegate — was  made 
parochial,  in  the  year  1547.85  The  Church  and  village  of  St.  Giles  in  the 
Fields  are  supposed  to  have  sprung  from  an  hospital  for  Lepers  founded 
there,  by  Matilda,  wife  of  Henry  I.,  about  the  year  1117.86  In  1354,87  King 
Edward  III.  granted  that  hospital  to  the  Master  and  Brethren  ot  the  Order 
of  Burton  St.  Lazar  of  Jerusalem,  in  Leicestershire. 

Especially  was  St.  Giles  honoured  in  Edinburgh,  where  a  celebrated 
church  was  built  and  dedicated  to  him.88  The  original  church  on  its  site 
was  erected  before  a.d.  854, 8q  but  by  whom  is  not  known.00  A  new  church, 
in  lieu  of  the  original  one,  was  erected  by  King  David  I.,  in  the  early  part 

diet  Gononus,in  "Vitis  Patruum  Occidentis,"      iii.,  p.  251. 

lib.  iii.,  p.  155.  84  See  Ward  and  Lock's  "Pictorial  Guide 

79  The  hind  is  represented,   likewise,   as      to  London,"  p.  19. 

the  armorial  bearing  of  the  city  of  Saint-  8s  See     Walter    Harrison's    "New    and 

Gilles.     See  Les  Petits  Bollandistes,  "Vies  Universal  History,  Description  and  Survey 

des  Saints,"  tome  x.,  premier  jour  de  Sep-  of  the  Cities  of  London  and  Westminster," 

tembre,  p.  405.  &c,  book  v.,  chap,  i.,  p.  536. 

80  See  Rev.  S.  Baring-Gould's  "Lives  of  86  See    "London,"    edited     by     Charles 
the  Saints,"  vol.  ix.,  September  1,  pp.  9,  10.  Knight,  vol.  iii.,  sect.  Ixvi.,  St.  Giles's,  Past 

81  See  "Les  Petits  Bollandistes,"  tome  x.,  and  Present,  p.  258. 

ic  jour  de  Septembre,  p.  405.  8?  See  a  plan  of  St.  Giles  in  the  Fields  and 

1  In  process  of  time,  the  village  increased  its  connexion  with  the  First  St. Giles'  Church. 

so  considerably  in  buildings,  that  it  was  con-  when  both  were  regarded  as  in  a  suburban 

Stitttted  a  prebend  of  St.    Paul's  Cathedral,  position  outside  the  walls  in  London,  in  the 

by  the  appellation  of  Mora.     This  preben-  work  just  quoted,  Hid.,  p.  272. 

dary  has  the  ninth  stall  on  the  right  side  of  88  See    "  Registrum    Cartarum    Ecclesia' 

the    choir   in    St.    Paul's   Cathedral.      See  Sancti  Egidii  de  Edinburgh,"  edited  by  the 

Walter   Harrison's    "New   and    Universal  Bannatine  Club. 

Hi>tory,    Description   and    Survey    of    the  8'  See  Francis  11.   Groome's   "Ordnance 

Cities   of   London   and    Westminster,     the  Gazetteer  of  Scotland  :  a  Survey  of  Scottish 

Borough  of  Southwark,  and  their  adjacent  Topography,   Statistical,   Biographical,  and 

Parts,"  book  ii.,  chap,  xvi.,  p.  468,  and  n.  Historical,"  vol.  ii.,  p.  515. 

ibid.  9°  The  original  building  was  probably  of 

Si  Milton  was  buried,  where  his  father  had  small  dimensions,  but  the  parish  Church  of 

been  buried  before  him,  in  the  Church  of  St.  Edinburgh.       See   Rev.    Mackenzie    E.   C. 

Giles,   Cripplegate.      See  Charles  Knight's  Walcott's  "  Scoti-Monasticon  :  the  Ancient 

"Old   England,"   vol.   ii.,  book  vi.,  chap.  Church  of  Scotland,"  p.  363. 


September  i.]      LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS. 


of  the  twelfth  century.     Additions  of  aisles,  transepts,  chapels  and  a  choir, 
were  subsequently  made  to  it;  but,  in   1385,  it  was  destroyed  by  the  Duke 

of  Gloucester   and   the 


St.  Giles'  Cathedral,  Edinburgh. 


English  who  invaded 
Scotland,  during  the 
reign  of  King  Richard 

II.  In  1387,  the  re- 
construction of  St. 
Giles'  Church  was 
commenced,  and  for 
the  most  part  it  was 
carried  out  in  the  Early 
Gothic  style,  which  dis- 
tinguished that  period, 
although  much  of  the 
old  masonry  remained.91 
In   1393,  King  Robert 

III.  annexed  it  to  Scone, 
the  Crown  and  Municipal 
Council  granting  sums 
for  its  restoration,  at 
various  times.  The 
church  had  been  a  cell 
to  Dumfermline,  until 
refounded  out  of  consoli- 
dated chapelries  as  a 
collegiate  church,  in 
1446,  by  the  Provost 
and  Magistrates.  In 
1454,  the  arm-bone  of 
St.  Giles  was  obtained 
for  it  as  a  relic. 92  Again, 
on  the  22nd  of  February, 
1466,  King  James  III. 


confirmed  its  privileges  to  St.  Giles'  by  charter.93  It  contained  several 
chapels,94  all  of  which  were  destroyed  in  1559,  by  the  Earls  of  Argyle  and 
Glencairn.  After  episcopacy  had  been  abolished,  looms  were  erected  within 
the  aisles,  1560-7,95  and  in  different  ways  was  St.  Giles'  afterwards  dese- 


9t  See  the  history  of  St.  Giles's  Church, 
with  illustrations,  in  Daniel  Wilson's 
"Memorials  of  Edinburgh  in  the  Olden 
Time,"  vol.  ii.,  chap,  xi.,  pp.  157  to  176. 

92  Through  the  intervention  of  the  King 
of  France,  after  long  entreaty  on  the  part  of 
the  clergy  and  people  of  Edinburgh.  This 
relic,  embossed  in  silver,  was  kept  among 
the  Church  treasures,  until  the  Reformation. 
See  Arnot's  "  History  of  Edinburgh,"  p.  268. 

93  See  Maitland's  ''History  of  Edin- 
burgh," p.  272. 

94_  When  the  rage  of  the  Scottish  Reformers 
against  images  was  prevalent,  on  the  1st  of 
September,  1558,  a  wooden  image  of  St. 
Giles  was  destroyed  by  a  mob,  when  borne 
in  procession  through  Edinburgh.  John 
Knox  relates  that  images  were  stolen  away 


from  the  churches  in  all  parts  of  Scotland, 
"and  in  Edinburgh  was  that  great  idole, 
Sanct  Geyle,  first  drowned  in  the  North 
Loch,  after  burned,  which  raised  no  small 
trouble  in  the  town."  He  afterwards  gives 
an  account  of  the  tumult,  to  which  allusion 
has  been  made,  in  his  "  History  of  the  Refor- 
mation in  Scotland,"  book  i.,  pp.  256  to  261. 
See  "  The  Works  of  John  Knox  ;"  collected 
and  edited  by  David  Laing,  vol.  i.,  Edin- 
burgh, 1864,  8vo. 

«  See  Rev.  Dr.  Mackenzie  E.  C.  Walcott's 
"Scoti-Monasticon,"  Edinburgh,  pp.  133, 

134- 

96  There  is  an  interesting  ground  plan  of 
St.  Giles's  Church,  with  description  and 
references  illustrating  its  various  compart- 
ments, previous  to  1829,  in  Daniel  Wilson's 


24  LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS.      [September  i 


crated.00  Formerly  it  had  the  ordinary  cathedral  cruciform  outline;  but, 
owing  to  additions,  alterations  and  curtailments,  it  lost  nearly  all  trace  of  its 
original  form.0?  In  1829  to  1832,  under  the  direction  of  Mr.  Burn,  it  under- 
went a  very  tasteless  so-called  renovation  ;°8  but,  in  the  year  1867,  it 
was  proposed  to  restore  the  interior,?0  and  in  1872,  under  the  direction  of  Mr. 
\V.  Hay,  the  work  was  commenced,  owing  chiefly  to  the  public  spirit  and 
generous  liberality  of  the  eminent  publisher,  Dr.  William  Chambers.100 
When  the  ecclesiastical  changes,  consequent  on  the  establishment  of 
Protestantism  in  the  sixteenth  century,  had  put  an  end  to  the  old  Catholic 
ritual  in  Edinburgh,  and  St.  Giles'  had  become  a  place  for  plain 
Presbyterian  worship,  its  long  drawn  aisles  were  not  thought  to  be  advan- 
tageous for  the  preachers  of  the  day,  and  the  interior  of  the  edifice  was 
consequently  partitioned  into  a  number  of  separate  places  for  worship.  The 
choir  was  first  restored  in  1873  ;  but,  owing  to  various  obstacles,  great  delay 
was  occasioned  before  the  renovation  was  finally  accomplished  in  1883. 
St.  Giles  was  also  venerated  in  Fintray,101  in  Moffat,  and  in  Elgin,  where 
fairs  were  held  in  his  honour.102 

This  holy  servant  of  God  is  commemorated  in  several  Martyrologies  and 
Calendars ;  as  in  some  additions  to  those  of  Ado  and  of  the  Venerable  Bede, 
as,  also,  in  the  Gallican103  and  Anglican10*  Kalendars.  He  is  commemorated, 
in  an  ancient  Franco-Gallic  Martyrology,  edited  by  Labbe,105  at  the  1st  of 
September  ;IO°  in  a  Codex  of  Corbie  ;107  and  in  an  ancient  manuscript 
belonging  to  the  Monastery  of  Lerins.108  In  the  genuine  copies  of  Usuard's 
original  work,  the  name  of  Saint  ^Egidius  does  not  occur,  but  it  is  to  be 
found  in  many  of  the  more  modern  additions  to  Usuard.  Through  the 
Kalendar  of  Sarum,  St.  Egidius,  or  Giles,  finds  his  place  in  the  Scottish 
Kalendar.  In  the  Scottish  Kalendar  of  Hyrdmanistoun,  at  the  1st  of 
September,  St.  Egidius,  Abbot,100  is  commemorated.     In  Scotland  he  is 

"Memorials   of  Edinburgh   in   the   Olden  disfigured  in  like  manner.     The  side  chapels 

Time,"  vol.  ii.,  appendix,  sect,   xviii.,  pp.  were  either  demolished,  or  blocked  up  with 

221  to  223.  the  unadorned  wood- work  of  galleries  and 

97  On  Sunday,  July  23rd,  1637,  when  the  pews,  as  was  the  case  with  the  historic 
Protestant    Bishop  of  Edinburgh  ascended  Albany  Aisle. 

the   pulpit   of  St.   Giles   to   introduce   the  "  The   accompanying  illustration,  drawn 

English  Liturgy  upon  the  Presbyterians  of  on  the  wood  and  engraved  by  Gregor  Grey, 

Scotland,  he  was  violently  assailed  by  the  has  been  copied  from  an  approved  etching 

congregation   assembled.      Riot    after    riot  of  St.  Giles' Church,  before  the  late  restora- 

followed,  until  the  great  National  Covenant  tions  had  been  commenced. 

nned,  and  Rebellion  succeeded.  See  I0°  See  that  most  instructive  and  interesting 
Charles  Knight's  "Old  England,"  vol.  ii.,  "Memoir  of  William  and  Robert  Cham- 
book  vi.,  chap,  i.,  pp.  174,  175.  bers,"  by  William  Chambers,   LL.D.,   sup- 

98  The  exterior  of  the  building  was  then  plementary  chapter,  1865— 1883,  pp.  357  to 
newly  encased  in  stone,  which  only  served  371,  Edinburgh  and  London,  1893,  sm-  4lo. 
still  further  to  obliterate  its  historic  features  ;  ,01  See  Keith's  "  View  of  the  Diocese  of 
the  stately  old   tower,    surmounted   by   its  Aberdeen,"  p.  245. 

finely  proportioned  mural   crown   being  at  IOSSee  "  RegistrumEpiscopatusMoravien- 

1  resent  the  only  characteristic  of  its  external  sis,"  p.  313. 

aspect,    which   can   really   be   regarded    as  ,o3  Especially  in  that  of  Andrew  Saussay. 

ancient.     At   the   same    time,    the   interior  10*  As  in  those  of  York  and  Sarum. 

underwent  other  changes  for  the  worse.    The  ,os  See    "  Bibliothecas  MSS,"  tomus  ii., 

massive  octagonal  pillars  in  the  nave  were  p.  702. 

sliced  down  into  narrow  fluted  shafts,  alto-  ,u6  There  we  read  :  "  Eodem  die  depositio 

gether   out   of   keeping    with    the  general  beati  Egidii  Abbatis." 

eiiaracter  of  the  architecture.     In  order  that  I0?  Published    by   D'Achery    in   "  Spici- 

room   might   be  made  for  the  galleries — a  legium,"  tomus  ii.,  p.  17. 

rather  modern  innovation— arches  and  capi-  ,o8  This  has  been  edited  by  Martene,  in 

tals  were  ruthlessly  cut  into,  and  the  whole  "  Thesauri  Anecdotorum,"  col.  1613. 

building  made  as  unlike  its  former  state  as  ,0?  See    Bishop    Forbes'    "  Kalendars   of 

possible.      The    transepts   and   choir   were  Scottish  Saints,"  p.  45. 


September  i;]      LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS.  25 


known  as  St.  Giles.  Also,  in  the  Kalendars  of  Culenros110  and  De  Nova 
Farina111  there  is  a  like  entry.  Again,  it  is  in  the  Kalendar  of  Arbuthnot,"2 
while  in  that  of  Aberdeen,  the  feast  is  noted  as  a  minor  duplex,1  *3  and  entered 
likewise  in  the  Martyrology  of  Aberdeen, "*  on  the  same  day.  In  his 
"  Menologium  Scoticum,"  Thomas  Dempster  has  this  saint  also  entered,  at 
the  1st  of  September,1^  as  Patron  of  Edinburgh.116  For  this,  he  quotes 
"  Joannes  Molanus,  Theologus  Lovaniensis."  As  Giles,  he  is  entered  at  the 
same  date,  in  the  Scottish  Kalendar.11?  In  the  old  Martyrology  of  Tallagh — 
compiled  from  various  ancient  church  calendars — there  is  noticed  a  festival 
for  the  Abbot  Egidius,"8  at  the  1st  of  September  ;  and,  at  the  same  date, 
it  is  entered1  x9  in  the  Liber  Sancte  Trinitatis,  Dublin. 

Although  spending  their  lives  with  religious  ardour  and  steady  perseverance 
in  love  and  veneration,  walking  ever  in  the  way  of  God's  Commandments, 
animated  by  His  graces  and  the  grateful  recollection  of  His  supernatural 
favours ;  yet,  had  the  saints  found  time  and  opportunity  to  discharge  all 
necessary  obligations  and  charitable  offices  towards  their  fellow-creatures. 
Thus  they  merited  that  love  and  veneration,  which  was  bestowed  on  them 
by  men  of  good  will  while  they  lived,  and  which  transmitted  to  posterity  the 
names  of  so  many  holy  persons,  who  were  eminently  deserving  respect  and 
honour  from  succeeding  generations. 


Article  II. — St.  Neman,  Bishop  of  Cill  Bia.  There  are  no  entries 
made  in  the  published  Martyrology  of  Tallagh,  from  31st  of  August  until  the 
4th  of  September  ;  and  therefore,  the  present  saint's  name,  with  that  of  other 
holy  persons,  is  not  there  found  recorded.  However,  in  the  copy  contained 
in  the  Book  of  Leinster,  although  entries  are  given  for  the  missing  days,  the 
name  of  Neman  is  not  mentioned,  at  the  present  date.  The  Martyrology  of 
Donegal1  registers  a  festival,  at  the  1st  of  September,  in  honour  of  Neman, 
Bishop,  of  Cill-Bia,  which  seems  to  have  been  one  of  the  early  small  sees  in 
Ireland.  In  the  table  which  follows  this  record,  a  commentator  observes, 
that  if  by  him,  Nemhan  be  understood,  this  name  may  fairly  be  interpreted 
CcdesHtms?  In  the  Introduction  to  the  Martyrology,  it  is  stated,  that  Cill 
Bhi  is  in  Connaught  ;3  but,  this  is  by  no  means  certain.  At  present,  it  seems 
no  easy  matter  to  discover  this  place/  among  the  existing  parish  or  townland 
denominations  of  Ireland.  However,  there  is  a  reasonable  conjecture,  as 
Cill-Bia  and  Cill-mbian  are  not  distinct  denominations,  and  while  the  latter 
place  is  said  to  have  been  founded  by  St.  Fearghus,*  Bishop  of  Druim-Leath- 

1.0  See  ibid.,  p.  61.  "9  Thus,    "  Eodem   die  ;    sancti    Egidii, 

1.1  See  ibid.,  p.  75.  abbatis   et   confessoris. " — "The    Book    of 

112  See  ibid.,  p.  104.  Obits  and   Martyrology   of  the  Cathedral 

113  See  ibid.,  p.  120.  Church  of  the   Holy  Trinity,"  edited   by 

114  The  Martyrology  of  Aberdeen  states  at  John   Clarke   Crosthwaite,   and  Rev.    Dr. 
the   Kl\  Septembris. — "In  pago   Neuma-  James  Henthorn  Todd,  p.  152. 

censi  Sancti  Egidii  abbatis."—"  Proceedings  Article  11.— l  Edited  by  Drs-  Todd  and 

of  the  Society  of  Antiquaries  of  Scotland,"  Reeves,  pp.  232,  233. 

vol.  ii.,  p.  267.  2  Dr.  Reeves  appends  the  following  mar- 

115  See    Bishop    Forbes5    "Kalendars   of  ginal  note  to  this  passage:   "  As  ruotfi-an, 
Scottish  Saints,"  p.  210.  from  viAorh,  holy,  is  Latinized  Sanctanus,  so 

116  Adam  King,   in  his  Kalendar,  gives  tl  email,   from   nerh,  'heaven,'  is   rendered 
this  distinction  at  the  1st  of  September  to  Ccclestinus"     See  ibid.,  pp.  458,  459. 

"  S.  Geles,  abot  of  Arls  in  Prouance,  patron  3  See  ibid.,  p.  xxxix. 

of   Edinbourge,    under  Charles   ye   greit"  4  Cill  Bia  has  not  been  hitherto   clearly 

See  ibid,  p.  161.  identified. 

"7  See  ibid.,  p.  255.  5  His  feast  occurs  on  the  30th  March,  at 

118  Thus  entered  e^itm  ab.  which  date  notices  of  him  may  be  seen,  in 


26  LIVES  OE  THE  IRISH  SAINTS.      [September  i. 


giaise,  more  commonly  called  Dun-da-leath-ghlas,  or  Down  ;  an  ancient 
graveyard  called  Killyman,  in  the  townland  of  Barnamaghery  and  parish  of 
Kilmore,  in  the  Diocese  of  Down,  may  represent  the  site  of  the  once  impor- 
tant church  of  Cill-mbian,  mentioned  in  several  of  our  annals.  In  that 
graveyard,  at  present,  there  are  no  remains  of  a  church  ;6  but,  a  great  quantity 
of  stones  had  been  removed  from  it,  to  build  a  bridge  over  the  Glasswater. 
It  might  well  be  expected,  that  Cill-mBian? — pronounced  Killmian — as 
having  been  founded  by  one  of  the  bishops  of  Down,  should  remain  closely 
connected  with  the  See ;  and,  as  Killyman  was  a  chapel  in  the  mensal  parish 
of  Kilmore,  and  probably  one  of  seven  mentioned  as  having  belonged  to  it, 
not  unreasonably  it  may  be  regarded  as  the  ancient  Cill  m-Bian.8  If  such 
identification  be  correct,  as  the  founder,  St.  Fearghus,  Bishop  of  Downpatrick, 
died  a.d.  583,9  the  present  St.  Neman  flourished  hardly  at  an  earlier  date 
than  the  seventh  century.  How  long  Cill  m-Bian  or  Cill-Bia  continued  to 
be  the  see  of  a  bishop  does  not  seem  to  be  known  ;  for  we  cannot  find  farther 
allusion  to  it  in  our  Irish  Annals  or  Calendars.  Neither  is  the  name  of 
Neman  one  often  to  be  met  with,10  and  certainly  not  in  a  form,  to  furnish 
probable  identity  with  the  saint  there  venerated.  Under  the  head  of  Cill- 
Bia,  Duald  Mac  Ferbis  enters  Nemhan,  bishop  of  Cill-Bia,  at  the  1st  day  of 
September." 


Article  III. — St.  Cuimmen,  Son  of  Cuanna,  or  Cuanach,  probably 
Abbot  of  Druim-Snechta,  now  Drumsnat,  County  of  Monaghan.  To 
us  it  seems  very  probable,  that  the  present  holy  man  was  not  distinct  from 
a  saint  bearing  the  same  appellation,  and  said  to  have  been  venerated  on 
the  4th  of  this  month,1  at  Drumsnat,  County  of  Monaghan.  The  name  of 
Cuimmen,  son  of  Cuana,  or  Cuanach,  occurs  in  the  Martyrologies  of  Tal- 
lagh,2  of  Marianus  0'Gorman,3  and  of  Donegal,*  at  the  1st  of*  September. 


Article  IV. — St.  Sceallan,  the  Leper,  of  Armagh,  County  of 
Armagh.  On  this  day,  the  feast  of  St.  Sceallan  occurs  in  some  of  our  native 
Martyrologies.1  His  memory  is  recorded  in  the  Calendar  of  Marianus 
O'Gorman.     Also,  we  find  entered  in  the  Martyrology  of  Donegal,2  that 


the  Third  Volume  of  this  work,  Art.  ii.  I0  A  Neman,  Abbot  of  Lismore,  died,  A.D. 

0  The   graveyard   is  exclusively  used  by  610. 

Catholics,  and  mostly  by  persons  of  the  name  "See  "  Proceedings  of  the   Royal   Irish 

of  Murray.     It  is  now  in  the  Catholic  parish  Academy,"  Irish  MSS.  Series,   vol.  i-,  part 

of  Saintfield.  i>  PP- 94>  95- 

7  In   his  tract,  De  Quibtisdam  Episcopis,  Article  in.— x  See  "The  Martyrology 

Duald   MacFirbis— apparently  referring  to  of  Tallagh,"  edited  by  Rev.   Dr.   Kelly,  p. 

this  Church— has  it,  "Cill-Sqanduil  no  Cill-  xxxiii. 

bi.ui.       Fergus    epscop    Cille-Sganduil    no  2  In  that  copy  as  found  in  the  Book  of 

bian;  agus  is  nor  sin."     Translated  :  Kill-  Leinster,   at   the   Kalends  of  this  month— 

Sgandail  or  Kill-Bian:    Fergus,  bishop  of  September     1st— is    entered     the     festival 

Kill-Sgandail  or  Kill-Bian,  and  that  is  true."  Comem  Ab  TJnom  SneccAi. 

denominations  may  be  anglicised  into  *  See  Colgan's  "  Acta  Sanctorum   Iliber- 

Kilscannel  and  Kilbcan  or  Kilmean.  nke,"  xii.  Januarii,  n.  6,  p.  $9- 

1  See  Very  Rev.  James  O'Laverty's  "His-  *  Edited  by  Drs.  Todd  and  Reeves,  pp. 
toncal  Account  of  the  Dioceses  of  Down  and  232,  233. 

Connor,  Ancient  and  Modern,"  vol.  v.,  pp.  Article  iv.—1  See  Colgan's  "Acta  Sanc- 

39>  4°-  torum  Ilibernke,"  xvi.  Martii,  n.  2,  p.  628. 

9SeeDr.O'Donovan's"AnnalsoftheFour  »  Edited  by  Drs.   Todd  and  Reeves,    pp. 

Masters,"  vol.  i.,  pp.  210,  211,  and  nn.  (c.  d.)  232,  233. 


September  i.]       LIVES  OF  1HE  IRISH  SAINTS.  27 


veneration  was  given  to  Sceallan,  the  Leper,  of  Ard-Macha,  or  Armagh. 
The  Irish  Calendar,  belonging  to  the  Ordnance  Survey  Records,  has  a 
similar  entry.3  By  the  Bollandists,  his  festival  is  noticed,  at  the  1st  of  Sep- 
tember/ This  holy  man  seems  to  have  borne  patiently  the  loathsome 
disease,  once  so  common  in  Ireland,  and  from  which  his  appellation  was 
derived.  When  he  lived  does  not  seem  to  be  known,  bat  it  was  probably 
in  the  ninth  or  tenth  century.  The  name  of  Sceallan,  the  Leper,  of  Armagh, 
is  not  found  in  the  Martyrology  of  Tallagh,  contained  in  the  Book  of 
Leinster. 


Article  V. — Reputed  Feast  of  St.  Sebaldus,  or  Sewallus.  It 
would  appear,  from  the  posthumous  list  of  Manuscripts  published  by  Charles 
Mac  Donnell,  that  Colgan  had  intended  the  issue  of  St.  Sebaldus' Acts,1  at  the 
1st  day  of  September.  Making  allusion  to  a  St.  Sewall,  Bishop  of  York,  in 
England,  at  this  date,  as  said  to  have  been  noted  by  the  English  Martyr- 
ology,2 and  by  Ferrarias,3  as  also  mentioned  by  Matthew  of  Westminster,  at 
a.d.  1256,4  the  Bollandists  state,5  that  he  was  a  different  person  from  Sewall, 
an  Irish  bishop,  venerated  at  the  18th  of  May. 


Article  VI. — St.  Failbhe,  Son  of  Ronan,  of  Cluain  Airbealaigh. 
In  that  copy  of  the  Martyrology  of  Tallagh,  contained  in  the  Book  of 
Leinster,  at  the  Kalends  of  September,  there  is  an  entry  of  Failbe  Mac 
Ronain  in  Cluain  Arbelaig.1  According  to  the  Martyrology  of  Donegal,2  a 
festival  was  celebrated  at  the  1st  of  September  in  honour  of  Failbhe,  son  of 
Ronan,  of  Cluain  Airbealaigh.  He  is  recorded  in  the  published  Martyrology 
of  Tallagh, 3  at  the  4th  of  September,  as  Failbe  Mac  Ronain,  in  Cluain 
Airbelaig.  This  shows,  that  there  must  have  been  some  error  of  insertion  in 
the  latter  Calendar,  owing  perhaps  to  the  ignorance  of  a  scribe. 


Article  VII. — Translation  of  the  Relics  of  St.  Anatolius,  at 
Salins,  France.  Besides  the  festival  of  St.  Anatolius,  on  the  3rd  of 
February,1  another  is  kept  on  the  1st  of  September.  This  latter  com- 
memorates a  translation  of  his  remains,  at  Salins.  During  the  eleventh 
century,  the  body  of  St,  Anatolius  was  removed  from  the  original  tomb,  in 
which  it  had  been  deposed.  It  was  placed  in  the  principal  church,  at  Salins. 
About  200  years  later,  Nicholas,  who  was  Bishop  of  Besancon,  from  a.d. 
1229  to  1235,  had  it  moved  on  a  1st  of  September,  An  elegant  shrine,  in 
the  same  church,  was  destined  for  the  reception  of  his  remains.  These  were 
greatly  venerated,  by  the  faithful.    Thus  200  years,  after  the  first  exhumation 

3  Sge-AllxMi  lobA]\  6  -Arvomaca.  Sec  his  episcopacy,  and  not  to  his  cultus  :  "  Se- 
"  Common  Place  Book,  F.,"  now  in  the  wallus  electus  Eborum,  in  archiepiscopum 
Royal  Irish  Academy's  Library,  p.  74.  consecratur     ab      episcopo     Wigornirc." — 

4  See  "  Acta  Sanctorum,"  tomus  i.,  Sep-  "  Flores  Historiarum." 

tembris  i.  Among  the  pretermitted  Saints,  3  See  "  Acta  Sanctorum,"  tomus  i.,  Sep- 

p-  3-  tembris  i.  Among  the  pretermitted  Saints,  p.4, 

Article  v. — *  See  "  Catalogus  Actuum  Article     vi.— '   Thus:     Vailbe    mac 

Sanctorum  quae  MS.  habentur,  ordine  Men-  1lon.ain  1  cluAin  ^ipbetaij;. 

sium  et  Dierum."  2  Edited  by  Drs.  Todd  and  Reeves,  pp. 

2  However,  the  Bollandists  could  not  find  232,  233. 

such  notice  in  any  edition  of  Wilson's  English  3  Edited  by  Rev.  Dr.  Kelly,  p.  xxxiii. 

Martyrology.  Article  vii. — '  See  at  this  date,  in  the 

3  In  ■*'  Catalogus  Generalis  Sanctorum."  Second  Volume  of  this  work,  some  notices 

4  Matthew  of  Westminster  only  alludes  to  of  the  present  saint,  Art.  i. 


28  LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS.      [September  t. 


and  deposition  of  St.  Anatolius'  relics,  by  Hugo,  Archbishop  of  BesancOD, 
in  a  magnificent  tomb,  at  which  various  illustrious  miracles  had  been 
wrought;  Nicholas,  Archbishop  of  Besancon,  in  the  thirteenth  century,  had 
them  removed,  on  the  Kalends  of  September,  and  placed  in  a  precious 
shrine,  prepared  for  their  reception.2  Through  the  aid  and  merits  of  this 
saint,  blind,  lame,  mute,  deaf,  crippled,  weak  and  infirm  persons,  were 
frequently  restored  to  health.  Once,  when  St.  Anatolius'  salt  spring  sud- 
denly went  dry,  on  bringing  his  sacred  head  thither,  the  water  immediately 
sprang  forth  again.  Fires  were  extinguished,  through  his  intercession  ; 
demoniacs  were  cured ;  cities  were  relieved  from  siege,  and  victories  were 
obtained  over  enemies  of  the  French  j  rain  and  fine  weather  were  alike 
obtained  ;  while  numbers,  placed  in  imminent  danger,  were  saved  through 
his  invocation.  Well  may  we  deem  this  holy  Confessor  to  be  inscribed  in 
the  Company  of  the  elect,3  regarding  whom  the  Royal  Prophet  sung,  "  To 
me,  Thy  friends,  O  God,  are  exceedingly  honourable  j  their  principality  is 
exceedingly  strengthened."4 


Article  VIII. — The  Sons  of  Caimene.  A  festival  to  honour  the  Sons 
of  Caimene  is  set  down,  in  the  Martyrology  of  Donegal,1  at  the  ist  of  Sep- 
tember. It  seems  probable,  those  holy  brothers  flourished,  after  the  eighth 
century,  as  they  are  not  contained,  in  that  copy  of  the  Martyrology  of 
Tallaght  in  the  Book  of  Leinster,  at  the  Kalends  of  September,  nor  in  that 
published  by  the  Rev.  Dr.  Kelly,  for  which  day  entries  are  missing.  Their 
particular  names  do  not  seem  to  be  ascertainable. 


Article  IX. — Feast  of  St.  Cecilia,  with  other  Companions.  In 
the  ancient  Irish  Church,  at  the  ist  of  September,  we  find  a  festival  set  down 
for  St.  Cecilia,  with  a  great  number  of  other  saints,  in  the  "  Feilire  M  of  St. 
^Kngus.1  To  this  entry,  a  commentator  has  added  some  remarks,2  intended 
to  be  explanatory.  The  Bollandists  have  no  mention  of  this  festival,  at  the 
ist  of  September.  Among  the  martyrs,  who  suffered  a.d.  303,3  at  Abytina, 
in  Africa,  under  the  Emperor  Diocletian,  is  named  a  Cecilia.4     Their  festival 


a  An    account  of  this  solemnity  is   con-  ginity,  thirty  and  three  thousand." — "  Trans- 

tained    in  Jean  Jaques  Chifflet's   "  Veson-  actions  of  the  Royal  Irish  Academy,"  Irish 

lionis,"  pars  ii.,  p.  268.     See  the  Bollandists'  Manuscript  Series,  vol.  i,  part  i.     On  the 

"Acta  Sanctorum,"  tomus  i.,  Septembris  i.,  Calendar  of  Oengus,  p.  exxxvi. 
among  the  Prretermissi,  et  in  alios  dies  relati,  2  These    are  :    "  Decimus    mensis    apud 

p.  2.  Graecos    Sgorpeos,    Cen   Kalne,    cennona, 

3  See  ibid.,  tomus  i.,  Februarii  hi.,  De  S.  cen  idu  icgrecaib  agus  icegeptacdaib.  Solifl 
Anatolio  Episcopo,  Salinis  in  Burgundia.  xxx.,  luna;  xxx.,  Sextus  ebreorum  mensis 
Alia  Vita,  ex  Schedis  Pet.  Franc.  Chiffletii,  elul."  The  first  sentence  is  thus  translated  : 
Soc.  Jesu,  sect.  3,  p.  360.  "With    the    Greeks    the    tenth    month    is 

4  Psalms  exxxviii.,  17.  Yopmaios.   Without  Kalends,  without  nones. 
Article  viii.—1  Edited  by  Drs.   Todd  without  ides,  were  the  Greeks  and  the  Egyp- 

and  Reeves,  pp.  232,  233.  tians."     Again  :  "Cicilia  i.,  uirgo  et  niartir. 

Article  ix. — '  In  that  copy  found  in  the  i.,  cccc.  xx.  et  ihu.  naue."-  The  comment  u 

Leabhar  Breac,  the  entry  thus  appears  : —  added  in  Greek,  "  'ItjsoOs  Navrj." — See  ibid., 

fflop  Sepcimber*  kt  p.  cxli. 

CiciliA  cotToijvcje  3  At  this  year,  there  is  an  account  of  them 

.cccc.  conuaige  in  Baronius'  "  Annales  Ecclesiastici,"  tomus 

.xxx.  lAceop  mile.  hi.,  sect,  lviii.,  p.  392,  edition  of  the  Celes- 

Thus  translated  into  English  by  Dr.  Whitley  tines,  Bar-le-Duc. 

Stokes  : — "  On  September's  Kalends  Cecilia  4  See  "  Les  Petits  Bollandistes,"  tome  ii., 

with  righteousness  :  four  hundred  with  vir-  xie  jour  do  Fevrier,  p.  444. 


September  i.]      LIVES  OF  THK  IRISH  SAINTS.  29 


occurs  on  the  nth  of  February.  Again,  among  the  martyrs,  who  suffered  at 
Constantinople,  in  the  same  year  and  under  the  same  Emperor,  a  Cecilia  is 
also  mentioned.  Their  feast  is  observed  on  the  8th  of  May.s  Another 
Cecilia,  recorded  in  the  Martyrology  of  St.  Jerome,  suffered  for  the  Faith  of 
Christ  at  Sirmium,6  in  Panonia,  with  the  Martyrs  Ostratus  or  Sostratus,  Spire, 
Eracle,  and  Eperence,  their  festival  being  observed  on  the  8th  of  July.? 
Another  still  more  celebrated  Virgin  and  Martyr  was  Cecilia,  of  a  noble 
Roman  family,  and  who,  with  her  spouse  Valerian,  her  brother  Tiburtius, 
and  Maximin,8  were  executed  in  the  year  of  our  Lord  230,  while  Alexander 
Severus  was  Emperor.  Her  festival  is  celebrated  on  the  22nd  of  November. 9 
As  four  hundred  persons  are  said  to  have  received  with  her  the  grace  of 
Baptism,  at  the  hands  of  the  Pontiff,  St.  Urban,  it  seems  most  probable,  this 
wis  the  virgin,  whose  memory  was  celebrated  in  the  ancient  Irish  Church, 
and  who  is  commemorated  in  the  Feilire  of  St.  ^Engus,  at  the  present  date. 
Also,  in  the  Kalendarium  Drummondiense,10  the  feast  of  a  holy  Virgin, 
Cecilia,  is  entered. 


Article  X. — Reputed  Feast  of  St.  Muredach,  Bishop  of  Killala. 
According  to  Castellan,  a  feast  in  honour  of  St.  Muredach,  Bishop  of  Killala, 
was  observed  on  this  day  by  the  Irish.  The  Bollandists,  who  note  this 
account,  observe  at  the  1st  of  September,  that  Ferrarius  alludes  to  Muredach 
at  the  5th  of  October,  when  they  give  promise  of  treating  again  about  him.1 
They  remark,  also,  that  among  the  Masses  assigned  for  the  holy  patrons  and 
titulars  of  France  and  Ireland,  printed  at  Paris  in  1734,  a  Mass  is  set  down 
at  the  nth  of  July,  with  the  title,  "in  festo  sancti  Muredaci  Ep.  et  Conf. 
Alladensis  patroni  generalis."  His  festival,  however,  is  observed  as  a  greater 
Double,  on  the  12th  of  August,2  in  the  Irish  Church. 


Article  XI. — Reputed  Festival  of  St.  Sarbile  of  Fochard.  In  that 
copy  of  the  Tallagh  Martyrology,  in  the  Book  of  Leinster,  there  is  an  entry 
of  Sarbile  of  Fochard,  with  other  unintelligible  words,1  at  the  Kalends  of 
September.  These  probably  mean,  that  he  was  a  man  belonging  to 
Muirtheimhne,2  the  present  County  of  Louth. 3  His  feast  seems  referable  to 
the  4th  of  this  month. 


5  See  ibid,,  tome  v.,  viiie  jour  de  Mai,  p.  ■  See  the  Eighth  Volume  of  this  work,  at 

393.  that  date,  for  some  notices  concerning  him, 

0  Now  Sirmich  or  Mitrewitz.  Art.  i. 

7  See  ibid.,  tome  viii.,  viii.  jour  de  Juillet,  Article  xi.— t  Thus  entered  :— Sarbile 
p.  163.  uir\  -pocriAirvoe  tnup. 

8  See  zfotf.,  tome  xiii.,  xxiiejour  de  Novem-  2  This  ancient  district  was  called  Magh 
bre,  pp.  541  to  561.  Muirtheimhne  and  Conaille  Muirtheimhne, 

9  See  R.  P.  Dom  Prosper  Gueranger's  from  the  descendants  of  Conall  Cearnach  of 
•'  Histoire  de  Saint  Cecile. "  the  Clanna  Rudhraighe  race,  who  flourished 

10  In  Bishop  Forbes'  "  Kalendars  of  Scot-  there  for  many  centuries.  In  Ussher's  time 
tish  Saints,"  at  Kalend,  Sept.  "  Item  eodem  it  was  still  known  as  Maghery-Conall.  See 
die    Ceciliam    Sanctam    Virginem   quidam  "  Primordia,"  pp.  705,  706. 

ferunt  esse  coronatam."     See  p.  23.  3  Its    situation    is    thus    pointed   out   by 

Article  x.— *  See  "Acta  Sanctorum,"  Colgan,  in  his  "Trias  Thaumaturga,"  St. 

tomus  i.,  Septembiis  i.     Among  the  preter-  Fiach's  Hymn,  or  Prima  Vita  S.  Patricii,  n. 

mitted  Saints,  p.  5.  16,  p.  8. 


3o  LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS.       [September  2. 


Article  XII. — Reputed  Festival  of  St.  Fiachrach.  At  the  Kalends 
of  September,  in  that  copy  of  the  Tallagh  Martyrology  found  in  the  Book  of 
Leinster,  there  is  an  entry  of  Fiachrach.1 


Article  XIII. — Reputed  Feast  of  St.  Ultan  Mac  Ua  Conchobair 
of  Ardbraccain.  In  that  copy  of  the  Martyrology  of  Tallagh  contained  in 
the  Book  of  Leinster,  a  feast  is  set  down  for  St.  Ultan  Mac  Ua  Conchobair  of 
Ardbraccan,  at  the  Kalends  of  September.1  This  seems  to  have  been  the 
mistake  of  a  scribe,  as  his  festival  belongs  to  the  4th  of  this  month,  where  he 
is  more  fully  noticed. 


Article  XIV. — Reputed  Feast  of  St.  Senain.  At  the  Kalends  of 
September,  there  is  a  Feast  for  Senain,1  in  that  copy  of  the  Tallagh  Martyr- 
ology contained  in  the  Book  of  Leinster.  It  is  probably  a  misplaced  entry 
for  the  day  following. 


Article  XV. — Reputed  Festival  of  Comgall  of  Both  Conais.  At 
the  Kalends  of  September,  in  that  copy  of  the  Martyrology  of  Tallagh,  found 
in  the  Book  of  Leinster,  there  is  an  entry  of  Comgall  of  Both  Conais  ;x  but 
elsewhere,  his  name  is  not  noticed  at  this  date.  His  festival  is  more  probably 
referable  to  the  4th  day  of  this  month. 


Article  XVI. — Reputed  Feast  for  a  Translation  of  St.Columban's 
Relics  at  Bobbio. — In  the  Calendar  of  Ferrnrius1  is  mentioned  a  Translation 
of  the  Relics  of  St.  Columban,  Abbot,  at  Bobbio,  on  the  1st  day  of  September. 
The  Bollandists  also  record  this  entry.2  His  chief  festival  belongs  to  the  21st 
of  November. 


£>eamti  fflap  of  September. 


ARTICLE    I.— ST.    SEANAN,   OF      LAITHRECH-BRIUIN,     NOW    LARAGII- 
BRINE,    COUNTY   OF   KILDARE. 

[SIXTH  CENTUR  Y.\ 

WE  have  frequently  to  lament  the  loss  of  records,  which  might  preserve 
the  particular  virtues  and  actions  of  individuals  for  the  edification 
and  emulation  of  all  true  Christians.  As  noticeable  throughout  all  the 
previous  volumes  of  this  work,  with  the  most  earnest  desire  to  render  its 
several  articles,  more  complete,  documentary  or  traditional  materials  are  not 
accessible,  to  rescue  from  obscurity  the  earthly  career  of  so  many  among  the 
children  of  light.  Merely  to  learn  their  names — sometimes  also  those  of 
their  old  places — and  to  know  that  they  had  lived,  are  all  that  can  now  be 
ascertained. 

Article  xil— '  Thus  s  pAchnAch.  Article  xvi.— '  "  Translatio  S.  Colum- 

Article  xiii.— «  Thus  entered  :  Ulcan  bani  abbatis  Bobii."— " Catalogus  Generalis 

rriAc  h.  ConcViobhair*  1  <Xirvobr»ec.An.  Sanctorum." 

Article  xiv.— '  Thus:  Senain.  2  See  "Acta  Sanctorum," tomus  i.,   Sep- 

Artici.e    xv.—1  Thus  :  Comgell  boch  tembris  i.     Among  the  pretermitted  Saints, 

Conair.  p.  5. 


September  2.]      LIVES  OE  THE  IRISH  SAINTS.  31 


According  to  the  Feilire-Aenguis,1  the  Feast  of  St.  Senan  was  celebrated 
in  Lathrach  Briuin,  or  Laraghbrine,  in  Ui-Foelain,2  on  the  2nd  of  September.3 
In  conjunction  with  two  other  holy  persons,  Molotha  and  Theodota,  the  saint 
is  praised  for  his  noble  qualities,  and  for  their  reward  through  Christ.  The 
commentator  identifies  the  present  saint  as  connected  with  a  well-known 
place.  According  to  the  Calendar  of  the  O'Clerys,*  he  belonged  to  the 
race  of  Eochaidh,  son  of  Muireadh,  who  descended  from  the  seed  of 
Heremon.  We  are  told,  likewise,  that  Deidi,  daughter  to  Trian,  son  of 
Dubhthach,  was  his  mother.*  The  pedigree  of  St.  Senan  of  Laraghbrine  is 
contained  in  the  M  Sanctilogic  Genealogy."6  There  he  is  called  the  son  of 
Fintan,  son  to  Strened,  son  of  Glinder,  son  to  Core,  son  of  Conned,  son  to 
iEngus,  son  of  Fieg,  son  to  Mail,  son  of  Carthage,  &cJ  His  genealogy  is 
then  carried  back  to  Heremon  for  fifty  generations,  or  for  about  1600  years.8 
Marianus  O'Gorman  has  noted  this  saint,  in  his  Martyrology,  at  the  present 
date. 9  St.  Senan  must  have  flourished  in  the  sixth  century,  and  been  a 
contemporary  of  the  great  St.  Columbkille,TO  for  he  is  named  as  one  of 
those  ecclesiastics  who  attended  the  great  Synod,  held  at  Dromcreat  in  580. JI 
On  the  2nd  of  September,  a  festival  is  entered  in  the  Martyrology  of  Donegal,12 
to  honour  Seanan,  of  Laithrech  Briuin,  in  the  territory  of  Hy-Faelain.  This 
place  is  also  written  Lathrach-Briuin.  At  present  it  is  known  as  Laraghbrine, 
or  Laraghbryan,x3  where  there  is  an  old  church  and  a  cemetery,  near 
Maynooth,  in  the  Barony  of  North  Salt,  and  County  of  Kildare. 

The  mediaeval  church  ruins  of  Laraghbrien  are  to  be  seen  embowered 
with  stately  lime  trees,  and  within  a  squarely-formed  grave-yard,  surrounded 
by  a  quadrangular  wall.  A  gravel  walk  runs  parallel  with  the  walls  on  the 
interior.  The  church  ruins  measure  87  feet  in  length,  exteriorly:  they  are  19 
feet,  8  inches,  in  breadth.  The  walls  are  nearly  3  feet  in  thickness.  There 
is  a  square  tower,  13  feet  by  15  feet,  on  the  outside  ;  and,  it  is  entered  by  a 
low,  arched  door-way  from  the  interior.  Several  square-headed  opes  are 
inside  of  it,  and  a  ruined  spiral  stairway  occupies  one  angle.  This  leads  to 
a  broken  part  of  the  wall,  and  showing  that  it  ran  much  higher.     There  is  a 


Article    I. — *  In    the    Leabhar    Breac  "  The  clause  within  brackets  is  in  the  more 

copy  of  the  Feilire  of  Oengus,  is  the  following  recent  hand." — Ibid.,  n.  I.    That  means  the 

stanza,  at  this  date  : —  last  sentence  in  the  text. 

molocliA  CeochocAm  6  Chapter  xxii.     In   this   record,   Colgan 

La  Sen  An  icf  Aenf  Am  states  his  Life  is  to  be  found. 

La  Cmfc  cAm  AmbuATopnm  7  See  Colgan 's  "Acta  Sanctorum  Hiber- 

Con<5cnLein  iccoenifAm  nioe,"  Martii  viii.     Appendix  ad  Vitam   S. 

Thus   rendered   into  English  : — "  Molotha,  Senani,  cap.  i.,  p.  541,  recte  537. 

Theodota   (Theotimus?)  with  Senan — they  8  In  the  "Leabhar  Breac,"   and   in   the 

are  noble  :  with  fair  Christ  is  their  guerdon  :  "  Book  of  Leinster,"  fol.  35,  col.  2,  line  3. 

to  his  train  they  are  dear." — "Transactions  9  See  Colgan's  "Acta  Sanctorum  Hiber- 

of  the  Royal  Irish  Academy,"  Irish  Manu-  nice,"  Vita  S.  Farannani,  n.  26,  p.  339. 

script    Series,    vol.    i.,    part    i.      On    the  I0  See  his  Life,  at  the  9th  of  June,  in  the 

Calendar   of  Oengus,   by  Whitley   Stokes,  Sixth  Volume  of  this  work,  Art  i. 

LL.D.,  p.  exxxvi.  "  See  Colgan's  "Acta  Sanctorum  Hiber- 

2  In  a  note  to  La  Senan,  a  gloss  on  the  nire,"  XV.  Februarii.  Vita  S.  Farannani, 
Feilire  has  "  i.  e.  lathrach  briuin  iniiib  foe-  sect,  vii.,  p.  337,  and  n.  26,  p.  339. 

lain."     It  is  thus  translated,  "'with  Senan,'  "  Edited  by  Drs.  Todd  and  Reeves,  pp. 

i.  e.  of  Lathrach  Briuin  in   Ui-Foelain." —  232,  233. 

ibid.,  p.  cxli.  '3  It  is  the  head  of  an  ancient  parish,  and 

3  See  Dr.  O'Doaovan's  "Annals  of  the  it  contains  the  two  to  wnlands  of  Laraghbryan 
Four  Masters,"  vol.  i.,  n.  (b),  pp.  365,  366.  East — containing  273^.  \r.  \p.— and  Laragh- 

4  See  the  "Martyrology  of  Donegal,"  bryan  West — containing  119a.  or.  4p. — in 
edited  by  Rev.  Drs.  Todd  and  Reeves,  pp.  the  Barony  of  North  Salt.  Both  are  described 
232,  233.  on  the  "  Ordnance  Survey  Townland  Maps 

15  A  note  by  Dr.  Todd  states  at  Mother  :  for  the  County  of  Kildare,"  Sheet  5. 


32 


LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH   SAINTS.      [September  2. 


large  breach  in  either  side  wall.  Some  ruined  windows  remain.  Two  of 
them  have  elegantly  dressed  heading  and  side  stones,  and  in  these  formerly 
were  iron  bars.  The  building  materials  are  of  excellent  limestone  and 
mortar.     There  was  a  door  in  the  north  side-wall,  parallel  with  the  road  from 


Laraghbrine,  County  Kildare. 

Maynooth  to  Kilcock.  Circularly-arched  door-ways  and  windows  splayed  are 
still  to  be  seen  in  the  walls.  Traces  of  plaster  are  inside  and  outside  the 
building,1*  showing  that  it  had  been  used  for  purposes  of  worship,  and  at  no 
very  remote  date. 


Article  II.— St.  Maine,  Son  of  Coechan,  Bishop  of  Tyroilill. 
[Fifth  or  Sixth  Century.']  This  holy  bishop  is  said  to  have  lived  in  Ireland, 
during  the  period  of  St.  Patrick's  mission.  According  to  a  commentary  on 
the  Felire  of  ^Engus,1  it  is  stated,  that  veneration  was  given  to  St.  Maine. 
However,  we  do  not  find  such  statement  verified  on  examination  of  that 
copy,  published  by  the  Royal  Irish  Academy,2  neither  in  the  text  or  notes. 
It  is  related,  that  St.  Maine 3  was  son  to  Coechan,  son  of  Ere,  son  to  Ross, 
son  of  Oilioll,4  son  to  Eochaidh  Muighmedhoin,  Monarch  of  Ireland.  He 
sprung  from  the  seed  of  Heremon.  From  Oilioll  the  district  Tyroilioll 
was  named.  Already  have  we  alluded  to  him,  in  treating  the  Life  of 
St.  Patrick,  Apostle  of  Ireland,  at  the  17th  of  March. s     Maine  appears  to 


14  These  observations  and  measurements 
were  taken  on  the  spot  by  the  writer, 
in  July,  1873.  On  that  occasion,  also,  a 
sketch  of  the  ruined  church  was  obtained, 
which  has  been  drawn,  as  here  represented, 
on  the  wood  and  engraved  by  Gregor 
Grey. 

Article  11.— '  See  Colgan's  "  Acta  Sanc- 
torum  Iliherniiv, "  xxiii.  Febrnarii,  nn.  30, 

3».  P-  399- 
2  Edited  by  Whitley  Stokes,  LL.D. 


3  See  Colgan's  "Acta  Sanctorum  IIUkt- 
nia:,"  xv.  Februarii.  Vita  S.  Farannani, 
sect,  vii.,  p.  337. 

*  Such  is  his  pedigree  as  cot  down  in  the 
"  Sanctilogiuni  Genenlogicum."     See  n.  20, 

p.  339,  'h'J- 

s  In  the  Third  Volume  of  this  work,  Art. 
i.,  chap.  xiii.  There  he  is  called  the  Son  of 
Eochaidh  Muighmedhoin  ;  but,  tins  must  be 
understood,  as  in  the  remote  degree  of  a  fifth 
generation. 


September  2.]      LIVES  Ob   THE  IRISH  SAINTS.  33 


have  been  baptized  by  St.  Patrick,  when  the  Irish  Apostle  visited  Connaught. 
Afterwards,  the  neophyte  was  ordained  by  Bishop  Bron,6  of  Cassel-Irra.?  He  is 
consequently  reckoned  among  the  disciples  of  St.  Patrick.8  Wherefore,  it 
may  be  inferred,  that  he  flourished  towards  the  middle  of  the  fifth  century. 
He  is  commemorated  by  the  Bollandists,9  at  this  date ;  although  they  are 
unable  to  furnish  further  details  of  his  history  When  St.  Patrick  travelled 
through  Magh-Luirg,  the  Cenel-Mic-Erca 10  stole  his  horses,  and  greatly 
incurred  his  displeasure.  But  owing  to  Bishop  Maine's  intercession,  the 
censure  pronounced  against  them  was  afterwards  modified,  and  the  stolen 
horses  were  restored.  Then  St.  Patrick  declared,  a  great  portion  of  that 
district  should  afterwards  belong  to  his  jurisdiction.11  However,  be  it 
observed,  that  he  must  have  lived  to  a  very  old  age,  if  he  were  the  Manius, 
Bishop  of  Tyroilioll,  who  assisted  at  the  Synod  of  Dromceat,  a.d.  580,  as 
Colgan  seems  to  suppose.12  The  same  writer  tells  us,  that  Maine  is 
commemorated  at  this  date  in  the  Martyrology  of  Tallaght,^  and  by 
Maguire,  or  the  enlarger  of  ^Engus.  At  the  2nd  of  September,  this  holy 
man  is  recorded  in  the  Martyrology  of  Marianus  O'Gorman.1*  Also,  in  the 
Martyrology  of  Donegal,1*  on  the  same  day,  and  in  that  copy  of  the  Irish 
Calendar,  belonging  to  the  Ordnance  Survey  Records,16  his  feast  occurs. 


Article  III. — St.  Geinten,  Priest,  of  Tir-Guaire.  This  holy  man's 
name  is  to  be  found  in  the  Martyrology  of  Marianus  O'Gorman.  Little 
seems  to  be  known  regarding  his  family  or  descent ;  although  he  probably 
was  born  in  that  part  of  Ireland,  where,  in  a  spirit  of  prophecy,  St.  Patrick 
declared  he  should  rule  over  a  church.1  As  allusion  has  been  already  made 
to  this  incident  of  the  Irish  Apostle's  career,  in  the  previous  account  of  St. 
Maine,  we  are  to  assume  the  place  of  his  nativity  must  have  been  in  Magh 
Luirg  ;  but,  we  cannot  infer  from  that  narrative,  at  what  particular  time  he 
lived.  In  the  Tripartite  Life  of  St. -Patrick,  allusion  is  made  to  the  present 
saint.  There  he  is  called  Genthenn  of  Each-ainech,  in  the  territory  of 
Tiroilell.2  This  latter  is  now  represented  by  the  present  Barony  of  Tirerill, 
in  the  County  of  Sligo.3  Among  the  townland  denominations  of  Ireland, 
we  are  unable  to  identify  the  locality  of  Each-ainech.     In  the  Martyrology 


6  See  the  Sixth  Volume  of  this  work,  for  ainech  in  regione  de  Tiroilella." — Colgan's 
notices  of  him,  at  the  8th  of  June,  the  day  "  Trias  Thaumaturga,"  Septima  Vita  S. 
for  his  festival,  Art.  i.  Patricii,  pars  ii.,  cap.  cii.,  p.  143. 

7  See  Colgan's  "Trias  Thaumaturga,"  "See  "Acta  Sanctorum  Hibernice,"  xv. 
Septima  Vita  S.  Patricii,  lib.  ii.,  cap.  xxxv.,  Februarii.  Vita  S.  Farannani,  n.  20,  p.  339. 
p.  134,  andnn.  71,  72,  p.  176.  J3  However,   this  statement   I   have   not 

8  See  ibid.  Quinta  Appendix  ad  Acta  S.  been  able  to  verify,  by  referring  to  that  copy 
Patricii,  cap.  xxiii.,  p.  267.  in  the  Book  of  Leinster.     It  is  also  omitted, 

9  See  "Acta  Sanctorum,"  tomus  i.,  Sep-  in  Rev.  Dr.  Kelly's  edition, 
tembris  ii.     Among  the  pretermitted  Feasts,  I4  See  ibid. 

p.  338.  *5  Edited  by  Drs.  Todd  and  Reeves,  pp. 

10  This  tribe  and  territory  were  in  the  north  232,  233. 

part  of  Roscommon  County.     See  Miss  M.  l6  There  we  find  the  entry  maine,  without 

F.  Cusack's  "  Life  of  Saint  Patrick,  Apostle  any  other  addition.     See  "  Common  Place 

of  Ireland,"  part  ii.,  n.  9,  p.  431.  Book,"  F.  p.  74. 

11  It  is  difficult  to  interpret  the  confused  Article  hi. — '  See  Colgan's  "Trias 
narrative  which  here  ensues  in  the  Tripartite  Thaumaturga,"  Septima  Vita  S.  Patricii, 
Life:  "  Prsedixit  tuncmagnam  illius  regionis  pars  ii.,  cap.  cii.,  p.  143,  and  n.  149,  p.  180. 
partem  olim  ad  jus  suarum  Ecclesiarum  2  In  the  text  of  Colgan,  his  name  is 
devoluendam  :  quod  impletum  est  mAideno  written  Gemthenn. 

de  Coch-uamach.     Item  in  Episcopo  Manio  3  See   Roderick   O'Flaherty's   "Ogygia,*' 

discipulo  Patricii,  et  Gemthenno  de  Each*  pars  Hi.,  cap.  lxxix.,  p.  374. 

C 


34  LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS.      [September  *. 


of  Donegal,-*  at  the  2nd  of  September,  we  find  inserted  the  name  Gentenn, 
or  Geinten,  Priest,  of  Tir  Guaire.  This  latter  denomination  remains  to  be 
identified. 


Article  IV. — St.  Colum,  Son  of  Blann.  The  name  of  Colum,  son  of 
Blann,  is  inserted,  and  he  was  venerated,  at  the  2nd  of  September,  as  recorded 
in  the  Martyrology  of  Donegal.1 


Article  V.— St.  Enan,  Mac  Ua  Mago.  We  read,  in  the  Martyrology 
of  Donegal,1  that  a  festival  in  honour  of  Enan,  Mac  Ua  Mago,  was  celebrated 
at  the  2nd  of  September. 


Article  VI. — Reputed  Festival  for  Saints  Loman,  Colman  and 
Macnisus.  We  find  a  festival  entered  for  these  saints  at  the  iv  of  the  Nones, 
or  2nd  day  of  September,  in  the  ancient  Martyrology  of  the  Cathedral  Church 
of  the  Holy  Trinity,  Dublin ;  although  in  the  calendar  prefixed,  there  is  no 
corresponding  insertion.  Dr.  Todd  remarks,  that  in  the  Martyrology  of  St. 
vEngus,  they  are  noted — not  at  this  day — but  on  the  3rd  of  September ; 
while  instead  of  Loman,  the  first  is  called  Longarad,  Lon  being  the  original 
name.1     It  is  evidently  a  mistake  of  entry,  on  the  part  of  the  scribe.2 


Article  VII.  —  St.  Adomnanus  or  Adomnan,  Abbot.  Henry  Fitzsimon1 
appears  to  assign  a  second  festival  for  St.  Adomnanus,  Abbot,  at  the  present 
date,  2nd  of  September.  He  has  been  already  commemorated  at  the  31st  of 
January,  as  St.  Adamnan  of  Coldingham.2  He  is  called  Adamnan  at  this 
date,  as  also  in  the  anonymous  list  of  Irish  Saints,  published  by  O'Sullivan 
Beare.3 


Article  VIII.— Feast  of  St.  Mured ach,  Bishop  of  Killala.  A 
Feast  of  St.  Muredach,  Bishop  and  Patron  of  Killala,  in  Tyrawley,  was  held 
on  the  2nd  of  September.1  We  have  already  treated  about  him  at  the  12th 
of  August,2  the  date  for  his  principal  festival.  He  assisted  at  the  Synod  of 
Dromceat,  a.d.  580. 

Article  IX. — Reputed  Feast  of  St.  Teothotha.  At  the  2nd  of 
September,  St.  Teothotha  is  commemorated  in  the  Feilire  of  St.  ^ngus  ;' 
and  by  a  scholiast  on  that  copy  in  the  Leabhar  Brear,  she  is  reputed  to  have 


*  Edited  by  Drs.  Todd  and   Reeves,    pp.  nnd    apparently    for    this    statement.     See 

232>  233-  " Historic  Catholica-  Iberniiv  Compendium,* 

Article  iv.— x  Edited  by  Drs.  Todd  and  tomus  i.,  lib.  iv.,  cap.  xii.,  p.  52. 

Reeves,  pp.  232,  233.  2  See  the  First  Volume  of  this  work,  at 

Article  v.—1  Edited  by  Drs.  Todd  and  that  date,  Art.  iii. 

Reeves,  pp.  232,  233.  3  See  ibid.,  cap.  xi.,  p.  50. 

Article  vi. — l  See  "The  Book  of  Obits  Article   viii— '  See    Colgan's    "Acta 

and  Martyrology  of  the  Cathedral  Church  of  Sanctorum  Hibernise,"  xv.  Februarii.     Vita 

the  Holy  Trinity,"  Introduction,  p.lxw,  and  S.  Farannani,  n.  21,  p.  339. 

p.  152.  2  In  the  Eighth  Volume  of  this  work,  Art.  i. 

2  See  Ibid.,  p.  lxxiv.  Article  ix. — '  See  "Transactions  of  the 

Article  vil— '  See  "  Catalogus  aliquo-  Royal    Irish   Academy,"   Irish   Manuscript 

rum     Sanctorum     Hibernice,"     where     he  Series,  vol.  i.,  part  i.     On  the  Calendar  of 

cites  the  Anglican  Martyrology  as  authority,  Oengus.  by  Whitley  Stokes,  LL.D.,  p.  exxxvi. 


Seftrmbrr  2.]      LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS.  35 


been  a  virgin.2  In  the  General  Church  Calendars  of  Saints,  we  cannot  find 
any  other  name,  more  closely  resembling  what  has  been  attributed  to  her, 
than  that  of  Theodora,  wife  of  the  Tribune,  St.  Paternus.  Both  of  these 
endured  martyrdom  in  Nicomedia,  with  many  other  companions. 3  This 
happened  under  the  Emperor  Julian,  the  Apostate,  and  during  the  fourth 
century. 


Article  X. — Reputed  Festival  of  St.  Mansuetus,  Bishop  of  Toul, 
France. — In  the  additions  to  Usuard,  edited  by  the  Bollandists,  a  feast  for 
the  bishop,  St.  Mansuetus,  is  inserted  at  the  and  of  September.  This  the 
Bollandists  notice,  at  the  present  date.1  It  can  only  have  been  that  of  his 
Vigil,  as  the  chief  festival  occurs  on  the  day  succeeding,  to  which  the  reader 
is  referred  for  his  Acts. 


Article  XL — Reputed  Feast  of  a  St.  Colman,  Avignon,  France. 
At  the  2nd  of  September,  according  to  a  Florarium  Manuscript,  belonging  to 
their  library,  the  Bollandists1  enter  a  Festival  for  Colmann  and  Agricolus, 
stated  to  have  been  Bishops  of  Avignon,2  a  celebrated  city  in  the  south  of 
France.  While  presenting  the  Acts  of  the  latter  at  considerable  length,  as 
Bishop  and  Patron  of  thatcity,3  they  state  that,  among  the  prelates  of  Avignon, 
no  Colmann  appears.  However,  it  does  not  follow  from  this  want  of  record, 
that  such  may  not  have  been  the  case — as  in  so  many  other  instances — 
where  the  Fasti  of  a  Church  are  not  quite  complete.  It  seems  likely  enough, 
there  had  been  some  earlier  authority  or  tradition  for  inserting  such  a  Feast 
of  St.  Colmann  in  the  Florarium.  The  name  is  Irish  in  form,  and  the  list  of 
our  national  saints  bearing  it  is  more  numerous  than  that  of  any  other 
denomination.  Agricolus  flourished  in  the  seventh  century,  as  is  well  known, 
while  many  Irish  missionaries  had  entered  France  before  and  during  that  age. 
It  is  possible,  St.  Colmann  may  have  been  one  of  them,  and  connected,  as 
stated,  with  the  See  of  Avignon,  and  perhaps  he  was  an  assistant  bishop. 
However  this  may  be,  it  seems  likely,  that  he  must  be  distinguished  from  the 
Colman,  noted  at  this  day,  in  the  ancient  Martyrology  of  the  Cathedral 
Church  of  the  Holy  Trinity,  Dublin. 


Article  XII.— Reputed  Festival  of  a  St.  Molotha.     In  the  Felire 
of  St.  .^Engus,  at  the  2nd  of  September,  the  Feast  of  St.  Molotha  is  entered  ;z 

2  See  ibid.,  p.  cxli.  Cavarum   by   the   Romans.      In   it   was  a 

3  Their  Acts  are  given  by  the  Bollandists  metropolitan  church  of  great  antiquity,  and 
in  "  Acta  Sanctorum,"  tomus  i.,  Septembris  one  was  rebuilt  by  Charlemagne.  From  1307 
ii.  De  Sanctis  Martyribus  Nicomedienstbus  to  1377,  Avignon  became  a  papal  residence, 
Zenone,  Concordio,  Theodoro,  Filiis  ejus,  and  in  1348,  it  was  bought  from  Joanna, 
Paterno  Tribuno,  Theodote  Uxore  ejus,  Queen  of  Sicily  and  Countess  of  Provence, 
Militibus  lxviii.,  Matre  cum  duobus  Filiis,  for  80,000  florins.  The  papal  sovereignty 
Serapione  cum  clxxii.  Militibus.  Item  de  was  retained  until  1791,  when  it  was  re- 
SS.  Cuscono,  Monolappo,  Josepho,"  pp.  united  to  France.  See  "  Gazetteer  of  the 
360  to  365.  world,"  vol.  ii.,  p.  487. 

Article  x.—  ■  See  "Acta  Sanctorum,"  3  See  "Acta  Sanctorum,"  tomus  i.,  Sep- 

tomus  i.,  Septembris  ii.     Among  the  preter-  tembris  ii.      De  Sancto  Agricolo  Episcopo 

mitted  Feasts,  p.  338.  et  Patrono  Avenionensi.     A  historic  com- 

Articlk  xi.—£  See  "  Acta  Sanctorum,"  mentary  precedes  in  three  sections  and   28 

tomus  i.,  Septembris  ii.     Among  the  preter-  paragraphs,  and  then  a  Life  by  some  anony- 

mitted  Feasts,  p.  338.  mous  writer,  in  two  chapters,  containing  14 

2  This  is  a  place  of  great  antiquity,  on  the  paragraphs,  with  illustrative  notes,  pp.  444 

River  Rhone,  and  formerly  the  capital  of  a  to  456. 

Gaulish  tiibe,  seated  in  the  present  Depart-  Article  xii.— '  See    "Transactions    of 

ment  of  Vaucluse.     It   was  called   Avenio  the  Royal  Irish  Academy,"  Irish  Manuscript 


36  LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS.      [September  3. 


but,  elsewhere,  we  cannot  find  mention  of  any  saint  so  called.     However, 
the  scholiast  makes  Molotha  a  virgin,  without  further  attempt  at  identification.2 


Article  XIII. — Reputed  Feasts  for  Gallan,  Abbot,  and  Oronius, 
surnamed  Modestus,  Bishop  of  Carpentras,  France.  In  his  Scottish 
Menology,1  at  the  2nd  of  September,  Dempster  has  entered  such  a  festival.2 
The  Carpentoracte  of  Pliny  is  now  known  as  Carpentras,  a  city  of  Provence,  in 
France.  Again,  in  his  enumeration  of  Scottish  writers,  St.  Oronius  is 
mentioned  as  having  been  a  bishop  at  the  date  cdxlv.  In  "  Gallia 
Christiana,"  there  is  a  notice  of  such  an  Oronius  Modestus,  with  the  title  of 
saint,  at  the  same  year,  where  the  Bishops  of  Carpentras  are  introduced.3 
The  Bollandists  have  entered  such  particulars,  at  the  2nd  of  September. ■* 


Cfttrtr  JBap  of  September* 


ARTICLE  I.— ST.   MANSUETUS,  MANSUET,  MANSUV,  OR  MAUNSEY, 
FIRST  BISHOP  OF  TOUL,   FRANCE. 

[FOURTH     CENTURY.] 
CHAPTER     I. 

INTRODUCTION — WRITERS  OF  ST.  MANSUET's  ACTS —THE  PERIOD  WHEN  TIE  FLOURISHED 
— THE  COUNTRY  OF  HIS  BIRTH— HIS  PARENTAGE  AND  MISSION  FROM  ROME  TO 
TOUL— THE  LEUCI  OR  LEQUES — WANT  OF  SUCCESS  AT  THE  COMMENCEMENT  OF 
ST.  MAUNSEY'S  MISSION — COURTEOUSLY  RECEIVED  BY  THE  GOVERNOR'S  WIPE  - 
MIRACULOUS  RESTORATION  OF  HER  SON  TO  LIFE — THE  GOVERNOR  AM)  MIS  FAMILY. 
WITH  THE  PEOPLE  OF  TOUL,    EMBRACE  CHRISTIANITY. 

GREAT  saints  generally  learn  to  serve  God  in  the  religious  life  under 
celebrated  masters.  Thus  are  reproduced  those  virtuous  traits  of 
character,  which  survive  for  generations,  and  which  serve  to  perpetuate 
seminaries  of  sanctity.  Popular  tradition  lias  made  the  present  holy  man  a 
contemporary  of  the  Apostles  of  Christ,  or  of  their  early  disciples.  However, 
the  Diocese  of  Toul,  in  France,  has  always  regarded  St.  Mansuy  as  the 
apostolic  man,  to  whom  it  is  indebted  for  the  iight  of  the  Gospel.  With 
many  other  places  in  Gaul,  the  original  records  of  that  city  were  probably 
destroyed  or  lost  during  the  persecutions  of  the  pagans,  or  afterwards  in  the 
invasions  of  the  barbarians  from  beyond  the  Rhine.  Nevertheless,  the 
people  of  Toul  still  preserve  with  religious  veneration  the  memory  of  their 
holy  patron. 


Series,  vol.  i.,  part-  i.     On  the  Calendar  of  Gilberti  Bruni,  Henrici  Sinclari,  &C     We 

Oengus,  by  Whitley  Stokes,  p.  cxxxvi.  are  unable  to  consult  such  works  to  verify 

2  See  ibid.,  p.  cxli.  Dempster's  statements. 

Article    xiil— *  See    Bishop    Forbes'  3  See  tomus  i.,  col.  895.     Yet  the  writers 

Kalendars  of  Scottish  Saints,"  Menologium  remark,  they  know  not  on  what  authority  his 

Scoticum,  p.  210.  name  has  been  there  placed. 

1  For  the  insertion  of  Gallan's  name,  he  4  See  "  Acta  Sanctorum,"  tomus  i.,  Sep- 

quotes  Breviarium  Scoticum,  maxime  Aber-  tembris  ii.     Among  the  pretermitted  Feasts, 


donense,    and     tor     Oronius,     Collectanea       p.  337. 


September  3.)      LIVES  OI<  THE  IRISH  SAINTS. 


37 


As  no  contemporaneous  documents  regarding  St.  Maunsey  remain,  nor 
do  any  appear  to  have  issued  for  some  centuries  after  his  death,  his  career  is 
involved  in  great  obscurity.  Those  biographies  we  now  possess  seem  to  be 
founded  chiefly  on  popular  traditions.  Certain  Acts  are  referred  to,  as 
existing  in  the  tenth  century,  and  which  are  alluded  to  by  the  monk,  Adso  ;l 
while  Martene2  has  published  a  short  Life  of  St.  Mansuetus,  drawn  probably 
from  some  previously  existing  records,3  belonging  to  the  Cathedral  Church  of 
Toul.  Some  doubts  regarding  the  relative  antiquity  of  the  two  latter  sources 
for  our  saint's  history  have  been  expressed.*  The  short  Life  of  St.  Mansuetus, 
by  an  unknown  writer,  has  first  place,  in  the  great  Bollandist  collection.?  A 
biography  was  written  by  an  abbot  named  Adso6,  who  lived  in  the  tenth 
century.  He  was  urged  by  St.  Gerard,?  Bishop  of  Toul,  to  gather  all  the 
traditions  of  that  See,  which  he  deemed  to  be  most  reliable,  and  to  compose 
a  life  of  St.  Mansuy  from  them.  It  was  to  be  read  on  the  day  of  his  Festival, 
in  all  the  churches  of  that  diocese.  This  biography  has  been  composed  in  a 
diffuse  and  rhetorical  manner :  partly,  we  may  suppose,  for  want  of  reliable 
materials,  and  partly,  to  serve  the  purposes  of  a  panegyric.8  Both  of  the 
foregoing  lives  have  been  edited  by  Father  John  Limpen,  S.J.,  in  the  great 
collection  of  the  Bollandists.9  To  these  Acts  he  has  prefixed  a  commentary,10 
and  added  notes  ;  while  from  different  copies,  both  in  manuscript"  and  in 
print,12  he  has  carefully  collated  them.     In  the  Life  by  Adso  is  a  preface  or 


Article  i.—  Chapter  i. — '  The  history 
of  Adso — also  called  Adson,  Azon,  or  Asson 
— and  of  his  writings,  are  very  fully  set  forth 
in  the  "  Histoire  Literaire  de  la  France," 
tome  vi. ,  pp.  471  to  492. 

2  See  Martene  "Thesaurus  Novus  Anec- 
dotorum,"  tomus  hi.,  col.  991.  This  has 
been  given,  likewise,  in  Augustine  Calmet's 
"  Histoire  Ecclesiastique  et  Civile  de  Lor- 
raine," tome  i.,  in  Monumentis,  col.  83.  The 
Bollandists  have  published  the  text,  found  in 
the  latter  work  ;  and,  in  the  margin,  they 
have  given  some  emendations  from  the  text 
as  published  by  Martene. 

3  These  are  short  memoirs  of  the  Bishops 
of  Toul,  and  are  to  be  found  in  different 
Codices.  One  of  these  ends  in  the  eleventh 
century,  with  an  account  of  St.  Leo  IX., 
afterwards  Pope.  Another  Camberonensis 
Manuscript  isextended  to  thetwelfth  century, 
and  it  ends  with  a  notice  of  Bishop  Pibon. 

4  See  the  Bollandists'  "Acta  Sanctorum," 
tomus  i.,  Septembris  iii.  De  S.  Mansueto 
Episc.  et  Conf.  Tulli  Levcorvm  in  Gallia. 
Commentarius  Praevius,  sect,  i.,  num.  12, 
13,  pp.  618,  619. 

5  Henceforth  it  shall  be  quoted,  as  the 
Vita  Brevior. 

6  Afterwards  Abbot  of  Montier-en-Der. 
This  Vita  S.  Mansueti  was  written  not  later 
than  a.d.  969.  It  was  originally  divided 
into  two  books.  From  these,  however,  the 
Bollandist  editor  chose  to  make  a  new  dis- 
tribution. The  first  Book  he  divided  into 
four  chapters,  and  three  of  these  are  devoted 
to  the  discursive  Acts  of  the  Saint — the 
fourth  chapter  referring  to  traditionary 
miracles.  The  second  Book  is  divided  into 
four   chapters,   and   these  chiefly  relate  to 


miracles  wrought  long  after  the  death  of  St. 
Mansuetus. 

7  His  term  in  the  episcopacy  lasted  from 
a.d.  963,  to  a.d.  994.  His  festival  is 
observed  on  the  23rd  of  April. 

8  In  succeeding  pages,  it  is  quoted  as  the 
Vita  Prolixior. 

9  See  "  Acta  Sanctorum,"  tomus  i.,  Sep- 
tembris iii.  De  S.  Mansueto  Episc.  et  Conf. 
Tulli  Levcorvm  in  Gallia,"  pp.  615  to  658. 

10  In  six  Sections  and  80  paragraphs. 

"  Three  of  these  copies  in  manuscript  are 
taken  from  Ochsenhusan,  Dilingen,  and  St. 
Maximinian  Codices. 

12  Those  printed  copies  had  been  published 
by  Bosquet,  in  "Ecclesiae  Gallicanae  His- 
toriarum,"  pars,  ii.,  from  p.  23  ;  by  Martene, 
in  "  Thesaurus  Novus  Anecdotorum,"  tomus 
iii.,  from  col.  1013 ;  and  by  Calmet,  in 
"  Histoire  Ecclesiastique  et  Civile  de  Lor- 
raine," tome  i.,  in  Historia  Episcoporum 
Tullensium,  from  col.  86.  All  these  copies 
were  traced  from  two  Codices,  belonging  to 
the  Abbey  of  St.  Mansuet,  Toul,  one  of 
which  had  been  written  in  the  eleventh,  and 
the  other  in  the  twelfth  century.  The 
Bollandist  editor  wishes  to  admonish  his 
readers,  that  as  none  of  those  mentioned  had 
given  the  Life  by  Adso  complete,  except  the 
Codex  Ochsenhusan,  and  as  the  latter  most 
abounded  in  errors,  he  rejected  it,  and 
adopted  the  Dilingen  text,  as  least  faulty, 
while  he  selected  emendations  from  other 
copies.  In  the  more  ancient  Mansuetian 
copy,  the  Preface  was  wanting,  but  it  was 
found  in  the  more  recent.  Thence  it  was 
transcribed  in  the  Ochsenhusan  and  Dilingen 
manuscripts.  Martene  drew  his  text  from  ft 
Codex  in  the  Colbert  Library. 


3S  LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS.       [SEPTEMBER  3. 


dedication  to  the  most  blessed  prelate,  Gerard.  Again,  two  Latin  poems  are 
postfixed  to  the  preface :  the  first  of  these  contains  twenty-two  distichs,  while 
the  latter  is  an  acrostic  of  eight  hexameter  lines,  having  the  letters  of  the 
name  Mansuete  distributed  in  the  usual  order.  The  first  of  those  poems 
follows  the  tradition  of  St.  Maunsay  having  been  a  native  of  Ireland,  and  a 
disciple  of  the  Apostle  St.  Peter.  The  latter  is  silent  on  both  these  points. 
The  Bollandist  editor  concludes  his  Acts  of  this  holy  man,  with  an  account 
of  miracles  wrought  through  his  merits  and  intercession,  as  drawn  from 
various  sources. 

Acts  or  notices  of  St.  Mansuetus  have  been  published  by  Francis 
Bosquet,^  by  Edmund  Martene  and  Ursin  Durand,1*  as  also  by  Augustin 
Calmet,x5  in  twenty-two  special  chapters,  besides  many  subsequent  records  of 
miracles  wrought  through  his  intercession,  in  the  History  of  the  Bishops  of 
Toul.  Colgan  intended  the  publication  of  St.  Mansuet's  Acts,  at  this  date.16 
Archbishop  Ussher  has  an  account  of  St.  Mansuetus,  commonly  called  Saint 
Mansu,  in  the  country  around  Toul.1?  Also,  Thomas  Dempster18  introduces 
notices  of  St.  Mansuetus-at  this  day.  Notices  of  St.  Mansuetus  are  contained 
in  the  Acts  of  Blessed  Marianus  and  Murcheratus  ;x9  the  anonymous  writer 
having  lived  about  the  middle  of  the  twelfth  century.  Aventinus,20  and  the 
author  of  a  tract,  De  Fundatione  Ecclesise  extra  Muros  Civitatis  Ratis- 
bonensis,  have  reference  to  St.  Mansuetus.21  Notices  of  this  saint  are  to 
be  found  in  Mabillon,22  in  Le  P.  Benoit,2*  in  Harris'  Ware,2*  by  Baillet,2*  by 
Rev.  Alban  Butler,26  by  Rev.  Dr.  Lanigan,2?  by  Ad.  Thiery,28  by  M.  l'Abbe 
Guillaume,29  in  the  Les  Petits  Bollandistes,3°  and  in  Rev.  S.  Baring-Gould's*1 
Lives. 

The  most  ancient  records  of  the  Church  of  Toul,  and  the  more  general 
accounts  of  his  life,  declare  this  saint  to  have  been  a  Scot,  or  in  other  words, 
a  native  of  Ireland.32  The  Vita  Brevior,  written  by  an  anonymous  author, 
states  this  to  have  been  the  tradition  of  those,  who  preceded  himself  in  point 
of  time."      Also,  the    Vita  Prolixior,  by  the  Abbot  Adso,  contains  a  like 


13  See  "EcclesireGallicanwHistoiiarum,"  24  See   vol.    iii.,    "Writers   of    Ireland.'' 
lib.  i.,  pars,  ii,,  p.  23,  Paris,  A.D.  1633,  8vo.  book  i.,  p.  4. 

14  See  "Thesaurus  Novus  Anecdotorum,"  2S  See  "  Les  Vies  des  Saints,"  tome  iii., 
tomus  iii.,  a  col.  1013,  published  A,D.  1717.  pp.  28,  29,  at  the  3rd  of  September.     Also, 

15  See  "Histoire  Ecclesiastique  et  Civile  in  the  edition  of  1701,  tome  ix.,  pp.  60,  61. 
de  Lorraine,"  tome  i.  Preuves  de  l'Histoire  "6  See  "  Lives  of  the  Fathers,  Martyrs, 
de  Lorraine.  HistoriaEpiscoporumTullen-  and  other  principal  Saints,"  vol.  ix.,  Sep- 
sium,  col.  86  to  107.  tember  iii. 

16  See  "Catalogus  Actuum  Sanctorum  quae  *7  See  "  Ecclesiastical  History  of  Ireland," 
MS.  habentur,  ordine  Mensium  et  Dierum."  vol.  i.,  chap,  i.,  sect,  ii.,  pp.  3  to  5. 

17  See  "Britannicarum  Ecclesiarum  An-  a8  See  "Histoire  de  la  Ville  de  Toul  et 
tiquitates,"  cap.  xvi.,  pp.  389  to  392.  des  ses  Eveques,"  in  two  vols.  Toul,  1841, 

18  See    "  Historia     Ecclesiastica    Gentis  8vo. 

Scotorum,"  tomus  ii.,  lib.  xii.,  num.  838,  pp.  29  See  "Histoire  da  Diocfese  de  Toul." 

447,  448.  This  admirable  work  has  been  published  in 

19  See  an  account  of  both  in  the  Second  five  volumes,  8vo. 

Volume  of  this  work,  at  the  9th  of  February,  so  •*  Vies  des  Saints,"  tome  x.,  iiie  jour  de 

Art.  i.  September,  pp.  431  to  435. 

20  In  "  Annalium  Boiorum,''  lib.  vi.,  p.  3'  "Lives  of  the  Saints,"  vol.  ix.,  Sep- 
307.  tember  3,  pp.  35,  36. 

21  See  Ussher  in  "Britannicarum  Ecclesia-  3' See  D.  Petro  Lombardo,  "  De  Regno 
rum  Antiquiiates,"  p.  1038.  Hibernise,     Sanctorum     Insula,    Comnien- 

**  See   •'  Annales  Ordinis  S.  Benedicti,"  tarius,"  cap.  xiii.,  p.  60,  Dr.  Moran's  edition, 

tomus  iv.,  lib.  liii.,  sect,  xxv.,  pp.  209,  210.  33  He  writes  :  "  Fuit  enim  idem  veneran- 

23  See  "  Histoire  ecclesiastique  et  politique  dus  Pater,  sicut  relatu  majorum  didicimus, 

de  la  ville  et  du   Diocese  du  Toul,"  1707,  nobili    Scottorum     sanguine     oriundus."— 

4l°-  Num.  2. 


September  3.  J      LIVES  OF  THE  1RJSH  SAINTS. 


39 


statement. 34  From  both  ot  these  sources,  nearly  all  the  more  modern  lives  of  our 
saint  have  drawn  their  accounts.35  In  the  metrical  lines  prefixed  to  his  life  by 
Adso,  he  is  said  to  have  been  descended  from  parents  of  gentle  birth,  and 
possibly,  at  a  time  when  Christianity  had  been  propagated  in  Ireland. 3°  It  is 
stated, 37  also,  in  an  edition  of  Mansuetus'  Life,  published  by  Bosquet,  and 
written  by  the  Abbot  Adso,  in  the  tenth  century,  that  some  verses  are  wanting, 
which  Adso  prefixed  to  his  work,  and  of  which,  in  order  to  make  him  a  Scot 
of  Albafiy,  Dempster  cites  a  passage.38  But,  he  disingenuously  suppresses  the 
Tetrastich^  which  demonstrates  him  to  have  been  a  Scot  of  Ireland,  as  the 
learned  Archbishop  Ussher  takes  care  to  remark/0  In  Harris's  edition 
of  Ware41  many  mistakes  occur,  when  narrating  the  particulars  of  our  saint's 
life,  as  founded  on  the  authority  of  Archbishop  Ussher,  and  especially  in 
assigning  Maunsey  to  the  first  or  second  century.  Also  by  Thomas  Dempster, 
whose  audacity  and  ignorance  are  found  united  in  a  similar  statement.*2 

It  must  be  admitted,  although  an  ancient  tradition  of  Toul  has  been 
followed  by  many  writers,  regarding  his  living  in  the  time  of  the  Apostles, 
that  the  days  of  the  present  holy  bishop  cannot  date  back  to  that  early 
period/3  It  seems  most  probable,  that  St.  Mansuetus — rendered  by  the 
French  St.  Mansey  or  Maunsey — was  born  about  the  beginning  of  the  fourth 


34  In  this  we  read  :  "  ut  scriptime  docu- 
mento  percepimus,  quidam  sanctse  indolis 
fuerit  adolescens,  nomine  Mansuetus,  trans- 
marinis  partibus  nobilium  quidem  Scotorum 
clara  progenie  genitus  ;  sed  mentis  egregiae 
nobilitate  multo  preciosius  insignitus." — lib. 
i.,  cap.  i.,  num.  2. 

35  The  learned  Uom  Augustine  Calmet, 
Abbot  of  St.  Leopold,  Nancy,  in  his  admir- 
able and  very  complete  provincial  history, 
follows  their  authority,  when  alluding  to  the 
time  of  St.  Peter,  Prince  of  the  Apostles,  he 
introduces  there  a  tract  with  the  title,  Incipit 
Catalogus  Pontificum  Ttdlcnsium,  a  B. 
Mansueto,  et  deinceps.  In  it  is  written  : 
"  Ea  tempestate,  ut  scripturae  documento 
percepimus,  quidam  sanctae  indolis  fuerat 
adolescens  nomine  Mansuetus  transmarinis 
partibus,  nobilium  quidem  Scothorum  clara 
progenie  genitus  ;  sed  mentis  egregiae  nobili- 
tate multo  pretiosius  insignitus.  Quo  videli- 
cet tenere  adhuc  aetatis  progressu  consistente, 
cum  praesagio  nominis  provehebatur  culmine 
sanctitatis,  moribus  vocabulo  consonantibus 
se  semper  sublimior  studebat  fieri  augmento 
pietatis." — "Histoire  Ecclesiastique  et  Civile 
de  Lorraine,"  tome  i.  Preuvesde  1' Histoire 
de  Lorraine.  Vitse  et  Actuum  B.  Mansueti, 
Primi  Leuchorum  Urbis  Pontificis,  lib.  i., 
cap.  ii.,  col.  87. 

36  There,  too,  it  is  stated  :  "  Insula  Christi- 
colas  gestabat  Hibernia  gentes  ;"  although 
we  cannot  pronounce  with  certainty,  that 
this  line  may  not  have  referred  to  the  Island 
of  Maunsey's  birth, at  some  period  subsequent 
to  his  death,  and  before  the  verses  in  which 
it  is  included  had  been  composed. 

37  In  Harris'  Ware,  vol.  ii.  "  Writers  of 
Ireland,"  book  L,  p.  4. 

38  Thus  given  :  "  Protulerat  quendam 
generosum  Scotia  natum  Mansuetuw."     It 


is   rendered   into   English :    "  Scotia    gave 
birth  to  her  noble  son,  Mansuetus." 
39  The  following  are  the  Latin  lines  :— 
"  Inclyta  Mansueti  claris  natalibus  orti 
Progenies  titulis  fulget  in  orbe  suis, 
Insula   Christicolas  gestabat   Hibernia 

gentes, 
Unde  genus  traxit,  et  satus  inde  fuit." 
Thus  rendered  into  English  : — 
"Though    great    by    blood,    Mansuetus 
bears  his  name, 
Yet  he  on  real  worth  supports  his  fame, 
Wide  o'er  the  world  Religion  deigned 

to  smile, 
And  spread  her  Harvest  through  Hiber- 

nia's  Isle, 
Hence  the  long  series  of  his  high-born 

race, 
And  hence  the  glories  of  his  birth  we 
trace." 
Harris'  Ware,  vol.  iii.  "  Writers  of  Ireland," 
book  i.,  p.  4. 

40  See  "  Britannicarum  Ecclesiaruni  Anti- 
quitates,"  cap.  xvi.,  p.  391. 

41  See    vol.   iii.    "  Writers  of  Ireland," 
book  i.,  p.  4. 

42  In  his  "  Historia  Ecclesiastica  Gentig 
Scotorum,"  where  he  pretends,  that  the 
term  Scotus  applied  to  St.  Mansuetus 
should  class  him  among  the  Saints  of  Scot- 
land. He  also  amusingly  states  :  "  Hiberni 
impudenter  civem  sutun  faciunt,  sed  tabulae 
Ecclesiae  Tullensis,  Guil.  Eisengrinus  C.  I., 
part  I.,  dist.  ill.,  Franc.  Roziers,  torn.  11., 
Stemmatis  Lotharingae,  Hist.  Capital.  xxn.t 
et  Constantinus  Ghinius  in  Natalib,  SS 
Canonic,  pro  nobis  contra  mendicorum  im- 
potentiam  stant  graviter ;  et  Adso  abbas, 
qui  vitam  ejus  scripsit,  cap.  11." — Lib.  xii., 
num.  838,  p.  448. 

43  See   Adrien    Baillet's   "  Les   Vies  des 


4o 


LIVES  OP  THE  IRISH  SAINTS.       [September  3. 


century.**  If,  as  has  been  stated,  he  was  a  native  of  Ireland,  it  is  likely  he 
had  an  original  Celtic  name,  the  form  of  which  may  have  been  different,  but 
it  cannot  now  be  known.  In  the  little  poem  prefixed  to  the  life  above 
mentioned  is  a  distich,  in  which  allusion  is  made  to  Ausonius.45  If  by  the 
word  Auso?iii  is  to  be  understood  the  poet  Ausonius,46  master  of  St. 
Paulinus,4?  we  should  be  inclined  to  place  Mansuetus  at  a  later  period  than 
the  fourth  century,  charging  Adso,  however,  with  a  huge  anacronism.  But,  it 
is  more  probable,  that  by  Ausom'i  he  meant  Italic  particularly  as  in  another 
verse,  he  has  Ausonias  Italas.** 

St.  Maunsey  appears  to  have  journeyed  abroad,  and  to  have  visited  Rome, 
where  he  probably  received  the  light  of  Faith,  and  embraced  the  Christian 
religion.  This  happened,  however,  at  a  much  later  period,  than  has  been 
traditionally  held,  or  than  has  been  recorded  by  several  uncritical  and  over- 
credulous  writers  ;  for  he  is  said  to  have  come  to  the  knowledge  of  the 
Christian  religion,  through  St.  James  the  Apostle. 4?  This  account  must  be 
relegated  to  the  cloud  of  fables,  that  have  covered  the  early  career  of  St. 
Mansuetus ;  nor  can  even  such  assertion  be  traced  to  any  well-known 
authority.  He  is  said,  likewise,  to  have  been  a  disciple  of  St.  Peter  the 
Apostle.50  Although  such  unreliable  tradition  may  have  been  reproduced  in 
the  Vita  Brevior-1  and  Vita  Prolixior^  as  also  in  the  prefixed  poem;" 
there  is  sufficient  evidence  to  prove,  that  it  must  be  dismissed  as  unworthy  of 
credence.  So  far  as  his  life  has  been  transmitted  to  us,  chronology  has  been 
departed  from,  and  probability  has  been  little  observed  in  many  particulars.54 
Quoting  Constantinus  Ghinius,55  Thomas  Dempster  maintains,56  that  St. 
Mansuetus  was  a  disciple  of  St,  Peter,  and  that  he  was  ordained  in  Rome. 


Saints,"  tome  ix.,  p.  60.     Paris  1701,  8vo. 

44  Dom  Augustin  Calmet  writes:  "  S. 
Mansuy  premier  Evequede  Toul,  fut  envoye 
apparemment  par  le  S.  Siege  dans  la  Belgique, 
pour  y  precher  l'Evangile,  vers  le  milieu 
du  quatneme  siecle.  Nous  ne  croyons  pas 
que  Ton  puisse  ni  l'avancer,  ni  le  reculer 
beaucoup  davantage." — "Histoire  Ecclesias- 
tique  et  Civile  de  Lorraine,"  tome  i.  Dis- 
sertation sur  les  Premiers  Eveques  de 
l'Eglise  de  Toul,  col.  xxvii. 

4*  In  the  following  connexion  :  "  Sedulus 
Ausonii^zi  tempora,  longa  magistri  obsequis 
Petri  hcesit  amore  sui." 

46  A  Latin  poet,  born  at  Bourdeaux  in  the 
beginning  of  the  fourth  century.  He  died 
a.d.  394. 

47  He  was  born  at  Bourdeaux,  in  353. 
Afterwards  he  became  bishop  of  Nola.  He 
lived  to  the  year  431,  and  his  festival  is 
celebrated  on  the  22nd  of  June. 

48  See  Rev.  Dr.  Lanigan's  "  Ecclesiastical 
Hisiory  of  Ireland,"  vol.  i.,  chap,  i.,  sect,  ii., 
No.  II,  p.  5. 

«9  According  to  the  statement  of  Convaeus. 
See  O'Sullivan  Beare's  "  Historic  Hiberniae 
Catholics;  Compendium,"  tomus  i.,  lib.  iv., 
cap.  x.,  p.  47. 

s°  See  Molanus,  also  Baronius,  in  his  notes 
on  the  Roman  Martyrology,  at  the  3rd  of 
September.  Likewise  O'Sullivan  Beare's 
"  Historic  Hiberniae  Catholica:  Compen- 
dium," tomus  i.,  lib.  iv.    Catalogus  Anony- 


mous,  cap.   xi.,   p.  50.     And  Henry  Fitz- 
simon's  "Catalogus  aliquorum   Sanctorum 
Hiberniae,"  cap.  xii.,  p.  55. 
5'  See  Num.  3. 

52  See  lib.  i.,  cap.  i.,  num.  3. 

53  In  these  lines  : — 

"Petrus     Apostolicae     pollebat      culmine 
Roma: ; 
Huncque  sequutus  amans,  expetit  ipse 
libens, 
b'uscipit  ardentem  Petrus  pietatis  Alum- 
num, 
Et  facit  expertem  sancta  secreta  Virum  : 
Cujus   ab   ore    piis    attrectans    dogmata 
verbis, 
Ebiberat  stabilem  fonte  salutis  opem. 
Sedulus     Ausonii     per     tempora    longa 
magistri 
Obsequio  Petri  haesit  amore  sui. 
Quern   Petrus  ad   summon  provexit  cul- 
minis  arcem, 
Et  dat  gavisus  pontificale  decus. " 

54  "  Nous  remarquerons  seulment  que  »'il 
n'y  a  eu  que  six  eveques  a  Toul  entre  lui  et 
Saint  Auspice  qui  vivoit  sur  la  fin  du  cin- 
quieme  siecle,  il  y  a  grande  apparence  qu'il 
n'a  paru  que  durant  la  paix  de  l'Eylisc,  et  au 
plutot  sous  le  regne  des  emans  du  grand 
Constantin." — Adrien  Baillet's  "  Les  Vies 
des  Saints,"  tome  ix.,  p.  61. 

55  Page  LX. 

56  See  "  Historia  Ecclesiastica  Gentis  Sco- 
torum,"  tomus  ii.,  lib.  xii.,  num.  838,  p.  447. 


September  3.]      LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS. 


41 


Bishop  Rothe  admits  the  uncertainty  of  St.  Mansuetus  having  been  a 
disciple  of  St.  Peter.57  Although  St.  Mansuet  is  said  to  have  received  his 
first  mission  from  the  Prince  of  the  Apostles  ;s8  there  are  too  many  historical 
contradictions  and  objections  to  oppose  those  statements,  and  the  best  critics 
have  disproved  such  groundless  assertions.  Among  these  may  be  mentioned 
Mabillon,  Martene',  and  Durand.5?  It  seems  most  probable,  that  St.  Mansey 
was  consecrated  Bishop  in  Rome,  about  the  time  when  Constantine60  the 
Great  was  Emperor,61  or  possibly  when  his  three  sons,62  Constantine  II.,63 
Constantius  II.,6*  and  Constans65  had  succeeded  to  the  Empire,  which  was 
partitioned  between  them.  Although  we  may  not  accept  as  literally  correct 
the  statement,  that  St.  Mansuetus  had  been  placed  by  St.  Peter  over  the 
bishopric  of  Toul  ;66  still,  it  is  most  probable,  that  he  was  commissioned  by 
the  Sovereign  Pontiff  of  the  Roman  See  to  undertake  such  a  mission. 
Moreover,  when  we  read  of  Mansuetus  having  been  sent  by  St.  Peter,  it  is 
easily  reconciled  with  the  truth  of  history,  by  referring  to  the  well-known 
idiom  of  using  the  founder's  name  for  that  of  the  church  over  which  he  had 
presided.6? 

The  Leuci,  or  Leques,68  formerly  inhabited  that  province  of  ancient  Gaul, 


57  See  his  work,  Hibernia  resurgens," 
P^  197. 

58  The  following  short  notice  of  Maunsue- 
tus  is  taken  from  a  tract  by  Philip  O'Sullivan, 
"S.  Mansuetus  primus  qui  fidem  suscepisse 
per  D,  Jacobum  creditur;  pastea  a  S.  Petro 
ad  Thulos  transmissus  quos  ad  fidem  con- 
vertit,  quorumque  Apostolicus,  patronus 
habetur.  Festus  illius  dies  celebratur,  3  Sep- 
tembris." — "  Historic  Catholics;  Hibernice 
Compendium,"  tomus  i.,  lib.  iv.,  chap,  x., 
p.  47. 

59  See  "  Thesaurus  Novus  Anecdotorum," 
tomus  iii.,  col.  1021.  Also,  Amplissima 
Collectio  Veterum  Scriptorum,"  tomus  vi., 
P.  637- 

60  He  was  born  about  A.D.  273  or  274  at 
Nissa,  a  town  of  Upper  Mcesia,  and  he  was 
the  son  of  Constantinus  and  Helena.  On 
the  death  of  his  father  in  Britain,  A.D.  306, 
the  Roman  soldiers  there  proclaimed  him 
Emperor.  He  then  waged  war  against  the 
Franks,  Alemanni  and  other  Germans. 
Having  embraced  the  Christian  religion,  he 
became  sole  Emperor,  A.D.  324,  after  the 
death  of  Licinius.  He  died  at  the  age  of 
sixty-four,  on  the  22nd  of  May,  a.d.  337, 
at  his  palace,  in  the  suburbs  of  Nicomedia. 
See  Philip  Smith's  "  Ancient  History,"  vol. 
iii.,  chap.  xliv. 

61  See  the  Bollandists'  "Acta  Sanctorum," 
tomus  i.,  Septembris  iii.  De  S.  Mansueto 
Episc.  et  Conf.  Commentarius  Proevius,  sect, 
ii.,  pp.  620  to  623. 

62  By  Faustsu 

63  He  was  regarded  as  Emperor  over  Gaul 
and  the  Western  Empire,  and  had  attained 
only  his  twenty-first  year,  when  his  father 
died,  A.D.  337.  But,  dissatisfied  with  his 
share  of  the  Empire,  Constantine  required 
his  brother  Constans  to  give  up  Africa. 
War  ensued  between  them,   when   having 


crossed  the  Julian  Alps,  Constantine  fell 
into  an  ambush  and  was  slain,  A.D.  340. 
See  Henry  Fynes  Clinton's  "Fasti  Romani," 
vol.  i.,  tables,  p.  400. 

64  He  succeeded,  at  twenty  years,  to  Thrace 
and  the  East.  His  reign  was  greatly  dis- 
turbed by  wars,  which  he  waged  with 
different  rivals.  On  the  death  of  Constans, 
A.D.  350,  he  was  recognised  as  sole  Emperor, 
but  he  died  at  Mopsucrene,  in  Cilicia,  on 
the  third  of  November,  A.D.  361.  See  ibid., 
p.  444. 

65  Constans,  who  was  only  seventeen,  held 
the  Italian  prefecture,  and  the  province  of 
Greece,  as  also  Africa.  On  the  death  of 
his  brother  Constantine  II.,  A.D.  340,  he 
assumed  the  government  of  the  Western 
Empire  for  ten  years.  He  was  put  to  death 
by  Magnentius,  an  ignorant  barbarian,  at  the 
foot  of  the  Pyrenees,  a.d.  350.  Magnentius 
then  usurped  the  prefectures  of  Gaul  and 
Italy.  See  Baronius'  "Annates  Ecclesias- 
tici,"  tomus  iii.,  p.  504. 

66  Such  appears  to  have  been  the  tradition 
in  Ireland,  at  an  early  period,  for  it  is  asserted 
as  a  recognised  fact,  by  the  12th  century 
biographer  of  the  Blessed  Marianus  Scotus. 
See  the  Bollandists'  "Acta  Sanctorum," 
tomus  ii.,  Februarii  ix.  Vita  Beati  Mariani, 
cap,  i.,  p.  365. 

67  The  Rev.  Dr.  Lanigan  justly  observes  : 
"  thus  ad  Set  Petrutn,  for  or  to  the  Church  of 
Rome  ;  a  S.  Petro,  from  or  by  the  said 
Church  ;  ad  S.  Martinum  to  the  Church  of 
Tours  ;  and  what  was  very  common  amongst 
ourselves,  ad  S.  Patricium,  a  S.  Patrilio, 
to  or  by  the  See  of  Armagh." — "  Ecclesias- 
tical History  of  Ireland,"  vol.  i.,  chap,  i., 
sect,  ii.,  n.  II. 

68  See  J.  Clement's  "  Antiquites  de  la 
Ville  et  du  Siege  episcopal  de  Toul,"  1702, 
8vo. 


42  LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAIJSITS.       lSeptemi 


known  to  the  Romans  as  Belgica  prima,  and  their  chief  city  was  Toul.6^  To 
this  Ptolemy  has  added  another,  which  he  names  Nasion.?0  The  Leuci 
occupied  the  southern  part  of  the  present  Department  of  the  Meuse,  the 
greater  part  of  the  Meurthe  Department,  and  the  Vosges  Department,  in 
France. 7l  Before  the  time  of  our  saint,  Toul  had  been  a  city  of  some 
importance,'2  and  it  was  surrounded  with  walls  for  defence.  During  the 
Middle  Ages,  the  Dukes  of  Lotharingia,  or  Lorraine,  ruled  over  that  territory, 
between  the  Meuse  and  Moselle  ;  and  ecclesiastically  the  See  of  Toul  was 
under  the  Metropolitan  City  of  Triers,  or  Treves.  From  Rome,  St.  Mansuetus 
was  sent  to  Toul,  having  been  invested  with  the  episcopal  character,  and  he 
was  appointed  its  first  pastor.  This  took  place,  not  before  the  middle  of  the 
fourth  century, 73  or  perhaps  even  later.  In  his  history  of  the  Gallic  Church, 
Bosquet  remarks?*  that  Mansuet  must  not  be  confounded  with  a  Bishop  of 
the  Armorican  Britons  bearing  a  like  name,  and  who  was  present  at  the  first 
Council  of  Tours. 75  The  people  to  whom  St.  Maunsuy  had  been  sent  were 
then  addicted  to  idolatry,  and  involved  in  the  darkness  of  pagan  superstition. 
It  is  said,  that  they  had  a  king  named  Leon,  who  was  an  idolater,  and  a  man 
of  barbarous  manners.'6  When  their  first  missionary  entered  Toul,  and  began 
to  announce  the  truths  of  the  Gospel,  he  found  the  magistrates  and  chiefs  of 
the  people  indisposed  to  hear  his  preaching.  This  conduct  influenced  greatly 
the  opposition  and  indifference  of  the  humbler  classes,  so  that  for  some  time 
his  doctrine  and  teaching  were  disregarded. 

The  holy  missionary  built  for  his  dwelling  in  the  woods  an  humble  cabin 
of  twigs  interwoven  ;77  and,  in  that  he  lived,  devoted  to  the  exercises  of  prayer 
and  meditation.  While  there,  numbers  resorted  to  him.  Having  received 
instruction,  they  renounced  idolatrous  worship,  and  embraced  the  true 
religion.  Even,  the  governor's  wife,  having  heard  so  many  rumours  about 
the  strange  missionary,  desired  to  learn  more  about  his  race,  the  doctrines  he 
taught,  and  the  places  whence  he  came  ;  but,  it  was  only  during  the  absence 
of  her  pagan  husband,  she  could  venture,  through  her  domestics,  to  arrange 
for  a  private  interview  with  the  holy  man.  When  he  had  expounded  to  her, 
the  chief  mysteries  of  the  Christian  religion,  and  the  truths  of  Divine  Faith, 
that  lady  believed  in  his  doctrine  and  teaching,  but  still  deferred  her  profes- 


69  It  is  situated  on  the  River  Moselle,  about  the  middle  of  the  fourth  century.  To 
surrounded  by  a  chain  of  hills  covered  with  omit  other  arguments,  he  endeavours  to  prove 

vineyards.    See  Gazetteer  of  the  World,  vol.  this   from   the   recorded   succession   of  the 

xiii.,  p.  141.  bishops  of  Toul  :  thus,    1.    S.  Mansuet,  or 

70  In  the  Second  Book  of  his  Geography,  Mansuy ;  2,  S.  Anion  ;  3,  S.  Alchas  ;  4,  S. 
on  account  of  the  similarity  of  name  to  the  Celsin  ;  5,  S.  Auspice,  vers  ban  450;  6,  S. 
Latin  Nanceium,  it  is  thought  by  many  to  Ours,  or  Urse,  sous  (Jlovis,  vers  Tan  4S8  ; 
have  represented  the  present  City  of  Nancy  7,  S.  Apre,  or  Evre,  vers  l'an  500,  &c. — 
in  Lorraine.  See  "  Recueil  des  Ilistoriens  ''  Ilistoire  Ecclesiastique  et  Civile  de  Lor- 
ues  Gaules  et  de  la  France,"  par  Dora  Martin  raine,"  tome  i.,  col.  xxxiii. 

Bouquet,  Pretre    et    Religious   Benedictin  7*  See  '*  Eccleste Gallicanse  Historiamm," 

de  la  Congregation  de  Saint  Maur,  tome  i.,  T.  C.  Evangelis  in  Callus  inque  ad  datam  a 

p.  77,  n.  (i).  Constantino    Imperatore    ecclesioe    pacem, 

71  See    "  Ilistoire  de  Jules   C£sar,"  par  lib.  i.,  cap.  xx. 
Napoleon  III.,  Empereur,  tome  ii.,  liv.  iii.,  ?5  This  was  held  a.d.  461. 

chap,  ii.,  p.  22,  n.  3.  ?6  See  Calmet's  "  Ilistoire  Ecclesiastique 

72  See  Bataille's  "Notice  historique  surla  et  Civile  de  Lorraine,"  tome  i.,  Dissertation 
Ville  de  Toul  et  ses  Antiquites,"  with  plates,  sur  les  Premier!  Evesques  de  l'Eglise  de 
1 84 1,  8vo.  Toul,  col.  xxvii. 

7i  In  a  Dissertation  sur  les   Ev&jtus    de  7?  The    Vita    Prolixior     states,     "  propc 

Toul,    prefixed    to  the  first  volume  of  his  meenia    civitatis    exiguie    habitations    sil.i 

History  of  Lorraine,  Calmet  maintains,  that  rectptorium   pneparavit,"  lib.   i.,  cap.  i.,  n. 

Mansuetus  was  sent  bom   Rome  to  Toul,  6,  p.  640. 


LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS.  43 


sion  of  faith,  lest  it  should  cause  some  trouble  between  herself  and  husband.78 
However,  when  he  happened  to  be  absent  on  public  business,  the  missionary 
was  encouraged  to  visit  her  house,  and  still  afford  her  the  satisfaction  of 
learning  those  messages  of  salvation  he  was  so  well  qualified  to  convey. 

It  happened  on  a  certain  day,  observed  as  a  local  festival,  and  while  un- 
people of  Toul  were  bent  on  enjoyment,  the  only  son  of  their  governor  fell  by 
accident  from  the  city  ramparts  into  the  Moselle,  which  flowed  beneath. 
The  river  was  very  deep  at  that  place.  Public  rejoicings  were  at  once  dis- 
continued, and  in  common  with  his  parents,  the  inhabitants  shared  their 
sorrow  on  account  of  the  youth  who  had  been  drowned.  Every  effort  was 
made  to  recover  the  dead  body.  In  vain  were  the  pagan  gods  invoked  for 
that  purpose.  However,  during  the  night,  the  governor's  wife  had  a  dream, 
in  which  she  saw  St.  Mansuy,  who  promised  to  restore  her  son,  if  she  would 
become  a  convert  to  Christianity.  On  awaking,  she  related  that  vision  to  her 
husband.  Thereupon,  he  sent  a  message  to  the  saint,  and  promised,  if  his 
son's  corpse  were  recovered  through  means  of  the  stranger,  that  he  would 
receive  baptism,  and  influence  all  his  people  to  embrace  the  doctrines  of  the 
foreign  missionary.  Our  saint  then  went  to  that  spot,  where  the  boy  had 
fallen  into  the  river,  and  betook  himself  to  prayer.  Soon  the  body  arose  to 
the  surface,  and  it  was  drawn  up  on  the  river  bank.  Then  addressing  the 
governor,  Mansuy  said :  "  Behold  the  corpse  of  your  son,  and  if  you  are 
resolved  to  observe  the  promise  made  to  me,  the  goodness  of  God  is  great, 
and  you  shall  obtain  from  Him  a  still  more  signal  favour."  Immediately  the 
governor  and  all  who  were  present  declared,  that  if  the  boy  were  brought  to 
life,  they  would  abandon  the  worship  of  false  gods,  and  embrace  the  Christian 
religion.  Then  the  bishop  fell  on  his  knees  and  implored  the  Divine 
Majesty,  while  some  of  his  newly  converted  disciples  imitated  his  example. 
Their  fervent  prayers  were  rewarded  by  signs  of  life  coming  to  re-invigorate 
the  body,  which  was  cold  and  stiff  when  recovered  from  the  water.  Never- 
theless, at  a  word  from  the  minister  of  Jesus  Christ,  the  boy  arose  to  life,  and 
cast  himself  into  the  arms  of  his  overjoyed  parents.  This  miraculous  restora- 
tion filled  all  who  were  present  with  transports  of  delight  and  admiration. 79 
The  governor  and  his  family,  with  all  his  people,  conformed  to  Christianity, 
and  thenceforth  recognised  St.  Mansuy  as  their  pastor.80 


CHAPTER     II. 

THE  VIRTUES  AND  MIRACULOUS  GIFTS  OF  ST.  MANSUETUS— HE  BUILDS  VARIOUS 
CHURCHES  AND  ORDAINS  MANY  PRIESTS — HIS  DEATH — VENERATION  OF  THE  PEOPLE 
AT  TOUL  FOR  HIS  MEMORY—  PILGRIMAGES  TO  HIS  SHRINE,  WHERE  SEVERAL 
MIRACLES  ARE  WROUGHT — DESTRUCTION  OF  HIS  CHURCH  AND  THE  CHARITABLE 
FOUNDATIONS  AT  TOUL  BY  THE  VANDALS— RESTORATIONS  BY  THE  BISHOPS  GAUZLIN 
AND  GERARD. 

We  are  told,  that  St.  Maunsey's  character  was  distinguished  for  an  admixture 
of  firmness  in  episcopal  administration,  with  clemency  and  piety  combined  in 
a  remarkable  degree,  while  he  spent  days  and  nights  in  prayer.  He  was  ever 
attentive  to  the  wants  of  his  flock,  and  those,  who  came  to  visit  him  with 

78  See  Dom  Augustin  Calmet's  "  Histoire  related  what  he  had  seen,  before  bis  resusci- 
Ecclesiastique  et  Civile  de  Lorraine,"  tome  tation,  regarding  those  torments  prepared  for 
i.  Dissertation  sur  les  Premiers  Evesques  the  wicked  in  hell,  and  to  which  his  parents 
de  l'Eglise  de  Toul,  col.  xxviii.  and  himself  should  be  consigned,  unless  they 

79  In  the  Vita  Prolixior  it  is  stated,  that  the  became  Christians.— Lib.  i.,  cap.  ii.,  num.  16. 
boy,  on  being  restored  to  life,  and  alter  lying  8o  See  Les  Petits  Bollandistes,  "Vies  des 
in  the  water  for  three  days  and  three  nights,  Saints,"  tome  x.,iiie  Jour  deSeptembre,  p.  432 


44  LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS.      [Septemukk 


hearts  bowed  down,  left  him  with  consolation  even  in  their  miseries,  so  mild 
and  gentle  were  his  admonitions.  His  miraculous  gifts  of  healing  the  sick 
caused  him  to  be  regarded  as  the  true  physician  of  his  people.  Soon  was 
idolatry  extirpated  from  the  land :  and  then,  he  deemed  it  necessary  to 
raise  temples  in  honour  of  the  true  and  living  God.  From  very  ancient 
acts  of  his,  that  have  now  perished,  we  are  told  by  the  writer  of  his  longer  life, 
how,  within  the  walls  of  Toul,  he  built  two  churches.  One  of  these  was 
dedicated  to  the  Blessed  Virgin  Mary  and  to  St.  Stephen,1  the  primitive 
Martyr;2  the  other  was  dedicated  to  St.  John  the  Baptist. 3  Both  of  these 
lay  on  the  southern  side  of  the  city.*  In  those  churches, 5  he  zealously  and 
profitably  exercised  the  episcopal  functions  each  day  j  but,  he  desired 
moments  of  retreat  for  spiritual  exercises,  and  these  occupied  a  great  part  of 
the  night.  Near  his  dwelling,  he  raised  an  oratory,6  which  was  dedicated  to 
St.  Peter,  for  whom  he  entertained  a  special  veneration.  There,  in  retirement, 
he  communed  with  God  in  prayer ;  and  moreover,  in  it,  he  frequently 
preached  to  the  faithful,  who  flocked  to  hear  his  instructions.  In  fine,  the 
influence  of  St.  Mansuy  was  so  great,  that  he  succeeded  in  rooting  out  the 
practices  of  paganism,  and  the  worship  of  idols  from  the  city,  and  from  all  its 
surrounding  territory.  Numbers  of  persons  he  brought  within  the  pale  of 
Christ's  Church. 7  He  likewise  ordained  a  great  number  of  priests  and 
deacons  for  the  work  of  the  ministry. 

The  Church  of  St.  Stephen  became  the  Cathedral  of  Toul,  but  during 
the  lapse  of  time  it  fell  into  decay,  when  St.  Gerard,  a  pious  successor  of  St. 
Mansuy  in  the  See,  rebuilt  it  from  the  foundations.8  The  illustrious  Abbot, 
St.  Bernard,?  assisted  at  its  dedication  by  Pope  Eugenius  III.10  After  various 
vicissitudes,  it  was  deemed  necessary  to  erect  a  more  modern  structure.  The 
present  fine  Cathedral  of  St.  Stephen,  in  Toul,  was  designed  and  built  in  the 
fifteenth  century.  Its  portal  and  western  front,  the  conception  of  Jacquemin 
de  Commercy,  in  1447,  are  greatly  admired.  The  ornate  facade  is  227  feet 
in  height,  and  twin  towers  give  it  a  most  imposing  effect.11  It  is  a  triapsal 
church,  with  short  transepts,  and  having  no  triforium.12      This  edifice  has 


CHAPTKR  ii.— !  His  festival  occurs  on  the  read  :  "  multitudines  fidelium  in  Christ!  fide 

26th  of  December.  colligens,  ad  consortium   priemisit  Augelo- 

2  The  writer  of  the    Vita  Prolixior  adds,  rum,"  cap.  xiii..  col.  94. 

"  ubi  dicitur  ad  Fontes."     It  was  so  called  8  See  Dom  Augustin  Calmct's  "Histoire 

apparently,  because  it  had  been  set  apart  a?  Ecclesiastique  et  Civile  de  Lorraine,''  tome 

an  ancient  baptistery.  i.      Preuves,    &c.       Historia   Episcoporum 

s  His  feast  is  held  on  the  24th  of  June.  Tullensium,  cap.  xxxviii.,  col.  138. 

4  See  Dom  Augustin  Calmet's  "Histoire  9  His  feast  occurs  on  the  20th  of  August. 
Ecclesiastique  et  Civile  de  Lorraine,"  tome  i.  He  was  born  A.D.  1091,  and  he  died  on  the 
Preuves  de  l'Hisloire  de  Lorraine.  Historia  20ih  of  August,  A.D.  11 53. 
Episcopoium  Tullensium,  cap.  xi.,  col.  93.  10  See  Dom  Augustin  Calmet's  work,  tome 

5  The  position  of  these  churches — during  ii.,  liv.  xxi.,  num.  xxxiii.,  col.  24.  Bertrand 
the  last  century  within  the  cloister  of  the  de  la  Tour  dAuvergne,  who  was  nomi- 
canons — is  shown  on  a  map  of  Toul,  in  the  nated  Bishop  of  Toul  by  Pope  Innocent  VI., 
work  already  quoted.  See  tome  i.  Also,  in  1353,  published  a  Synodal  decree,  l>y 
Dissertation  sur  les  premiers  Evesques  de  which  the  Abbot  of  St.  Mansuy  was  to  a-sist 

-e  de  Toul,  col.  xxviii.  on  the   left   of  the   Bishop,   who  faced  the 

6  Father  Limpen  supposes  the  local  tradi-  choir  before  the  grand  altar  in  the  Cathedral, 
tion  may  well  be  credited,  that  St.  Mansuy  See  ibid.^  tome  ii.,  liv.  xxvi.,  num.  exxxvi., 
built  a  church  to  St.  Peter,  in  the  northern  col.  633,  and  num.  exxxvii.,  col.  634. 
suburb  of  Toul,  and  that  he  had  been  there  "  At  present  the  city  contains  about  7,000 
interred.  Allusion  is  made  to  that  ancient  inhabitants.  See  Elisee  Reclus'  "  Nouvelle 
church,  having  become  ruinous,  in  a  charter  Geographie  Universelle,  tome  ii.,  liv.  ii„ 
of  Otho  I.,  A.D.  965,  and  one  of  St.  Gerard,  chap,  xv.,  sect,  iv.,  pp.  837,  838. 

a.i>.  982.  "  See  Balthasar's  "  Notice  historique  de- 

"  In  the  History  of  the  Bishops  of  Toul  we  scriptivesurlaCathedraledeToul,"l848,8vo. 


September  3.]      LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS. 


\5 


peculiar  features,  but  it  is  mainly  in  an  architectural  Gothic  flamboyant  style. x3 
'J 'he  history  and  a  fine  copper  plate  engraving  of  it  are  presented  in  the 
learned  work  of  Augustin   Calmer.1*     From  the  latter,  the  accompanying 

illustration  has  been 
copied.15  In  a  more 
recent  local  work,  than 
that  of  Calmet,  there  are 
also  views  of  St.  Ste- 
phen s  Cathedral.16  The 
principal  shrine  in  the 
Cathedral  of  Toul  was 
shaped  as  a  sort  of  tomb, 
coloured  in  vermillion, 
with  a  coffin-like  cover- 
ing, about  one  metre  in 
length,  fifty  centimetres 
in  width,  and  seventy 
centimetres  in  height. 
This  contained  the  relics 
of  St.  Mansuy  and  of 
fourteen  other  bishops 
of  Toul,  venerated  as 
saints.  Exteriorly,  it  was 
ornamented  with  red 
statues,  separated  from 
each  other,  and  forming 
supposed  representa- 
tions of  persons  whose 
relics  were  deposited  in 
the  shrine.  Those 
images  rested  on  pedes- 
tals, which  were  at  the 
Cathedral  of  Toul,  France.  base  of  the  shrine,   and 

they  reached  to  the  height  of  its  covering.  At  the  respective  ends  of  the 
shrine's  length  were  medallion-shaped  glasses,  through  which  the  relics  within 
could  be  seen.  In  various  places  throughout  his  diocese  St.  Maunsey  built 
churches,  so  that  the  people  might  be  enabled  in  them  to  adore  and  supplicate 
the  Giver  of  all  good  gifts. 

Were  we  to  credit  the  very  doubtful  authority  of  Dempster,1?  our  saint 
wrote  a  book,  having  for  its  title,  "  De  Apostolicis  Traditionibus,"  lib.  i., 
and  which  he  tells  us  the  people  of  Toul  religiously  preserve.  This  assertion, 
however,  is  treated  with  merited  disregard  and  contempt  by  Archbishop 
Ussher,18  as  are  other  groundless  statements  of  the  same  writer  relating  to 
Mansuetus. 

He  is  thought  to  have  lived  for  many  years,  zealously  engaged  in  the 
prosecution  of  apostolic  labours,  and  to  have  attained  a  great  age,  before  his 


13  See  A.  Hugo's  "  France  Pi  Moresque," 
ome  ii.,  p.  246. 

14  See  y  Histoire  Ecclesiastique  et  Civile 
de  Lorraine,"  tome  iii. 

15  It  has  been  drawn  on  the  wood  and  en- 
graved by  Gregor  Grey. 

16  See  Ad.  Thiery's  "  Histoire  de  la  Ville 
de  Toul  et  de  ces  Eveques,"  suivies  d'une 


Notice  sur  la  Cathedrale,"  avec  14  lithogra- 
phies et  2  plans,  two  volumes,  published  in 
Toul,  1841,  8vo. 

17  See  "  Historia  Ecclesiastica  Gentis 
Scotorum,"  tomus  ii.,  lib.  xii.,  num.  838,  p. 
448. 

18  See  "  Britannicarum  Ecciesiarum  Anti- 
quitates,"  cap.  xvi.,  p.  392. 


46  LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS.      [Srptbmbrr  3. 


term  of  life  had  expired.'^  His  virtues  and  merits,  added  to  his  labours  and 
austerities,  had  thus  purified  his  soul  for  heaven.  When  his  term  on  earth 
closed  his  years  of  exile,  it  seems  probable,  he  had  been  long  estranged  from 
social  intercourse  with  those,  that  were  early  known  to  him  in  his  native  land.20 
Those  writers,  who  have  supposed  St.  Maunsey  a  disciple  of  St.  Peter,  place 
his  death  in  the  early  part  of  the  second  century.21  But,  as  we  have  already 
seen,  that  was  long  before  the  period  of  his  birth.  He  died  on  the  3rd  of 
September,  and  about  the  year  375,  according  to  most  accounts.  His  people 
were  greatly  afflicted  when  they  knew  of  his  demise,  and  manifested  their 
respect  and  love  while  celebrating  his  funeral  obsequies.  The  body  of  St. 
Mansuy  was  buried  in  that  oratory  of  St.  Peter,  which  he  is  said  to  have 
built.22 

His  memory  has  been  highly  revered  at  Toul,  from  the  time  of  his  death 
to  the  present  day.  His  immediate  successor  in  that  See  was  Amon,a3  also 
distinguished  for  great  virtues  and  miraculous  gifts.  He  was  interred, 
likewise,  in  the  ancient  Church  of  St.  Peter ;  and  from  those  early  times,  the 
faithful  were  accustomed  to  revere  both  prelates,  and  to  resort  for  succour  to 
them  in  their  various  infirmities.  Among  those  pious  pilgrims  to  their  tombs 
were  persons  of  the  highest  distinction — even  kings  and  princes — who  arrived 
with  the  poor,  and  who  manifested  their  trusting  confidence  in,  and  devout 
reverence  for,  those  holy  patrons ;  thus  affording  examples  of  religious 
observance  and  veneration  towards  the  saints,  during  the  Ages  of  Faith. a< 
Even  hospitals  were  erected  in  Toul  for  the  reception  of  poor  pilgrims,  who 
flocked  thither  to  be  healed.  Those  houses  of  hospitality,  likewise,  were 
liberally  endowed  and  maintained.25  Among  others,  who  are  said  to  have 
visited  Toul  for  the  purpose  of  praying  in  the  oratory  of  St.  Mansuetus,  was 
St.    Martin,26  the  holy  Bishop  of  Tours,2?  who  is  supposed  to  have  had 


19  In  the  History  of  the  Bishops  of  Toul,  more  ancient  date,  declares,  that  miracles 

it  is  thus  stated  :  **  Cumque  jam  Dei  athleta  had  been  wrought  there  ;  but,  that  in  his  day, 

electu.s   plenus  esset   dierum,    et   proved  re  for  want  of  writers,  or  through  the  ravages 

rctatis carnis  onere   de-  of  the  barbarians,  several  interesting  records 

posito  iii.  nonarnm  Septembrium  spiritum  had  perished. 

urlo    reddidit,    &c." — Calmet's    "  Histoire  26  St.  Gregory  of  Tours  places  his  birth  in 

Kcclesiastique  et  Civile  de  Lorraine,"  tome  the  year  316,  or  before  Easter  in  317,  during 

i.,  cap.  xiii.,  col.  94.  the  eleventh  year  of  Constantine  the  Great's 

70  To  him  might  be  applied  the   poet's  reign.     He  became  Bishop  of  Tours  about 

lines  :—  the  year  375.     He  is  said  to  have  attained 

"  Before  him  from  the  earth  have  passed  the  eighty-fourth  year,  and  to  have  departed 

Friends,  kinsmen,  comrades,  true  and  this  life  on  the  8th  of  November,  a.d.  400. 

brave  ;  His  chief  feast,  however,  is  kept  on  the  nth 

And  well  he  knows  he  nears,  at  last,  of  that  month.     St.  Sulpicius  Severus  has 

His  place  of  rest — a  foreign  grave  !"  written  his  life  in  elegant  Latin,  and  eight 

— "Green    Leaves."    A    volume    of   Irish  years  after  the  death  of  his  illustrious  master, 

verses,  byT.  D.  Sullivan,  p.  85.  he  wrote  three  dialogues  to  supply  previous 

21  Thus  Ussher  records  his  demise  under  omissions.     The  Chronology  of  St.  Martin's 

the  year  of  Christ    105,    in   these   words  :  Life  is  very  intricate.     See  "  Memoires  de 

"  Mansuetus  Ilibernus,  primus  Tullensium  Trevoux,"  ad  annum  1765,  pp.  1238,  1239. 

Kpiscopus,  anno  ministerii  sui  (jaadragesimo  2?  In  the   church   of  the   Abbey  of   St. 

mortem  obiisse  dicitur." — "  Britannicarum  Maunsey  at  Toul  had  long  been  preserved 

Kcclesiarum  Antiquitates,"  Index  Chronolo  a  stone,  on  which  St.  Martin  is  said  to  have 

gicus,  p.  508.  knelt,  when  he  came  thither  as  a  pilgrim. 

"Seethe  Pita  ProKxiort  VSx  i.,cap.  iii. ,  However,   when  the  Emperor   Charles  V., 

num.  19,  20,  21,  22,  23,  24,  pp.  642,  643.  in  1552,  had  taken  Metz,  Toul  and  Verdun 

23  His  feast  is  celebrated  at  Toul,  on  the  from   the   French,   the   old    Church   of  St. 

23rd  of  October.  Maunsey  was  destroyed,  and  that  stone  was 

34  See  the  Vita  Brevior,  sect.   5,  6,  and  removed  to  the  cloister  of  St.  Gengulph's 

f'ita  Prolixior,  lib.  i.,  cap.  iv.,  sect.  25,  26.  Collegiate  Church  in  Toul.   Long  afterwards, 

25  Adso,  who  quotes  from  documents  ot  that  stone  might  be  seen  bearing  an  inscrip 


September  3.]      LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS. 


•17 


frequent  pious  colloquies  with  St.  Maximinus,28  Bishop  of  Triers  or 
Treves. 

From  an  early  period,  the  Irish  Scots,  who  had  a  great  veneration  for 
their  compatriot,  St.  Maunsey,  were  accustomed  to  frequent  his  church  and 
to  offer  their  devotions  at  his  shrine.  Among  those  were  to  be  found  many 
poor  pilgrims,  who  were  obliged  to  lodge  in  the  hospice,  while  waiting  some 
favours  through  the  saint's  intercession.  One  case  in  particular  is  related  by 
Adso,  regarding  a  poor  Irishman  and  his  wife,  who  while  there  had  a  pig 
stolen  from  them,  which  they  needed  for  their  common  support.  Their 
prayers  for  its  recovery  were  offered  to  St.  Maunsey  in  his  church.^  The  lost 
animal  is  stated  to  have  been  miraculously  restored  to  them,  but  in  a  fashion 
too  legendary  to  merit  credence^0 

Years  had  passed  away  after  the  death  of  St.  Maunsey,  and  the  Vandals^1 
having  taken  possession  of  Toul,  subjected  his  church  to  their  devastations. 
In  the  commencement  of  the  fifth  century,  witli  other  German  tribes,  they 
had  crossed  the  Rhine,  and  spread  like  a  torrent  over  Gaul,  which  had  then 
experienced  the  benefits  of  Roman  civilization.  The  flourishing  city  of 
Mentz  was  surprised  and  destroyed,  while  many  thousand  Christians  were 
inhumanly  massacred  in  the  church.  In  like  manner,  Strasburg,  Spiers, 
Rheims,  Tournay,  Arras,  and  Amiens,  experienced  the  oppression  of  the 
German  invaders ;  houses  and  churches  were  despoiled  of  their  valuables ; 
while  the  clergy  and  laity  were  obliged  to  flee  for  their  lives  before  the 
merciless  and  rapacious  barbarians.32  The  charitable  foundations  for  pilgrims 
experienced  also  the  natural  results  of  wars  that  embroiled  the  people  living 
in  and  around  Toul.     Wherefore,,  those  endowments  were  dissipated,  and  the 


tion  to  the  effect,  it  was  the  one  on  which  St. 
Martin  prayed  at  the  tomb  of  St.  Maunsey, 
when  he  visited  Toul.  In  the  beginning  of 
the  last  century,  that  old  church  had  not 
been  repaired,  and  the  Benedictines,  who 
were  in  possession  of  the  site,  having  con- 
verted the  former  refectory  into  a  chapel, 
also  celebrated  the  Divine  Office  in  it. 
There,  likewise,  according  to  the  two  Bene- 
dictines of  the  Congregation  of  St.  Maur, 
the  body  of  St.  Maunsey  had  been  preserved. 
See  Dom  Augustin  Calmet's  "  Histoire 
Ecclesiastique  et  Civile  de  Lorraine,"  in  his 
Dissertation  on  the  early  Bishops  of  Toul, 
lib.  v.,  num.  21,  and  tome  iii.,  lib.  xxxiii., 
num.  66.  Also,  the  Literary  Itinerary  of  two 
Benedictines,  part  ii.,  p.  130,  published  in 
Paris,  1 7 17. 

28  He  was  born  at  Monterre-Silly,  in 
Foitou,  towards  the  end  of  the  third  or  the 
beginning  of  the  fourth  century.  Upon  the 
death  of  St.  Agritius,  Bishop  of  Triers,  he 
was  chosen  successor,  A.n.  332.  He  was  one 
of  the  most  illustrious  defenders  of  the 
Catholic  faith  in  the  Council  of  Sardica,  held 
in  347.  He  died  on  a  visit  to  his  relations* 
in  Poitou,  a.d.  349.  His  feast  is  celebrated 
at  Poitiers,  on  the  29th  of  May.  See  Les 
Petits  Bollandistes,  "Viesdes  Saints,"  tome 
vi.,  xxixe  Jour  de  Mai,  pp.  292  to  294. 
Hence,  it  can  be  inferred,  that  Adso's  state- 
ment of  the  familiarity  passing  between  St. 
Martin  of  Tours,  and  St.  Maximinus  of 
Treves,  and  their  journey  to  Rome  in  com- 
pany, cannot  be  admitted.     The  latter  had 


been  dead  several  years  before  St.  Martin 
became  Bishop  of  Tours. 

29  The  matter  is  thus  related  by  Adso  : 
"  Furantis  autem  personam  cum  nusquam 
deprehenderet ;  dampni  sui  non  ferens  dis- 
pendium,  ad  sacram  sedem  tendit,  et  effertis, 
ut  Scotorum  natura  est,  animis  tumulo  Sancti 
se  msestum  injecit  et  plenum  querimoniis,  et 
ut  rustici  verbis  eloquar ;  O  Sancte  Dei, 
Scottum,  inquam,  te  Scottum  et  me,  genti 
Scottigenae  propitius  miserere.  Me  eminus 
positum  forte  juvare  debueras  :  ecce  peregre 
constitutum  quid  aporiari  pateris,  quid  rebus 
destitui  permittis  ?  Redde,  obsecro,  quod 
perdidi  :  redde,  quod  fur  impius  forte  jam 
absumit.  Hsec  et  his  similia  multa  prosequens 
pauper  ille,  tristis  recipitur  hospicio." 

30  Adso  intimates,  that  such  a  popular 
story  need  not  be  trusted,  nor  does  it  merit 
his  own  approval,  neither  does  it  that  of  his 
editor,  Father  John  Limpen.  In  Calmet's 
edition  of  Adso's  Life  of  our  Saint,  the 
narrative  above  noticed  is  ended  thus : 
"Vitseet  actuum  beati  Mansueti  pontificis 
liber  primus  explicit/'  See  "  Ac:a  Sancto- 
rum," tomus  i.,  Septembris  iii.  Vita  Pro- 
lixior,  lib.  i.,  cap.  iv.,  nums.  25,  26,  27,  28, 
29,  with  notes,  pp.  644,  645. 

31  These  people  were  spread  along  the 
banks  of  the  Oder,  and  on  the  sea-coast  of 
Pomerania  and  Mecklenburgh,  at  an  early 
period.  Originally,  they  are  supposed  to 
have  been  a  Slavonic  and  not  a  German 
people. 

3J  See  Edward  Gibbon's  *'  History  of  the 


48  LIVES  OE  THE  IRISH  SAIATS.      [September  3. 


church,  as  likewise  the  hospice,  fell  into  ruin.  Frequently,  too,  those 
establishments  and  their  possessions  were  seized  by  seculars  and  treated  with 
small  regard,  even  in  the  mediaeval  times.  When  Garibalde,  Bishop  of  Toul, 
died  about  the  year  735,  he  was  succeeded  by  Godon,  who  presided  over  the 
See  for  about  twenty  years;  and  during  that  period  the  city  was  burned,  when 
the  archives  of  his  church  were  reduced  to  ashes.33 

Nevertheless,  the  veneration  of  the  faithful  for  our  saint  continued,  and 
through  the  whole  diocese  of  Toul,  his  feast  was  solemnly  celebrated,  so  that 
it  became  a  matter  of  sacred  obligation  to  cease  from  servile  work  on  that 
day ;  while  it  seems  probable,  that  although  ruinous,  the  Church  of  St.  Peter 
had  not  been  wholly  deserted,  nor  had  the  religious  services  there  been 
discontinued,  although  shorn  much  of  their  early  splendour.  However, 
in  the  southern  suburbs,  where  an  ancient  Abbey  of  the  Benedictines  stood, 
one  Archembald3*  ruled  as  Abbot,  between  the  years  936  and  948.  To  him, 
St.  Gauzlin,35  Bishop  of  Toul,  committed  the  Church  of  St.  Peter,  and  the 
care  for  its  restoration,  on  condition  that  he  should  send  some  of  the  religious 
of  St.  Afre36  to  dwell  there,  and  to  sing  the  Divine  office,  at  the  tomb  of 
St.  Maunsay.  During  the  lifetime  of  St.  Gauzlin,  the  work  of  repairing  St. 
Peter's  was  commenced,  but  it  was  not  completed,  at  the  time  of  his  death, 
a.d.  962.  During  his  pontificate,  a  woman,  blind  for  seven  years,  and  who 
lived  in  the  villa  of  Count  Widon,3?  was  led  on  the  vigil  of  St.  Maunsey's 
feast  to  his  church,  where  she  desired  to  remain  for  that  night.  However, 
her  request  was  not  granted.  Then  taking  her  place  with  others  before  the 
closed  doors,  and  praying  with  great  fervour  to  the  saint  in  the  middle  of 
the  night,  burning  lights  suddenly  appeared  to  her  restored  vision.  She  gave 
thanks  to  God  and  to  his  saint  in  loud  ejaculations  of  gratitude.  Another 
miracle  was  wrought  in  favour  of  a  soldier's  daughter^8  who  lived  on  a  farm 
not  far  from  Toul.  She  was  regarded  as  a  possessed  person,  and  in  a  state  of 
mental  derangement,  wherefore  she  was  bound  with  cords  and  left  in  charge 
of  keepers.  However,  her  parents  brought  the  girl  to  the  oratory  of  St.  Maun- 
sey.  There  she  was  allowed  to  remain  within  the  church  that  whole  night, 
with  a  single  guardian.  She  returned  to  her  home  restored  to  a  sound  state 
of  mind.  Another  poor  person,  whose  body  was  covered  with  a  leprosy, 
called  Elephantiasis,39  approached  the  church,  and  as  having  lived  on  alms, 
he  humbly  presented  a  portion  of  salt  at  the  saint's  shrine,  and  prayed  there 


Decline  and  Fall  of  the   Roman  Empire,"  place  after  that  date,  since  the  ruined  church 

vol.  iv.,   chap,  xxx.,  p.    52.      Dr.  William  in  which  the  body  of  St.  Maunsey  had  been 

Smith's  edition.  deposed  was  not  at  that  time  given  by  Bishop 

33  See   Dom.    Aug.    Calmet's    "Histoire  Gauzlin  to  the  Abbey  of  St.  Apre. 
Ecclesiastique  et  Civile  de  Lorraine,"  tome  38  Her  father  was  named  Stephen. 

i.,  liv.  xi.,  sect,  lxvii.  »  "  A  disease  affecting  chiefly  the  legs  and 

34  By  Adso,  he  is  styled  Ilerchemboldus.  feet,  which,  becoming  rough,  scaly,  and 
In  two  charters,  dated  a.d.  941  and  942,  his  swollen,  have  been  compared  to  an  elephant  : 
name  is  written  Archembaldus,  as  found  in  the  skin  gets  thick,  unctuous,  and  insensi- 
Augustine  Calmet's  "  Histoire  Ecclesias-  ble,  and  the  limb  occasionally  attains  an 
tique  et  Civile  de  Lorraine, "tome  i.  Preuves  enormous  size." — "  Dictionary  of  Science, 
de  l'Histoire  de  Lorraine,  col.  348  and  350.  'Literature,  and  Art,"  by  W.  T.  Brande  and 

35  His  feast  is  celebrated  on  the  7th  of  Rev.  George  W.  Cox,  vol.  i.,  p.  764. 
September.  *°  One  of  these  was  wrought  in  favour  of 

36  His  festival  is  held  on  the  5th  of  August.  a  distinguished  cleric,  who  had  been  brought 
*  In  a  document  which  bears  date  5  Idus  to  the  last  extremity  through  fever  ;  while 

Octobris,    a.d.   936,   ihe  signature  of  this  another  named  Drogo,  who  was  a  soldier, 

Count  Wido  is  found.     See  Calmet's  "  His-  and  a  native  of  Dulmensis,  in  the  circle  of 

toire  Ecclesiastique  et  Civile  de  Lorraine,"  Westphalia,  was  in   like   manner  restored, 

tome  i.     Preuves  de  L'Histoire  de  Lorraine,  owing  to  his  faith  in  the  merits  of  St.  Maun- 


col.  344.     The  miracle  here  recorded  took      sey. 


September  3.]      LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS.  49 


with  great  fervour.  •  Soon  he  experienced  some  impression  on  his  back — for 
he  had  prostrated  himself  on  the  floor — and  then  suddenly  arising,  he  found 
a  new  vigour  in  his  limbs,  the  leprosy  entirely  disappearing.  It  seems  to 
have  been  the  mediaeval  custom  for  those  affected  with  fevers  or  other 
maladies  to  be  carried  to  the  shrine  of  St.  Maunsey,  where  they  devoutly 
sought  his  intercession  on  their  behalf;  and  various  instances  are  recorded 
by  Adso  of  cures  thus  effected,*0  while  he  declares,  it  should  be  impossible 
to  remember  all  that  came  to  his  knowledge,  or  that  were  related  in  reference 
to  the  holy  patron  of  Toul.*1 

The  people  of  Toul  were  always  accustomed  to  celebrate  St.  Maunsey's 
festival  as  -a  special  Holyday,  and  they  regarded  it  as  one  to  be  observed  by 
abstaining  from  servile  works  or  unnecessary  travelling.  Indeed,  the  con- 
trary custom  was  regarded  as  bringing  with  it  some  such  danger  as  had 
nearly  happened  to  certain  waggoners  of  Barrois,*2  who  continued  to  travel 
with  loads  of  salt  through  Gondreville  on  that  festival  day,  and  who  made 
light  of  the  popular  veneration.  Having  journeyed  towards  the  Moselle 
River,  which  they  desired  to  cross,  the  oxen  yoked  to  their  waggons  became 
restive,  and  could  not  be  controlled  by  the  drivers,  who  had  nearly  been 
carried  over  a  precipice.  Seeing  the  danger  that  threatened,  those  peasants 
felt  a  sudden  remorse  for  having  violated  St.  Mansuy's  day.  They  then 
implored  his  pardon,  and  solemnly  vowed  thenceforward  to  observe  it 
religiously.  Suddenly  they  were  delivered  from  a  danger,  which  was  likely 
to  have  been  attended  with  the  forfeit  of  their  lives.43  A  venerable  man — 
Grimaldus  by  name — had  been  appointed  Abbot  over  the  monastery  of  St. 
Afre,  chiefly  through  the  instrumentality  of  St.  Gauzlin.  On  one  occasion,  a 
cow  belonging  to  the  community  had  been  stolen,  nor  was  there  a  prospect 
of  her  recovery.  But,  having  prayed  to  St.  Maunsey,  on  the  following  day, 
most  unexpectedly  and  to  the  great  admiration  of  all  the  monks,  that  animal 
returned  to  her  proper  stall.  Soon  after  this  account,  Adso  records  the 
happy  demise  of  St.  Gauzlin,44  who  was  interred  at  Bouxieres-aux-dames,  in 
the  church  of  that  religious  community  of  Benedictine  nuns  founded  by 
himself.     He  died  in  the  year  962. 

Born  in  the  city  of  Cologne,  and  highly  educated,  especially  in  all 
branches  of  ecclesiastical  learning,  on  the  death  of  Gauzlin,  Bruno,  Arch- 
bishop of  Cologne  and  Duke  of  Lorraine,  appointed  Gerard45  in  963,  to 
succeed,  with  the  approbation  of  the  Emperor  Otho  I.,*6  of  the  clergy  and 
people  of  Toul,  and  he  was  consecrated  at  Treves.     One  of  his  earliest  cares 


41  See  "  Acta  Sanctorum,"  tomus  i.,  Simple,  King  of  Fiance,  proves,  dated  on  the 
Septembris  iii.,  Vita  Prolixior,  lib.  ii.,  cap.  same  year  and  day.  See  Calmet's  "  Histoire 
i.,  ii.,  pp.  645  to  647.  Ecclesiastique  et  Civile  de  Lorraine,"  tome  i. 

42  So  called  from  Bar-le-Duc,  its  capital,  Preuves  de  l'Histoire  de  Lorraine,  col.  335, 
and  it  lies  between  the  Marneand  the  Moselle  336. 

in  Lorraine.     See  M.  Vivien  de  Saint-Mar-  45  See  a  very  complete  account  of  this  dis- 

tin,  "  Nouveau  Dictionnaire  de  Geographie  tinguished  prelate  in  Les  Petits  Bollandistes, 

Universelle,"  tome  i.,  p.  351.  "Vies  des   Saints,"   tome    iv.,  Jour  xxiiie 

43  See  Les  Petits  Bollandistes,  "  Vies  des  d'Avril,  pp.  623  to  632. 

Saints,"  tome  x.,  Jour  iiie  de  Septembre,  p.  46  Surnamed    the    Great.       He    became 

433*  Emperor  of  Germany,  a.d.  936.     He  was  of 

44  Adso  states  :  "  Cujus  dies  depositions  the  Saxon  line,  and  had  inherited  a  prepon- 
vii  Idus  Septembris  agitur."  See  the  Vita  derating  power  in  the  north  of  Germany, 
Prolixior,  lib.  ii.,  cap.  ii.,  pp.  647,  648.  which  he  greatly  increased  by  his  own 
Adso  is  mistaken  in  the  account  that  St.  success  in  war.  He  died  on  the  25th  of 
Gauzlin  was  in  the  forty-fourth  year  of  his  con-  December,  A.D.  967.  See  Dean  Henry 
secration  as  bishop,  since  his  predecessor,  Hart  Milman's  "  History  of  Latin  Chris- 
Drogon,  died  on  the  iv.  of  the  March  Nones,  tianity,"  vol.  iii.,  book  v.,  chap,  xii.,  pp. 
A.d.  922,  which  a  Charter  of  Charles  the  305  to  316. 

D 


5o  LIVES  Of  THE  IRISH  SAINTS.      [September  3 


was  to  visit  the  church  in  which  reposed  the  body  of  St.  Maunsey.  There 
he  prayed  with  great  devotion,  and  took  a  vow,  that  he  would  endeavour  to 
effect  its  entire  renovation.  He  resolved  on  seeking  aid  from  a  powerful 
patron.  With  such  a  view  he  obtained  a  charter  from  the  Emperor  Otho  I.,4? 
dated  in  the  year  965,  on  the  iv.  of  the  June  Nones.  This  confirmed  the 
possessions,  privileges  and  rules  of  the  monks  therein  living,  and  who  were 
under  the  Order  of  St.  Benedict.*8  He  not  only  completed  that  foundation, 
but  he  liberally  endowed  it.4^  Moreover,  he  advanced  the  Prior  over  St.  Peter's 
monastery  to  the  dignity  of  an  Abbot.  On  the  site  of  St.  Peter's  oratory,  a 
celebrated  Benedictine  Abbey  was  built,  and  it  was  dedicated  to  St.  Mansuy.s° 
The  choir  of  the  Abbey  Church  was  erected  over  the  saint's  tomb. 

Various  translations  of  the  holy  Bishop's  relics  are  on  record.  It  is  said, 
that  about  the  year  971,  St.  Gerard,  Bishop  of  Toul,  repaired  that  church 
dedicated  to  St.  Maunsey's  memory,  and  that  afterwards,  he  solemnly 
translated  the  relics  of  the  holy  patron  from  the  place  of  their  deposition,  to 
one  more  suitable  for  their  reception.  The  relics  were  placed  in  a  wooden 
shrine  within  the  church,  and  before  it  the  monks  sang  their  office,  with  their 
accustomed  rites,  while  the  faithful  frequenting  the  sanctuary  to  pray  received 
many  benefits  through  the  saint's  intercession.  Moreover,  it  is  related  of 
this  pious  prelate,  that  a  band  of  Greeks  and  Scots  having  arrived  in  Toul, 
he  maintained  them  at  his  own  expense.*1  In  an  oratory  they  had  separate 
altars,  at  which  they  offered  prayers  to  God,  according  to  the  manner  of  their 
respective  nations.52  It  is  supposed,  that  the  disturbances  of  the  time  in 
their  own  countries5*  brought  those  strangers  to  seek  an  asylum  in  his  city 
from  the  charitable  bishop.54 

During  times  ot  great  drought,  and  when  a  loss  of  the  growing  crops  was 
feared,  the  clergy  and  people  of  Toul  sought  the  saint's  shrine  in  solemn 
procession,  and  devoutly  trusted  that  the  prayers  of  their  Patron  should 
procure  for  them  fertilizing  showers.  This  was  illustrated  in  a  miraculous 
manner,  during  the  period  of  St.  Gerard's  incumbency  in  the  see  of  Toul.55 
An  unusually  dry  season  had  visited  the  country  all  around  ;  the  earth  cracked 
open,  and  vegetation  was  burned  up,  through  excessive  heat ;  the  labours  of 
the  husbandman  seemed  destined  to  produce  nothing  of  value  from  the  land; 
even  the  sky  presented  very  extraordinary  phenomena.     Deeming  these  to 


4?  See  an  account  of  this  celebrated  Em-  side  of  the  ancient  walls  of  the  city,  in  the 

peror  in  Jules  Zeller's   "  Histoire  d'Alle-  Faubourg  de  St.  Mansuis. 

magne,"  tome  ii.,  chap,  xiii.,  pp.  250  to  385.  5I  "  Hie     cation     Gnvcorum    ac    Scotto- 

4®  The  feast  of  this  illustrious  Abbot  falls  rum    congregasse,    ac    propriis     stipendiis 

on  the  21st  of  March.     See  an  account  of  St.  aluisse  dicitur,  divisis  inter  illos  altaribus  in 

Benedict   and   of  his  Order  in   "  Histoire  oratorio,  ubi  Deo  supplices  laiules  peisolvcrent 

Complete  et  Costumes  des  Ordres  Monas-  more  patriot — Mabillon's  "  Annales  Ordinis 

tiques,  Religieux  et  Militaires,  et  des  Con-  S.  Benedicti,"  tomus  iv.,  lib.  I,  num.  cii., 

gregations  Seculieres  des  deux  Sexes,"  par  p.  90. 

le  R.  P.  He'lyot,  avec  Notice,  Annotations  sa  This  account  seems  to  indicate,  that  both 

et   Complement,   par   V.    Phillipon    de   la  the  Greeks  and  Irish,  who  are  here  alluded 

Madelaine,  tome  iv.,  Premiere  Partie,  pp.  5  to,  prayed  in  their  own  language,  and  used 

et  seq.  their  own  peculiar  rites  of  worship,  differing 

49  See   Mabillon's   "  Annales  Ordinis   S.  from  those  of  Gaul. 

Benedicti,"   at  A.D.  982.     Tomus  iv.,  lib.  53  Especially   in    Ireland  the   Danes  and 

xlix.,  num.  xiii.,  pp.  8,  9.  Norwegians   committed  great   devastations 

50  Besides  a  fine  copper-plate  engraving  of  during  the   ninth   and   tenth   centuries,  as 
a  map,  representing  the  former  Diocese  of  noticed  in  our  Annals. 

Toul,  in  Dom  Augustin  Calmet's  "  Histoire  54  See  Les  Petits  Bollandistes,  "Vies  des 

Ecclesiastique  et  Civile  de  Lorraine,"  tome  i. ,  Saints,"  tome  iv.,  Jour  xxiiic  d'Avril,  p.  625. 

there  is  another  Plan  de  la  Villede  Toul,  on  ss  See  Dom  Calmet's  Histoire  Ecclesias- 

which  its  position  is  shown  near  the  northern  tique    et   Civile    de    Lorraine,"     tome     i. 


September  3.]       LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS.  51 


be  indications  of  the  Divine  displeasure  for  the  sins  of  his  people,  and  at 
their  request,  the  holy  Bishop  Gerard  instituted  a  fast  for  three  days,  at  the 
end  of  which  time,  the  shrine  of  St.  Maunsey,  containing  his  blessed  body, 
was  to  be  borne  in  solemn  procession  over  the  parched  fields.  While 
litanies  and  hymns  were  sung  by  the  clergy  and  a  vast  number  of  the  laity 
assembled,  and  while  they  thus  moved  to  the  church  of  St.  Apri  or  Epvre, 
which  was  a  stage  to  be  reached  by  the  processionists ;  suddenly  the  clouds 
lowered,  the  lightnings  flashed,  and  loud  peals  of  thunder  followed.  Then 
came  torrents  of  rain,  which  drenched  the  multitude  present,  but  which 
brought  refreshing  showers  on  the  fields,  the  object  so  earnestly  sought.  Nor 
was  this  the  only  remarkable  occurrence  to  be  related.  Sindebard,  Count 
of  Toul,  was  about  to  have  his  hand  cauterized,  because  it  had  withered  and 
caused  him  great  agony  \  yet,  remembering  the  merits  of  the  Patron  saint, 
he  most  earnestly  desired  leave  for  carrying  that  shrine,  in  which  the  sacred 
remains  were  deposed.  This  permission  he  readily  obtained,  and  with 
Immon,  a  noble  officer  in  the  bishop's  service,  he  walked  in  that  procession. 
When  the  shrine  was  returned  to  the  place  in  which  it  usually  had  been 
deposited,  Mass  was  commenced,  and  at  its  conclusion,  the  Count  found  all 
pain  removed  from  his  hand.  This  he  raised  up  before  all  those  who  were 
present,  as  a  manifestation  of  St.  Maunsey's  merits  and  intercession^6 
Immediately  after  these  occurrences,  and  having  placed  the  sacred  remains 
in  the  church, 5?  after  vigils  and  devotions  of  the  previous  night,  it  was 
solemnly  dedicated  in  honour  of  the  Holy  Mother  of  the  Man-God  and 
of  St.  Maunsey.  Thenceforward,  several  remarkable  miracles  were  wrought 
in  it  through  their  intercession,  and  numbers  of  devout  worshippers  were 
favoured  with  remission  of  their  sins.  Another  miracle  is  related  regarding 
a  boy,  who  had  long  been  a  cripple,  owing  to  some  spinal  contraction.  His 
father,  a  rustic,  had  conveyed  him  in  his  arms  for  ten  successive  years  to  the 
tomb  of  St.  Maunsey,  but  without  any  alleviation  of  his  son's  sufferings. 
One  day,  a  certain  Jew  reproached  the  poor  man  for  his  credulity ;  when 
suddenly,  the  boy  who  had  been  laid  on  the  pavement  before  the  shrine  felt 
himself  able  to  arise  and  walk,  to  the  great  admiration  of  the  devout  persons 
who  were  present.58  Moreover,  on  another  occasion,  and  on  a  Saturday 
night,  while  the  monks  were  engaged  reciting  the  Divine  Office,  and  preparing 
for  the  Sunday's  services  on  the  morrow,  St.  Gerard,  happening  to  sleep  in 
their  monastery  at  that  time,s°  had  an  apparition  of  St.  Maunsey,60  who 
seemed  to  enter  the  chamber  with  an  effulgence  of  light.  Approaching  the 
bed  on  which  the  bishop  lay,  the  latter  found  a  hand  laid  on  his  body,  and 
heard  a  voice  calling  out,  "  Why  sleep  you  ?  while  others  keep  their  pious 
vigils,  why  are  you  buried  in  so  deep  a  slumber  ?  for  the  kingdom  of  Heaven 
comes  not  to  those  sleeping,  but  to  the  wakeful.''  At  once  the  bishop  arose, 
and  not  without  some  shameful  feeling  and  excitement,  he  hastened  to  the 
church  and  joined  the  choir,  although  not  in  good  time,  as  the  office  had 
long  before  commenced.67 


Preuves  de  l'Histoire  de  Lorraine,  Historia  then  maintained  at  the  charges  of  the  church. 

Episcoporum  Tullensium,  cap.  xx.,  col.  101.  59  It  is  stated,  the  bishop  had  been  much 

56  The  old  writer,  who  records  the  foregoing  fatigued,  owing  to  previous  labours . 
miracle,  adds  :  "  Cujus  rei  adhuc  est   ipse  6o  He  seemed  of  large  stature,  and  of  a 
testis  certus,  si  a  quolibet  fuerit  requisitus."  venerable  aspect,  his  habit  being  of  a  white 
— Ibid.  colour. 

57  This    Bishop    Gerard    had    previously  6l  This  narrative  Adso  had  from  St.  Gerard 
raised  from  its  foundations.  himself,  and  he  adds  in  conclusion  :  "  Cujus 

s8  In  continuation  the  chronicler  remarks,  rei  testis  non  sine  sui  pudore  refert,  quid  in 

that  when  he  wrote,  that  boy  was  living  and  illo  sit  passus  secreto  cubiculi  virtute  prae- 


52  LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS.      [September  3. 


On  several  occasions,  when  the  plague  prevailed  in  the  city  and  country 
around  Toul,  the  people  offered  prayers  to  St.  Mansuy,  and  bore  the  shrine 
containing  his  body  in  public  and  solemn  procession.  We  have  an  account 
of  that  deadly  plague,62  which  visited  the  city  during  the  pontificate  of  St. 
Gerard,  when  great  numbers  of  all  classes  and  of  both  sexes  were  stricken 
with  the  pest.  This  usually  proved  mortal  after  an  illness  of  three  days. 
Whereupon,  St.  Gerard  resolved  on  proclaiming  a  fast  for  three  days,  at  the 
end  of  which  time,  he  intended  removing  the  saint's  shrine  from  the  place  in 
which  it  had  been  deposited  not  long  before,  and  having  called  the  people 
together,  a  procession  was  formed  to  the  church  of  the  Blessed  Virgin  at 
Ecrouves,63  near  Toul.  From  that  time  forward,  the  plague  was  known  to 
have  decreased  in  virulence.  Yet,  public  apprehensions  were  not  wholly 
allayed,  when  a  second  and  much  greater  procession  took  place  to  the  Bene- 
dictine Convent,6*  at  Buxeria,6*  where  the  nuns  were  prepared  to  receive  the 
precious  remains.  In  that  place,  also,  Bishop  Gerard  spent  the  night. 
Multitudes  assembled  to  join  the  procession  from  the  villages  and  farms 
along  the  route,  both  going  and  returning ;  nor  was  the  River  Meurte  an 
obstacle  to  their  pious  zeal,  for  many  persons  forded  it,  although  swollen 
with  a  night's  rain.  On  the  return  to  St.  Maunsey's  church,  the  sun  shone 
out  with  remarkable  brightness,  while  the  enthusiasm  of  the  people  was  mani- 
fested in  tears  of  joy,  shared  even  by  their  saintly  bishop.  Although  abating, 
the  plague  had  not  altogether  ceased,  and  a  third  procession  was  ordered, 
when  the  bodies  of  St.  Maunsey  and  of  St.  Epvre  were  brought  in  their 
respective  shrines  through  the  streets  of  Toul.  Afterwards,  the  pest  entirely 
disappeared  to  the  great  relief  and  joy  of  the  people.66 

St.  Gerard  had  granted  the  villages  of  Angeria  and  Molesiac  to  the 
monastery  of  St.  Maunsey,  as  dependencies  for  its  maintenance ;  but,  he 
afterwards  revoked  this  grant,  and  then  he  remarked  a  sudden  failure  of  his 
strength  and  health.  He  became  so  spare  and  debilitated,  that,  he  had  no 
appetite,  nor  could  he  sleep,  Especially  for  three  weeks  did  he  continue  in 
this  state,  and  had  abandoned  all  hope  of  recovery.  Despite  the  objections 
raised  by  members  of  his  household,  he  expressed  a  wish  to  be  conveyed  to 
the  monastery  of  St.  Maunsey.  This  happened  in  the  year  974,  when  he 
was  afflicted  with  that  severe  malady,  which  his  physicians  were  unable  to 
heal  through  the  ordinary  courses  prescribed.  The  bishop  was  restored, 
however,  by  invoking  the  aid  of  St.  Maunsey,  and  by  making  a  visit  to  the 
holy  Patron's  shrine  and  monastery. 

A  remarkable  miracle,  wrought  in  favour  of  an  English  girl  through  the 
merits  of  St.  Maunsey,  took  place  in  the  year  iooq.6?   She  had  been  accessory 

stanti  beati  Mansueti." — Vita  prolixior,  lib.  by  no  religious  vow. 

ii.,  cap.  iii.,  p.  649.  6s  The    modern    French    name   for   it   is 

63  The  old  chronicler  in  relation  to  Toul  Bouxieres-aux- dames.     It  is  situated  on  the 

and  St.  Gerard,  adds  :  "  Ilanc  urbem  clades  River   Meurte,  and   near  its  junction   with 

ita    superveniens    irruperat,   ut    ad    unum  the  Moselle,  about  five  hours' journey  from 

quemlibet,  exceptis  aliis  diversarum  eccle-  Toul. 

siarum,  locum,  sicut  idem  pontifex  non  sine  ^  In  certain  Latin  hexameter  lines,  written 
gemitu  memorabat,  denos  vel  septenos  mor-  .    in  praise  of  St.  Gerard,  we  read,  that  he  saved 

fuorum  loculos  sub  oculis  aspiceret   inferri  the  Monastery  of  St.  Mansuy  from  fire  : — 

tumulandos."  "  Ccenobium    Sancti    conservat   ab   igne 

63  The  chronicler  remarks  that,  the  place  voraci." — See  Dom  Augustin  Calmet's 
was  remarkable,  also,  for  the  many  miracles  "  Histoire  Ecclesiastique  et  Civile  de  Lor- 
there  wrought.  raine,"  tome  i.  Preuves,  &c. ;  Ilistoiia  Epis- 

64  This  had  been  founded  by  St.  Gauzlin,  coporum  Tullensium,  cap.  xxxv.,  col.  133. 
and  it  was  tenanted  originally  by  Benedictine  67  See   Mabillon's   "  Annates   Ordinis   S. 
nuns.     In  the  last  century,  an  abbess  and  Benedicti,"  tomus  iv.,  lib.  lib.,   sect,   xxv., 
canonesses  were  the  occupants,  but  bound  pp.  209,  210. 


September  3.]       LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS. 


53 


to  her  mother's  death,  in  conjunction  with  her  brother,  a  cleric,  who  had 
resolved  on  avenging  a  family  injury.68  For  this  crime,  they  were  both  con- 
demned to  a  punishment  common  at  the  period,  which  was,  to  have  iron 
bands  fastened  about  their  arm  and  body.6^  They  were  also  obliged  to 
undertake  a  pilgrimage,  so  that  while  visiting  Jerusalem,  they  might  expiate 
in  some  measure,  their  matricide  by  prayer  at  the  holy  places. 7°  On  return- 
ing, the  guilty  brother  died,  but  his  sister  Godelinde  visited  Toul,  to  obtain 
relief  through  the  intercession  of  St.  Maunsey.  This  in  part  was  experienced, 
as  one  of  the  bands  loosened  on  her  arm,  the  other  remaining  fast.  She  was 
accompanied  through  a  motive  of  charity,  by  an  innocent  brother,  named 
Rodulf ;  and  they  next  resolved  on  a  pilgrimage  to  the  shrine  of  St.  Oldericus,?1 
the  patron  of  Augsburg.?2  However,  when  they  had  come  to  the  forest  of 
the  Vosges  mountains,  where  the  monastery  known  as  Vallis-Gaiilese  had 
been  founded  by  St.  Deodatus,73  Godelinde  had  a  vision  of  St.  Maunsey  in  her 
sleep,  and  she  was  recommended  by  him  to  return.  This  warning  she  would 
not  take,  but  continued  her  journey  towards  the  city  of  Strasburg.  Again 
the  vision  was  repeated  during  her  sleep  ;  yet  notwithstanding  the  dangers 
of  the  journey  represented  to  her,  she  would  persevere  in  her  resolution. 
The  sufferings  and  privations  endured  by  the  pilgrims  were  great 
beyond  expression ;  but,  she  at  length  returned  to  Toul,  in  the  extremity 
of  misery,  and  offered  up  her  prayers  with  vigils  at  the  tomb  of  St.  Maunsey. 
When  she  despaired  of  relief,  the  moment  of  mercy  came.  The  iron  band 
burst  asunder,  and  fell  from  her  arm.  Astonished  at  such  a  result,  she 
fainted  on  the  spot ;  but  soon  her  senses  were  restored,  and  she  returned 
full  of  joy  and  gratitude  to  the  country  of  her  birth. 74 


68  These  were  of  noble  birth  both  on  the 
father's  and  mother's  side.  When  about  to 
die,  the  father  commended  his  children  to 
the  care  of  his  wife  ;  but,  after  his  death, 
unmindful  of  the  trust  committed  to  her,  she 
again  married,  and  her  second  husband, 
while  retaining  the  daughter  in  her  paternal 
castle,  most  inhumanly  cast  out  her  brothers, 
and  deprived  them  of  their  natural  inherit- 
ance. Stung  to  frenzy  by  this  conduct,  the 
cleric,  with  an  armed  band,  and  in  the  dead 
hour  of  the  night,  entered  the  castle,  with 
the  aid  of  his  sister.  Proceeding  to  the  bed- 
chamber of  his  mother  and  step-father,  he 
endeavoured  to  kill  the  latter,  but  the  deadly 
weapon  transfixed  the  body  of  the  former. 

69  It  would  seem  the  provocation  had  been 
so  great,  and  probably  the  parricide  having 
been  unintentional,  the  culprits  escaped 
capital  punishment ;  but,  they  were  obliged 
to  bear  iron  bands  or  chains,  closely  bound 
on  the  naked  body  or  limbs.  In  this  case, 
the  brother  had  "  toto  trunco  corporis  artatur 
strictis  circulis,"  while  the  sister  "  accepit 
duos  in  sinistro  brachio."  During  the  ninth, 
tenth,  and  eleventh  centuries,  such  a  punish- 
ment was  frequently  inflicted  on  parricides, 
or  those  who  murdered  relations  in  blood, 
sometimes  for  a  term  of  years,  and  sometimes 
for  a  life-time  ;  while  they  were  enjoined  as 
an  expiatory  penance  to  visit  Jerusalem, 
Rome,  or  some  other  place,  where  saints  were 
held  in  particular  veneration.  Examples  of 
this  kind   are   to   be   found,  in   Mabillon's 


"  Annales  Ordinis  S.  Benedicti,"  tomus  i., 
lib.  iv.,  sect,  vii.,  pp.  87,  88. 

70  Certain  abuses  seem  to  have  arisen  from 
this  usage.  Thus,  in  a  Council,  held  at  Aix- 
la-Chapelle,  in  the  time  of  Charlemagne,  it 
was  decreed,  "  non  sinantur  vagari  et  decep- 
tiones  hominibus  agere  .  .  .  isti  nudi 
cum  ferro,  qui  dicunt  se  data  sibi 
poenitentia  ire  vagantes.  Melius  videtur,  ut, 
si  aliquid  inconsuetum  et  capitale  crimen 
commiserint,  uno  in  loco  permaneant  labo- 
rantes  et  servientes  et  pcenitentiam  agentes, 
secundum  quod  sibi  canonice  impositum 
sit." — Sirmond,  "  Conciliorum,"   tomus  ii., 

p.  154- 

71  St.  Oldericus  or  Uldaricus  is  venerated 
on  the  4th  day  of  July. 

72  Formerly  called  Augusta  Vindelicorum. 

73  Bishop  of  Nevers  and  Apostle  of  the 
Vosges  territory.  His  feast  is  held  on  the 
19th  of  June. 

74  The  more  circumstantial  details  of  this 
miracle,  as  given  in  the  Bollandists'  "Acta 
Sanctorum,"  thus  concludes  :  "  Praedicti 
tamen  circuli  pendent  ad  pedes  crucifixi 
Domini,  quorum  prior  Kalendis  Januarii 
proruit,  necnon  alter  XIII.  Kalendas  Junii 
cecidit  anno  ab  Incarnatione  Domini  nono 
et  milessimo,  pontificante  Tullense  ecclesiam 
domne  Bertoldo episcopo,  Indictione  vii." — 
Tomus  i.,  Septembris  iii.  De  S.  Mansueto 
Epis.  et  Conf.  Miraculum  quod  contigit 
anno  Mix.,  auctore  anonymo,  pp.  651  to 
653. 


54 


LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS.      [September  3. 


CHAPTER     III. 

STATE  OF  TOUL  DURING  THE  MIDDLE  AGES— REPUTED  CANONIZATION  OF  ST.  MAUNSEY  BY 
POPE  LEO  IX.— VARIOUS  TRANSLATIONS  OF  HIS  RELICS— THE  CATHEDRAL  OF  ST. 
STEPHEN,  AT  TOUL,  AND  ITS  SHRINES— DESTRUCTION  OF  ST.  MAUNSEY's  ANCIENT 
CHURCH  IN  THE  SIXTEENTH  CENTURY — FESTIVALS  AND  MEMORIALS  OF  ST.  MAUNSEY 
— COMMEMORATIONS  IN  CALENDARS  AND  MARTYROLOGIES— CONCLUSION. 

During  the  Middle  Ages,  Toul  maintained  a  sort  of  independence,1  under 
the  nominal  control  of  a  long  line  of  bishops,  and  as  a  free  city  of  the  German 
Empire.2  The  prelates  were  sovereigns,  who  regulated  its  government,  and 
appointed  its  guards  and  officials,  while  they  sat  as  magistrates  to  administer 
justice  in  cases  of  litigation  among  their  peopled 

The  public  veneration  for  St.  Maunsey  continued  to  increase,  when  St. 
Bruno*  was  consecrated  bishop  of  Toul,  a.d.  1027.5  He  entertained  the 
greatest  devotion  towards  the  holy  patron,  whose  intercession  procured  relief 
for  many  sufferers,  during  the  period  when  he  presided  over  that  see,  and 
until  he  was  called  upon  to  rule  over  the  universal  Church  in  1048,  under  the 
designation  St.  Leo  IX.6  Among  the  afflicted  was  a  person  of  distinction, 
named  Odelric  de  Novo-villari,?  who  had  experienced  so  many  benefits  from 
St.  Maunsey's  prayers,  that  he  desired  to  be  buried  in  the  church,  with  his 
wife,  and  he  left  certain  farms  of  land  to  the  monastery.  This  donation 
bishop  Bruno  confirmed  by  his  authority,  in  the  year  1034.  After  his 
elevation  to  the  chair  of  St.  Peter,8  and  while  still  in  the  city  of  Toul,  with  a 
certain  Deacon  Peter  of  the  Roman  Church,  another  miracles  is  recorded  to 
have  occurred  during  the  month  of  September,  a.d.  1049.  Li  tnis>  the 
eleventh  century,  St.  Maunsey  was  canonized,  as  we  are  told,  by  Pope  Leo 
the  Ninth,10     He  also  confirmed  the  rights  and  privileges  of  the  Chapter  of 


Chapter  hi.—1  The  French  kings  from 
the  Merovingian  period,  and  afterwards  the 
German  Emperors,  left  the  bishops  of  Toul 
temporary  lords  of  the  city  and  of  its  surround- 
ing territory.  The  inhabitants  of  the  former 
had  municipal  institutions,  while  the  latter 
was  held  in  fief  by  the  Dukes  of  Lorraine. 
See  "  Nouveau  Dictionnaire  de  Geographie 
Universelle,"  tome  vi.,  p.  758. 

2  See  Murray's  "  Handbook  for  Travellers 
in  France,"  sect,  ix.,  Route  165,  p.  618. 

3  Even  at  the  present  time,  a  stone  seat  on 
which  those  judgments  were  delivered  is 
shown  in  Toul.  See  Les  Petits  Bollandistes, 
"Vies  des  Saints,"  tome  iv.,  Jour  xxiiie 
d'Avril,  p,  623. 

*  He  was  son  to  Hughes,  Count  of 
Egisheim,  cousin-german  of  the  Emperor 
Conrad  le  Salique,  and  he  was  born  in  Alsace, 
June  21st,  a.d.  1002.  His  mother,  Heilvige, 
was  the  only  daughter  and  heiress  of  Louis, 
Count  of  Dachsbourg  or  Dagsbourg,  also 
known  as  Dabo.  His  career  in  the  Church 
was  distinguished.  See  ibid.,  Jour  xixe 
dAvril,  pp.  491  to  520. 

s  He  was  elected  by  the  clergy  and  people 
on  the  death  of  his  predecessor,  Bishop  Ber- 
thold.  See  Michaud,  "Biographie  Univer- 
selle, Ancienne  et  Moderne,"  tome  xxiv.,  p. 

15"- 

6  He  died  on  the  19th  of  April,  a.d.  1054. 
See  an  account  of  his  life  and  pontificate,  in 


R.  P.  Natalis  Alexandri  Ordinis  FF.  Prredi- 
catorum,  in  Sacra  Facultate  Parisiensi  Doc- 
toris  et  Emeriti  Professoris  "  Historia 
Ecclesiastica  Veteris  Novique  Testamenti," 
tomus  xiv.,  cap.  i.,  art.  vi.,  pp.  12  to  18. 

7  He  was  a  man  of  substance,  who  before 
his  death  bequeathed  two  Mansi,  and  other 
farms,  to  the  Monastery  of  St.  Mansuetus, 
on  the  xvii.  of  the  September  Kalends,  A.D. 
1034,  while  Hunald  was  Abbot,  and  this 
donation  was  confirmed  in  due  legal  form, 
with  the  seal  of  Bruno,  Bishop  of  Toul.  See 
Mabillon's  "  Annales  Ordinis  S- Benedicti," 
tomus  iv.,  lib.  lvii.,  num.  xxxvii.,  pp.  392, 393. 
The  term  Mansus,  Mama  or  Mansum  has 
various  significations,  according  as  it  may 
happen  to  be  employed,  as  explained  in  Du 
Cange's  "Glossarium  ad  Scriptores  Mediae 
et  Infimae  Latinitatis,"  tomus  iv.,  sub  voce, 
col.  432  to  435,  Ediiio  1733. 

8  The  Life  of  this  celebrated  Pontiff  was 
written  originally  by  three  contemporaneous 
authors  :  Wibert,  Archdeacon  of  the  Church 
of  Toul,  Anselm,  monk  ot  Saint-Remi,  and 
Bruno,  Bishop  of  Segni. 

9  It  is  to  be  found  very  circumstantially 
related,  in  M.  l'Abbe  Guillaume's  "  Histoire 
de  l'Eglise  de  Toul." 

10  See  Archbishop  Ussher's  "  Britannica- 
rum  Ecclesiarum  Antiquitates,"  cap.  xvi., 
pp.  389,  390.  Also,  Harris'  Ware,  vol.  ii. 
"  Writers  of  Ireland,"  book  i.,  chap,  i.,  p.  4. 


September  3.]      LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS. 


55 


Canons,  attached  to  Toul  Cathedral  in  1051."  We  have  already  seen,  that 
this  Sovereign  Pontiff  is  said  to  have  canonized  St.  Erard  or  Erhard"  of 
Ratisbon,  in  Bavaria — another  Irish  missionary — and  at  a  time  when  he  was 
a  visitor  to  that  city.1* 

While  Dodo14  ruled  over  the  monastery  of  St.  Maunsey,  he  laid  the 
foundations  of  a  tower,  which  was  carried  up  to  the  roof  of  the  church. 
During  the  time  his  successor  Abbot  Grimbaldus1^  presided  over  the  mon- 
astery of  St.  Maunsey,  he  completed  that  work,  which  was  one  of  great 
architectural  beauty,  while  it  was  surmounted  with  a  gilt  cross,  and  an  eagle 
with  out-spread  wings.  Moreover,  while  he  built  the  church  exteriorly,  he 
added  ornamental  features  within,  having  decorated  the  altar  of  Saints  Peter 
and  Paul  with  a  silver  tablet,  shining  with  gems  and  gold.  He  was  succeeded 
by  Albricus,16  whose  eloquence  and  learning  brought  a  large  concourse  of 
persons  to  the  sacred  mysteries  and  ceremonies  of  the  church,  so  that  he 
was  obliged  to  undertake  its  enlargement.  Albricus  therefore  raised  an 
ambit  of  wall,  and  by  a  circuit  it  was  brought  to  the  curvature  of  the  arches. 
In  the  crypt  of  this  building,  the  remains  of  that  Abbot  were  afterwards 
deposed. *?  Next  to  Albricus  came  Theomarus.18  He  resumed  the  work  of 
his  predecessor,  who  had  elevated  the  walls  to  the  vaulted  arches,  which 
were  to  support  two  towers.  These  were  built  very  speedily,  and  it  being 
necessary  to  continue  the  work  of  restoration,  the  old  altars  were  destroyed, 
and  gave  place  to  new  ones.  Afterwards,  the  relics  of  the  Holy  Apostles, 
with  a  portion  of  the  wood  of  the  True  Cross,1?  were  removed,  with  a  three 


11  See  this  decree  in  Dom  Augustin  Cal- 
met's  "  Histoire  Ecclesiastique  et  Civile  de 
Lorraine,"  and  thus  dated  :  "Datum  Tulli 
in  majora  Ecclesia  per  manus  Udonis  Tul- 
lensis  Ecclesise  primicerii,  cancellarii  et 
bibliothecarii  Sanctse  Apostolicae  Sedis  xj. 
Kalend.  Novembris,  anno  Dominica?  Incar- 
nationis  milessimo  quinquagesimo  primo, 
Indictione  iv.  anno  apostolatus  Domini 
Leon  is  IX.,  Papse  ij." — Tome  i.  Preuves 
de  1' Histoire  de  Lorraine,  cols.  435  to  437. 

12  See  his  Life,  in  the  First  Volume  of  this 
work,  at  the  8th  of  January,  Art.  ii.,  chap, 
iii. 

13  Probably  in  the  year  1052.  See  L'Abbe 
Fleury's  "  Histoire  Ecclesiastique,"  tome 
xii.,  liv.  lix.,  sect,  lxxix.,  p.  594. 

14  Dodo  was  the  nineteenth  Bishop  of 
Toul  in  the  order  of  succession.  See  Dom 
Aug.  Calmet's  "  Histoire  Ecclesiastique  et 
Civile  de  Lorraine,"  tome  i.  Preuves  de 
l'Histoire  de  Lorraine,  cols.  127,  170. 

'5  He  nourished  about  the  middle  of  the 
eleventh  century,  and  his  signature  is  found 
appended  as  witness  to  a  document  of  Udo, 
Bishop  of  Toul,  and  dated  a.d.  1065. 

16  He  ruled  over  the  monastery  of  St. 
Maunsey,  after  the  middle  of  the  eleventh 
century.  In  1076,  his  signature  is  found  in 
a  concession  of  Pibo,  who  succeeded  Udo  as 
Bishop  of  Toul.  Grimbaldus  had  died  not 
long  before  that  date,  and  Albricus  departed 
this  life,  A.D.  1092  or  1093. 

**  In  the  crypt  of  that  ancient  church  in 
which  he  had  been  buried,  Calmet  states, 
that  an  epitaph  had  been  found  inscribed 


with  these  lines : — 

"Abbas  Albricus  sapiens,  pius  atque  pudi* 

cus 
"  Hanc  fabricam  statuit,  causa  caputque 

fait" 
The  same  writer  has  it,  that  the  crypt  built 
by  the  Abbot  Albricus  was  consecrated — he 
does  not  give  the  patron's  title— on  the  5th 
of  September,  a.d.  1090,  by  Pipo,  Bishop  of 
Toul.  Father  Limpen  supposes  it  likely  to 
have  been  consecrated  to  St.  Maunsey,  and 
that  his  remains  had  been  there  deposited. 

18  Also,  his  name  is  written  Thiemarus. 
He  seems  to  have  been  Abbot  for  a  consider- 
able length  of  time,  extending  from  A.D. 
1092  or  1093  to  A.D.  1125  or  1 126,  when, 
according  to  the  old  chronicler,  "  plenus 
dierum  felici  exitu  migravit  ad  Dominum,  in 
ecclesia  eadem  II.  Kal.  Febr.  xxxni.  ordi- 
nationis  sua?  anno  cum  digno  honore  sepul- 
tus." 

19  These  relics  were  found  on  the  right 
side,  in  the  foremost  part  of  the  old  high 
alta'r,  and  in  a  stone  repository,  having  on  it 
this  inscription:  "  In  hoc  conditorio  shoe 
sunt  reliquiae  Sanctorum  Apostolorum  Petri 
et  Pauli,  insuper  etiam  de  ligno  Domini." 
On  opening  the  repository,  the  assistants 
found  eleven  bones  of  the  head,  and  dust 
mingled  with  blood,  seven  teeth,  and  sixteen 
pieces  of  squared  dies,  portions  of  the  True 
Cross.  This  account  is  taken  from  a  Manu- 
script of  the  twelfth  century,  but  written  by 
an  unknown  author.  Wherefore,  it  seems 
likely,  that  ancient  church  had  been  dedi- 
cated to  the  Apostles,  Saints  Peter  and  Paul. 


56  LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS.      'Septkmiskr  3. 


days'  fast  and  solemn  ceremonies.  However,  rumours  spread  in  Ton],  that 
in  the  time  of  St.  Gerard,  the  head  of  St.  Maunsey  was  separated  from  the 
body  on  the  occasion  of  that  translation  of  his  remains  to  which  allusion  has 
been  already  made ;  and  those  reports  naturally  caused  great  anxiety  and 
uneasiness  among  the  people  there,  especially  to  Theomarus  and  his  com- 
munity of  monks.  To  resolve  such  a  doubt,  as  the  old  wooden  shrine  of 
St.  Maunsey  was  unornamented  and  showing  signs  of  decay,  the  abbot  pro- 
posed to  Bishop  Pibo,20  who  then  ruled  over  the  See  of  Toul,  that  a  new 
shrine  should  be  prepared,  and  that  the  remains  should  be  again  transferred 
to  it.  This  process  was  calculated  to  remove  all  ambiguity,  as  it  should 
include  an  exposure  and  examination  of  their  actual  state.  Accordingly,  the 
bishop  convened  a  meeting  of  the  leading  ecclesiastics  and  chief  laics  of  the 
city ;  then  with  their  counsel  and  approval,  it  was  resolved  to  avail  of 
the  week  after  Pentecost,  when  a  general  synod  was  to  be  held  in  Toul,  as  a 
time  most  suitable  for  such  a  purpose.  An  announcement  was  made  by  the 
bishop  regarding  the  intended  translation.  This  drew  a  great  assemblage  of 
clergy  and  laity,  even  from  places  very  remote,  to  witness  the  solemn  cere- 
monies. Wherefore,  in  the  year  1104,  a  new  wooden  shrine,  ornamented 
with  gold,  silver  and  precious  stones,  was  procured.  Bishop  Pibo  officiated 
at  that  translation,21  attended  by  the  Abbot  Theomarus,  the  Abbot  Widric  of 
St.  Aper,-the  Abbot  Stephen  of  Besuensis,  the  Abbot  Odelric  of  St.  Urban, 
with  a  great  number  of  religious,  and  a  vast  crowd  of  people,  among  them 
some  of  the  most  distinguished  persons.  The  old  shrine  was  raised  to  a 
position  in  the  church  where  it  could  be  seen  by  all  within  the  sacred  build- 
ing. The  lid  was  removed,  and  to  the  great  joy  of  all,  the  head  of  St. 
Maunsey  was  found  joined  to  the  other  members  of  his  body,  covered  over 
with  a  long  garment.  As  the  church  was  unable  to  contain  the  enormous 
multitude  of  visitors  to  Toul  on  this  occasion,  the  shrine  was  brought  out 
into  the  adjoining  field,  the  sun  shining  with  uncommon  brightness.  There 
all  had  an  opportunity  for  seeing,  that  the  head  and  other  members  of  St. 
Maunsey  had  been  preserved,  so  that  occasion  for  doubt  on  the  subject  no 
longer  remained.  As  described — and  probably  by  an  eye-witness — psalms 
were  sung,  great  enthusiasm  pervaded  the  multitude  assembled,  the  shrine 
was  carried  back  in  procession  to  the  church,  and  votive  offerings  were  made. 
With  suitable  and  reverent  ceremonial,  the  saints'  remains  were  elevated  from 
the  old  shrine,22  and  transferred  to  the  new  and  more  costly  one  prepared  to 
receive  them.23 

Again,  in  1106,  and  during  the  reign  of  the  Emperor  of  Germany 
Henry  IV., a«  the  church  was  solemnly  consecrated,  Pibo  the  Bishop  of  Toul 
officiating.  Theobald  was  the  Abbot  immediately  succeeding  Theomarus, 
in  the  year  1125  or  1126,  and  during  his  presidency  at  Toul,  several  miracles 

20  He  was  the  thirty-eighth  bishop  in  "Nova  ergo  archa  miro  opere  fabricata 
succession  over  the  See  of  Toul,  and  he  came  subiit,  et  pra:sentem  thesaurum,  corpus  scili- 
immediately  after  Udo.  He  died,  the  thirty-  cet  sanctissimum  ferro  undique  obserata  ser- 
eighth  year  after  his  ordination,  on  the  8ih  vandum  suscepit." 

of  December,  a.  D.   1107.      See  Dom  Aug.  =3  See  the  Bollandists' "  Acta  Sanctorum," 

Calmet's  "  Histoire  Ecclesiastique  et  Civile  tomus  i.,  Septembris  iii.     I)e  S.  Mansueto 

de  Lorraine,"  tome  i.     Preuvesdel'IIistoire  Epis.  et  Conf.     Elevatio  Corporis  facta  an. 

de  Lorraine  ;    HistoriaEpiscoporum  Tullen-  MCI  v.,  auctore  anonymo,  pp.  655,  656. 

sium,  col.  178.  24  He   reigned  from  a.d.  1056  to  the  7th 

21  See  Guillaume's  "Notice  historique  et  of  August,  a.d.  1 106,  when  he  died  at  Liege, 
archeologique  sur  l'Abbaye  de  Saint-Man-  See  Kohlrausch,  "  Histoire  d'Allemagne, 
suy,"  1879,  8vo.  depuis  les  Temps    les  plus  recutes  jusqu'a 

22  The  account  of  the  old  and  anonymous  l'Annee,  1838,"  traduit  de  l'Allemand,  par 
chronicler,    as  given   in    Martene,    states:  A.  Guinefolle.     Quatrieme  Epoque,  p.  135. 


September  3.]      LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS.  57 


were  wrought,  through  the  intercession  of  St.  Maunsey.  At  this  time,  also, 
some  troubles  had  arisen  in  consequence  of  a  neighbouring  tyrannical  Count 
of  Sanctensis  having  destroyed  some  property  belonging  to  the  Canons.  As 
a  protest,  and  to  obtain  their  intercession  against  such  an  unjust  invasion  of 
secular  power,  the  shrines  of  St.  Maunsey,  St.  Aper  and  St.  Gerard  were 
elevated  in  the  cathedral  church — that  of  St.  Maunsey,  as  being  the  principal 
patron  of  the  city,  having  been  raised  highest  in  position.  There  the  faith- 
ful assembled  in  united  prayers  and  special  devotions.  Among  them  was  a 
woman,  whose  nerves  had  been  so  contracted  that  she  was  obliged  to  use 
crutches,  but  who  miraculously  recovered  the  use  of  her  limbs  in  presence  of 
many  worshippers.  In  like  manner,  the  faith  of  two  other  women  and  of  a 
young  girl,  who  had  been  similarly  afflicted,  was  rewarded  by  miraculous 
restorations.  A  boy  recovered  from  paralysis,  and  another  relieved  from  a 
swollen  tongue  and  face,  with  a  blind  woman  restored  to  sight,  are  recorded 
in  the  list  of  miracles.  Another  person  quite  disabled  and  mute,  named 
Bruno,  owed  his  recovery  to  the  saint's  intercession.  Still  more  wonderful 
was  the  restoration  to  his  parents  and  to  life  of  a  son,  who  was  thought  to  be 
dead,  and  who  was  bewailed  as  such,  preparations  having  been  made  for  his 
interment.  However,  he  revived  before  such  a  fate  had  overtaken  him,  and 
to  his  mother  lamenting  cried  out:  "  O  devout  mother,  immediately  entreat 
the  saint  of  God,  whom  you  promise  to  invoke,  and  bring  me  with  you,  since 
through  his  bounty  I  revive,  having  scarcely  escaped  the  bonds  of  death  with 
my  approaching  funeral."25  This  happened  at  Rogeville,  about  five  French 
leagues  from  Toul,  and  on  the  iii.  of  the  September  Nones,  while  the  faithful 
were  engaged  celebrating  the  Natalis  of  St.  Maunsey.  Furthermore  are 
mentioned  instances  of  a  soldier  miraculously  escaping  from  his  enemies,  who 
had  made  him  a  prisoner,  and  of  a  young  man  who  was  released,  through 
prayers  to  the  saint,  from  the  power  of  a  robber,  who  had  bound  him  in 
chains.26  In  the  time  of  Theomarus'  successor,  Rainald,  Simon  I.,  Duke  of 
Lotharingia,  and  his  wife,  the  Duchess  Adelaide,  granted  the  farm  of  Monces 
in  perpetuity  to  the  monastery.  This  was  done  in  a  solemn  and  public 
manner,  their  sons,  Mathew  and  Baldwin,  consenting,  while  before  a  great 
congregation  of  clerics  and  laics,  the  charter  of  donation,  duly  signed  by 
witnesses,  was  laid  on  the  altar  of  St.  Maunsey.2? 

The  last  public  translation  of  St.  Maunsey's  relics  took  place  in  the  year 
1506.28  The  bishops  of  Toul  had  granted  charters  at  various  periods  to  the 
citizens,  which  enlarged  their  privileges ;  but,  they  experienced  more  difficulty 
in  preserving  their  suzerainty  over  the  Dukes  of  Lorraine.  These  disputes 
were  not  wholly  settled,  until  in  the  middle  of  the  sixteenth  century,  when 
the  territory  was  placed  under  French  protection,2^ as  down  to  the  year  1552, 


Bruxelles,  1839,  sm.  fol.  ^  See  the  Bollandists'  "  Acta  Sanctorum,'' 

23  The   writer   of  the   foregoing  account  tomus  i.,  Septembris  iii.      De  S.  Mansueto 

adds:    "  Talia  redevivum  perorasse  filium,  Epis.  et  Conf.     Commentarius  Proevius,  sect, 

seriatim    tandem   nobis  mater  ipsa  reiulit  ;  v.,  pp.  631  to  633. 

cum  eundem  puerum  altari  sancto  mancipa-  2B  See  Les  Peiits  Bollandistes,  "Vies  des 

turn  obiulit,  et  ad   fletum  circumstantes  ipsa  Saints,"  iiie  Jour  de  Septembre,  p.  433. 

gemens  impulit.     Testabatur  jam  id  ipsum  29  "  D'accord  avec  i'autorite  ecclesiastique 

denigrata  fades,  cute  partim    depilata  jam  et    s'administrant    eux-memes,    les   Toulois 

rara  canaries,  squalens  vultus,  pallens  color  se  firent  respecter  des  seigneurs  du  voisinage 

et  rugosa  macies  ;  a  vivente  fere  dispar,  ut  et  prirent  sur  eux,  in  1545,  de  se  mettre  sous 

ab  igne  glacies."  la  protection  des  rois  de  Fiance,  prehulaut 

20 See  the  Bollandists'  "  Acta  Sanctorum,''  ainsi  a  1'annexion  des  Trois-Eveches,  con- 

tomus  i.,  Septembris  iii.     De  S.  Mansueto  summee  en  1552." — Nouveau   Dictionnaire 

Epis.  et  Conf.     Miracula  ab  anno  circiter  de    Geographie    Universelle,"  tome   vi.,  p. 

mdcxxv.  usque  ad  mcxxxvi.  ,  pp.  656  to  658.  758. 


58  LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS.      [September  3. 


Toul  had  been  a  free  city  of  the  German  Empire.3°  At  that  time,  having 
formed  an  alliance  with  Prince  Maurice  of  Saxony,  the  King  of  France, 
Henry  II.,  took  the  field  against  the  Emperor  Charles  V.  Marching  into 
Lorraine,  he  gained  possession  of  Toul,  Verdun  and  Metz,3J  These  impor- 
tant conquests,  he  annexed  to  the  French  monarchy.  However,  the 
Emperor  could  not  brook  such  a  dishonour  as  to  allow  a  territory  of  especial 
consequence  to  be  dismembered  from  the  German  Empire.  Accordingly, 
he  approached  Metz*2  with  a  great  army  in  1552.  The  French  then 
destroyed  the  ancient  Church  of  St.  Maunsey,  in  the  suburbs  of  Toul. 33  This 
was  done,  doubtless,  to  defend  better  the  old  fortifications3*  of  that  place. 
In  the  church  of  the  former  Abbey  had  been  long  preserved  a  stone,  on 
which,  according  to  a  tradition  current  among  the  people,  the  impression  of 
the  knees  of  St.  Martin  of  Tours  could  be  seen,  and  which  indicated  their 
belief,  that  he  had  frequently  visited  the  city  of  their  patron,35  At  the 
period  of  invasion,  that  stone  had  been  brought  within  the  walls,  and 
deposited  in  the  Church  of  St.  Gengulph.  Afterwards,  for  many  years,  it 
was  to  be  seen  with  an  inscription,  which  purported,  that  St.  Martin  had 
visited  Toul,  and  prayed  at  the  tomb  of  St.  Mansuetus.  However,  this  stone 
can  no  longer  be  discovered. 36  Still,  on  the  northern  side  of  the  city  are  to 
be  seen  the  monastery  and  church  of  the  Benedictines,  occupying  the  site 
of  that  ancient  temple,  dedicated  to  the  Prince  of  the  Apostles,  and  over- 
turned in  1552.  The  sepulchral  stone,  which  covered  the  saints'  vault, 
represents  him  in  pontifical  habiliments,  and  removing  the  emblems  of 
paganism,  with  an  infant  engaged  in  prayer  by  his  side.  At  the  present 
time,  this  object  of  interest  is  to  be  seen  ;  but,  it  is  now  on  the  property  of 
a  lay  possessor.  Again,  there  is  an  image  of  an  infant  carved  on  a  stone  in 
the  rampart  of  St.  Mansuy's  bastion ;  and  doubtless,  this  is  intended  to 
represent  the  governor's  son,  who  had  been  brought  to  life,  through  the 
miraculous  interposition  of  the  holy  bishop.  It  is  furthermore  confirmatory 
of  the  ancient  tradition  of  the  Toulois,  in  reference  to  their  venerated  Patron. 37 
Toul  was  definitely  added  to  France,  after  the  middle  of  the  sixteenth  century. 
The  vast  diocese  of  Toul  was  dismembered  in  the  eighteenth  century,38  and 
suppressed  in  1790,  to  create  the  dioceses  of  Nancy  and  Saint  Die.  The 
Cathedral  of  Nancy39  is  a  large  modern  edifice,  of  fine  proportions.*0     Nancy 

30  See  Murray's  "  Handbook  for  Travellers  church  destroyed  in  1552  had  not  been 
in  France,"  sect,  ix.,  Route  165,  p.  618.  restored  ;  but,  the  Benedictine  monks  had 

31  See  Jac.  Augusti  Thuani  "  Historiarum  converted  the  old  refectory  of  the  monastery 
sui  Temporis,"  tomus  i.,  lib.  x.,  num.  vi.,  p.  into  a  chapel,  in  which  they  recited  the 
347.     Londini,  1733,  fol.  Divine  Office.     There,  too,  is  supposed  to 

32  See  Rev.  Dr.  Wm.  Robertson's  "  His-  remain  the  body  of  St.  Maunsey,  according 
tory  of  the  Reign  of  Charles  the  Fifth,"  to  the  statement  of  the  two  Benedictines,  in 
book  xi.  the  "Itinerarium    Literarium,"  pars  ii.,  p. 

33  See    Dom    Aug.    Calmet's    "  Histoire  130,  Paris  1717. 

Ecclesiastique  et  Civile  de  Lorraine,"  tome  36  See     Augustine     Calmet's    "Histoire 

iii.,  liv.  xxxiii.,  num.  Ixvi.,  col.  80.  Ecclesiastique  et  Civile  de  Lorraine,"  tome 

34  These  were  levelled  in  1700.     The  place       iii.,  liv.  xxxiii.,  num.  66. 

was    considerably  improved   and    enlarged  37  See  Les  Petits  Bollandistes'  "  Vies  des 

afterwards,   by  the   construction  of  a  new  Saints,"  iiie  Jour  de  Septembre,  p.  433. 

rampart,  flanked  with  bastions.      "  Toul  a  38  See  Guillaume's  "  Histoire  des  Dioceses 

&e  tr&s-souvent  asstegee,  prise,    devastee  ;  de  Toul  et  Nancy."— Nancy,  1867,  8vo. 

en   1870,   elle   a  tres-energiquement  resiste  39  This  city,  situated  on  a  beautiful  plain, 

aux   armees  prussienns  et  les  a  longtemps  is  on  the  left  bank  of  the  Meurthe,  and  it  is 

forcees  &  se  detourner  de  leur  route  dans  leur  the    capital     of    the    Department    of    the 

marche  sur  Paris." — Elisee  Reclus'  "Nou-  Meurthe.    It  contains  many  handsome  public 

velle  Geographie  Universelle,"  liv.  ii.,  chap,  buildings.     See  "  Gazetteer  of  the  World," 

xiii.,  sect,  iv.,  p.  837.  vol.  x.,  p.  446. 

35  In  the  early  part  of  the  last  century,  the  4°  From  an  approved  point  of  view,  and 


September  3.]       LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS. 


59 


was  the  ancient  capital  of  Lorraine,  and  since  the  seventeenth  century  it  has 
become  one  of  the  most  beautiful  and  improved  cities. 4I     Many  fine  public 


Cathedral  of  Nancy, 
buildings  are  there,  and  the  Cathedral  of  Notre  Dame,  built  in  a  classic  style,*2 
possesses  several  beautiful  paintings  and  statues. 

That  they  might  be  preserved  from  the  fury  of  the  revolutionists,  the 
relics  of  St.  Mansuy,  with  those  of  other  saints  belonging  to  the  Cathedral, 
were  divided  among  the  Canons.  This  occurred  on  the  1  ith  of  July,  1790, 
when  ruin  seemed  to  threaten  all  the  ecclesiastical  foundations  in  France. 
An  inventory  was  then  taken  of  the  church  treasures,  by  commissioners 
appointed  for  that  purpose.  A  proces-verbal  designated  the  portions  of  our 
saints'  relics  distributed  to  each  individual  canon  for  safe  keeping.*3  In  due 
course  of  time,  most  of  those  relics  were  restored.  The  former  Cathedral 
Church  of  Toul  now  possesses  the  head,  the  Church  of  St.  Gengolf  the  shoulder- 
blade,  and  that  of  St.  Nicholas-de-Port  a  rib  of  St.  Mansay."  After  the 
French  Revolution,  the  Canons  of  Toul  and  M.  Aubry,  Cure  of  St.  Gengoult, 
examined  most  of  those  relics,  preserved  in  the  Cathedral,  and  assisted  by  M. 
Le  Docteur  Godron,  Dean  of  the  Faculty  of  Science  at  Nancy,  they  distributed 
several  portions  of  them.  The  cathedral  of  Nancy  obtained  part  of  St. 
Mansuy's  shoulder-blade,  and  the  chapel  of  the  Christian  Doctrine  there 
procured  some  fragments  of  his  relics.  The  red  cape  of  the  saint,  with  gold 
braid,  had  been  preserved  in  a  shrine  of  the  Abbey,  beneath  the  walls  of 
Toul.  A  portion  of  that  relic  is  kept  in  the  shrine  of  St.  Gauzlin,  in  the 
Cathedral  of  Nancy.45 


from  a  correct  engraving,  the  accompanying 
illustration  has  been  reproduced  on  the  wood 
and  engraved  by  Gregor  Grey. 

41  The  old  town  had  crooked  and  irregular 
streets,  until  Stanislaus,  father-in-law  to 
Louis  XV.,  undertook  the  work  of  erecting 
many  imposing  structures,  and  of  laying  out 
several  handsome  faubourgs.  See  Elisee 
Reclus'  "  Nouvelle  Geographic  Universelle," 
tomeii.,  chap,  xiii.,  sect,  iv.,  p.  835. 


42  Ed.  Auguin  has  issued  "  Monagraphie  de 
la  Cathedrale  de  Nancy,"  in  4to. 

43  A  detailed  account  of  this  transfer  may 
be  found  in  the  Petits  Bollandistes'  "Vies 
des  Saints,"  tome  x.,  Jour  iiie  de  Septembre, 

PP-  434,  435- 

44  See  Rev.  S.  Baring-Gould's  "  Lives  of 
the  Saints,"  vol.  ix.,  p.  36. 

45  See  Les  Petits  Bollandistes,  "  Vies  des 
Saints,"tomex.Jouriiiede  Septembre, p. 435. 


6o  LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS.     [September  3. 


In  art,  St.  Mansuy  is  represented  as  bringing  to  life  a  child  that  had  been 
killed  by  a  hand-ball.  Also,  lie  is  represented  as  a  bishop  preaching  in  a 
wood  to  a  great  crowd/6  He  is  figured  with  a  pelerine  or  tippet,  denominated 
a  superhiwicral  or  rathfial,  which  was  the  ordinary  characteristic  garment  of 
the  Toul  prelates  and  of  other  bishops,  and  it  indicates  a  sort  of  metropolitan 
distinction.     Moreover,  he  appears  as  raising  a  young  nobleman  to  life.4? 

At  the  3rd  of  September,  the  office  of  St.  Maunsey  has  been  recited,  not 
alone  in  the  diocese  of  Toul,  but  even  in  more  distant  places.  It  is  con- 
tained in  several  old  Breviaries,  but  the  Lessons — taken  mostly  from  Adso  — 
include  some  historical  inaccuracies.  The  Bollandists  had  in  their  Library 
a  MS.  Pars  ^Estiva  of  an  office  belonging  to  the  Church  of  Toul,  in  the 
calendar  of  which  St.  Mansuetus  was  distinguished  from  other  saints,  owing 
to  the  rubrical  character  of  its  lettering  ;*8  they  had  also  another  Breviary  of 
Toul  diocese,  printed  at  Paris,  in  the  year  1530/9  In  both  Breviaries,  an 
office  for  St.  Maunsey  of  Nine  Lessons  was  to  be  found,  but  these  were  taken 
lrom  the  incorrect  Life  written  by  Adso.  Likewise,  in  the  Missal  printed  at 
Mayence,  a.d.  1493,  at  the  3rd  of  September,  are  the  Collects,  secret  prayer 
and  complementary  prayer  or  Post-Communion  of  Saints  Mansuetus  and 
Remaclus.50  In  the  Breviary  of  Soissons,  printed  a.d.  1590,  there  is  a 
commemoration  of  St.  Mansuetus.  In  a  Breviary  printed  a.d.  1600  for  the 
use  of  the  three  monasteries  of  St.  Maximums  and  of  St.  Willibrordus.  in 
Treves,  and  of  St.  Narbor,  in  the  diocese  ot  Metz,  the  feast  of  St.  Remaclus 
and  of  St.  Mansuetus  is  noted.51  In  the  Breviary,  printed  at  Langres  a.d. 
1604,  there  is  an  office  for  St.  Maunsey  ;52  and  also,  in  that  printed  at  Wurtz- 
burgh,  a.d.  1625.53  Moreover,  there  is  a  Proper  Office  for  him,  in  the 
Breviary5**  of  the  Collegiate  Church  of  St.  Maximus,  at  Chinon  ;55  and  in  that 
of  Verdun,56  printed  a.d.  1625  ;  likewise,  in  that  of  St.  Peter's  Church, 
Remiremont,  Lorraine,  printed  in  1657. 5? 

Besides  this  day  for  our  saint's  chief  feast,  he  is  commemorated  on  the 
25th  of  April,58  on  the  14th  of  June,5?  as  also  on  the   2nd  of  Septem- 


46  See  Rev.  Dr.  F.  C.  Husenbeth's  "  Em-  54  Thus  noticed  :  "  Sancti  Mansueti  epis- 

blems  of  Saints,"  p.    137.     Third  edition,  copi  et  confess.     Duplex  Solenne  propter 

Norwich,  1882,  8vo.  sacras  ejus  reliquias,  qux  sunt  in  basilica 

4?  Probably  the  son  of  the  ancient  governor  Sancti  Maximi."    What  relics  of  our  saint 

of  the  City  of  Toul.     See  ibid.  had  been  there  venerated  is  now  unknown. 

48  This  must  have  been  written  at  an  eariy  ss  A  town  in  the  province  of  Tours, 

date,  since  no  entry  of  St.  Louis,  King  of  56  Celebrated   with  St.    Remaclus   in   an 

France,  nor  of  the  Patriarchal  religious  foun-  office  thus  noticed  :  "  Fiunt  de  ipsis  Novem 

ders,   St.  Francis  or  St.  Dominick,  nor  of  Lectiones,  et  omnia  sumunturde  communi 

saints  living  at  a  later  period,  could  be  found  plurimorum  confessorum  pontificum. 

in  it.  57  in  it  we  read  :  "  In  festo  S.  Mansueti 

4'  The  prescribed  prayer  for  Lauds  and  episcopi  et  confessoris.     Duplex.     Omnia 

Vespers  in  it  reads  thus  :  "  Majestatis  tuse,  de    communi    confessoris   pontificis   proeter 

Domine,  potentiam  humiliter  imploramus,  lectiones  IL  Nocturni." 

ut  sicut  per  beatum  Mansuetum  confessorem  s8  According  to  extracts  from  an  ancient 

tuum  atque  pontificem  nos  dedisti  verse  fidei  Martyrology  of  Luxeu,  which  Father  Peter 

esse  cultores,    ita   ejus  mentis   facias  vitoe  Francis  Chifflet  procured  for  the  Bollandists. 

ccelestis  esse  consortes.     Per  Dominum."  Therein,  at  the  25th  of  April,   was  read  : 

50  Bishop   of  Maestricht   and   Confessor.  "  Translatio    sancti    Mansueti    episcopi    et 

His  feast  and  office  are  also  assigned  to  the  confessoris."     It  may  be,  this  festival  refers 

same  date.  to  the  first  translation  of  St.  Maunsey's  relics  ; 

s1  Thus  :  "  Remacli  et  Mansueti.     Omnia  or  perhaps,  to  that  made  by  Bishop  Gerard, 

in  communi  de  pluribus  confessoriis."  when  he  presided  over   the   See  of  Toul. 

s2  Noticed  "  De  Sancto  Mansueto  ferial."  However,    regarding    this    ascribed    feast, 

s3  In  the  proper  offices  are   mentioned  :  nothing   appears   to  have  survived    in   the 

"  S.  Remacli  et  Mansueti  confess,  pontificum.  traditions  of  the  clergy  or  people. 

Omnia  de  communi  conf.  pontif."  59  This  festival  was  a  commemoration  of 


September  3.]       LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS.  61 


ber/°  Through  some  mistake,  it  would  appear,  that  the  people  of  Treves  had  a 
St.  Maunsey  in  veneration,  as  their  seventh  Bishop,  and  they  celebrated  his 
festival  on  the  18th  of  February.  As  no  certain  traces  of  such  a  distinctive 
saint  can  be  found,  in  any  authentic  record ;  it  has  been  surmised,  that  it 
is  possible  St.  Maunsey  of  Toul  may  have  been  selected  to  fill  that  position 
of  reverence  in  the  metropolitan  church,  for  some  reason  not  now  known. 
However,  Father  Limpen  adduces  argument  sufficient  to  prove  that  our 
saint  had  no  special  connexion  with  the  church  of  Treves.61 

Several  churches,  monasteries  and  chapels  have  been  built  and  dedicated 
in  honour  of  St.  Maunsey,  and  his  relics  have  been  distributed  in  various 
places.  Besides  the  parent  church  and  monastery  of  Toul  without  the  walls, 
St.  Gerard  erected  one  within  the  city,  and  it  was  dedicated  in  honour  of  the 
Blessed  Virgin  Mary  and  of  St.  Mansuetus.  At  Furentela,  or  Vourentel — 
not  far  from  Aix-la-Chapelle — was  a  church  consecrated  by  Pope  Leo  IX., 62 
to  the  holy  martyrs  Laurence  and  Vincent,  and  to  the  holy  confessors,  Man- 
suetus and  Apri.  In  a  place  called  Sisseium — supposed  to  be  identical  with 
Sexey  aux  bois  or  Sexey  aux  Forges — there  was  a  chapel  dedicated  to  St. 
Mansuetus.  Also,  in  the  Vosges  mountains,  a  ca?icellum  was  erected  under 
the  patronage  of  this  holy  bishop.  Moreover,  we  read,  that  in  the  time  of 
Pibo,  bishop  of  Toul,  and  towards  the  close  of  the  eleventh  century,  he 
consecrated  various  churches  in  honour  of  St.  Maunsey.  At  Dijon  an  altar 
was  dedicated  to  him,  in  a  crypt  of  the  Church  of  St.  Benignus.  Again,  at 
Liverdun,  there  was  an  altar  dedicated  to  Saints  Maunsey  and  Gerard,  con- 
fessors, and  it  was  placed  at  the  right-hand  side  of  the  choir.  In  the  Metro- 
politan Church  of  Prague,  and  in  the  chapel  there  dedicated  to  St.  Winceslaus, 
a  part  of  St.  Maunsey's  arm  was  preserved,  with  other  relics,63  in  a  magnificent 
shrine  on  the  high  altar.6*  According  to  Dempster,65  in  Argadia  was  venerated 
Mansuet,  bishop,  who  promoted  Christianity  at  the  first  Council  of  Tours  in 
Gaul,  a  companion  of  St.  Perpetuus  of  Tours,  of  Guyaxus  of  Rheims,  of 
Thalaussius  of  Andegavensis,  of  Victurius  Cenomanensis.  We  can  find  no 
authority  whatever  for  such  statements,  and  can  only  wonder  at  the  shameless 
audacity  of  any  writer  to  perpetrate  such  a  forgery.66 

The  chief  festival  of  St.  Mansuy  is  noticed  in  nearly  all  the  chief  Calen- 
dars and  Martyrologies,  at  the  3rd  of  September.  However,  in  the  pure 
text  of  Usuard,  which  Father  Soller  has  edited,  at  such  date  the  name  of  our 
saint  does  not  occur;  but,  in  the  additions  to  that  martyrologist,  he  is 
mentioned.67  Likewise,  his  feast  is  entered  in  the  Martyrologies  of  Mauro- 
lycus,  Felicius,  Galesinius  and  Castellan.     The  announcement  in  the  Roman 

the  Translation  of  our  saint's  relics  by  Bishop  the  neighbourhood. 

Pibo,  and  which  took  place  on  the  xviii.  of  63  These  were  collected  through  the  pious 

the  July  Kalends,  a.d.  1104.     This  is  noted  care  of  King   Charles  IV.,   and  a  printed 

by  Greven,  and  in  the  Kalendar  prefixed  to  catalogue  of  them  was  issued  in  the  year  1679. 

an  old  Manuscript  Breviary  of  Toul,  as  also  64  See  the  Bcllandists'  •'  Acta  Sanctorum," 

in  that  printed  a.d.  1530.  tomus  i.,  Septembris  iii.     De  S.  Mansueto 

60  However,  this  seems  to  have  been  an  Epis.    et    Conf.      Commentarius    Praevius, 

error   of  entry   in   a   Manuscript    Copy   of  sect,  vi.,  pp.  633  to  636. 

Usuard,  found  in  the  Benedictine  Monastery  6s  See    Bishop    Forbes'    "  Kalendars    of 

of  Anchin,  near  Douay  :   unless  indeed  the  Scottish   Saints."'      Menologium  Scoticum, 

vigil  of  our  saint's  chief  festival  had  been  p.  195. 

intended.  ^  To  ignorance  alone  do  we  attribute  the 

6'  See  "Acta  Sane tu rum,"  tomus  i.,  Sep-  statement  referring  to  our  saint :   •'  Sedebat 

tembris  iii.     De  S.  Mansueto  Epis.  et  Conf.  anno  lxii.  die  III.  Septembris."—"  Historia 

Commentarius  Prrevius,  sect,  vi.,  num.  76,  Ecclesiastica  Gentis  Scotorum,"  tomus  ii., 

77,  pp.  634,  635.  lib.  xii.,  num.  838,  p.  448. 

62  This  happened  in  1049,  according  to  6?  Thus,  in  the  manuscript  versions  of 
Hermannus  Contractus,  a  contemporaneous  Usuard  at  Antwerp,  Utrecht,  Leyden,  Lou- 
writer,  and  when  that  Pope  was  on  a  visit  to  vain,  Antverpiensis  Maximus,  Albergensis, 


62  LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS.      [September  3. 


Martyrology,  at  the  3rd  of  September,  "TulU  in  Gallia,  sancti  Mansueti 
episcopi  et  confessoris,"68  embraces  what  is  found  in  the  additions  to  Usuard 
and  in  the  Martyrologies  previously  cited. 69  In  some  Martyrologies,  such  as 
in  certain  Usuardine  editions,  in  a  Florarian  MS.  of  the  Saints,  belonging 
to  the  Bollandists,  in  the  German  Martyrology  of  Canisius,  in  Wilson's 
Martyrologium  Anglicanum,  and  in  Saussay's  Martyrologium  Gallicanum, 
while  entering  the  holy  Bishop's  festival  at  the  3rd  of  September,  they  con- 
sider him  to  have  been  a  disciple  of  St.  Peter,  which  supposition  more  recent 
investigations  have  entirely  disproved.  In  the  Martyrology  of  the  Church  of 
the  Holy  Trinity,  Dublin,  the  feast  of  St.  Mansuetus  has  been  recorded,  at 
the  3rd  of  September.?0  The  feast  of  S.  Mansu,  at  Septembre  3.,  is  entered 
in  a  Kalendar,  prefixed  to  "  Heures  de  Nostre-Dame  a  l'usage  du  Mans." 
September  3rd,  in  the  Annals  of  the  Cistercian  Monks,"?1  is  dedicated  to  St. 
Mansuet,  first  Bishop  of  Toul,  in  Lorraine.  In  Baillet's  M  Les  Vies  des 
Saints,"?2  St.  Maunsey  or  St.  Mause,  first  Bishop  of  Toul,  in  Lorraine,  is 
recorded  at  this  same  date. 

A  French  writer  has  remarked,  that  the  zeal  and  learning  of  Scottish 
preachers  made  such  an  impression  on  their  contemporaries,  that  Ireland 
was  known  as  the  Holy  Island  of  Christians,  even  as  the  Phoenicians  had 
formerly  called  it,  in  Pagan  times,  the  Sacred  Isle.?3  In  the  case  of  St. 
Maunsey,  who  lived  in  the  primitive  ages,  he  had  become  a  missionary 
of  Christ,  and  had  spread  the  light  of  Faith  in  a  region  of  France,  that 
had  not  then  heard  the  truths  of  the  Gospel  proclaimed.  Moreover, 
it  is  remarkable,  that  even  in  his  own  Island,  the  standard  of  the  cross 
had  not  been  erected  by  its  great  Apostle  St.  Patrick,  at  that  period,  when 
the  grace  of  conversion  was  vouchsafed  to  one  of  its  emigrants,  who  visited 
Rome,  the  centre  of  Christianity,  and  who  received  from  the  Sovereign 
Pontiff  his  commission  to  gain  numbers  of  converts  in  France  to  the  One, 
Holy,  Catholic  and  Apostolic  Church. 


ARTICLE  II.— ST.  MACNESSIUS,  OR  MAC   NISSI,   BISHOP  OF   CONNOR, 

COUNTY  DOWN. 

[FIFTH  AND  SIXTH  CENTURIES.] 

CHAPTER     I. 

INTRODUCTION — AUTHORS  ON  ST.  MACNESSIUS1  LIFE — BAPTISM  BY  ST.  PATRICK — 
EDUCATED  UNDER  BISHOP  BOLCAN — BECOMES  A  DISCIPLE  OF  ST.  PATRICK — HIS 
CONSECRATION  AS  BISHOP — PILGRIMAGE  TO  JERUSALEM — RETURN  TO  ROME, 
WHERE  HE  IS  TREATED  WITH  GREAT  RESPECT— JOYFULLY  RECEIVED  ON  HIS 
RETURN  TO  IRELAND — HIS  MISSIONARY  LABOURS— GIFTS  OF  MIRACLES  AND  OF 
PROPHESY— HE  RESCUES  ST.  COLMAN  FROM  DEATH— VISIT  FROM  ST.  BRIGID— ST. 
MACNESSIUS  THE  FIRST  BISHOP  OF  CONNOR— MONASTERY  AND  CHURCH  AT  CONNOR. 

Notwithstanding  his  reception  of  baptismal  graces,  and  the  care  taken 
of    his    early    religious    education,    the    present    holy    bishop    is    stated 

Danicus,  Bruxelles,   Ughellianus,  Florence,  seems  possible  to  arrive. 
Paris  St.Victor;  also  in  the  Queen  of  Sweden's  7°  Thus,  atiii.  Non.  Septembris  :  "Ciuitate 

MS.,  No.  130,  printed  at  Lubeck,  and  as  Tullensi ;  festiuitas  sancti  Mansueti,  episcopi 

edited  by  Belin  and  Molanus.  et  confessoris." — "The  Book  of  Obits  and 

68  See  "  Martyrologium   Romanum  Gre-  Martyrology  of  the  Cathedral  Church  of  the 

gorii  XIII.,"  &c.     Editio  novissima,  p.  131,  Holy     Trinity,     commonly    called     Christ 

Romae,  1878,  fol.  Church,  Dublin,"  edited   by  John    Clarke 

^  In  a  Martyrology,  published  in  Paris,  Crosthwaite,  A.M.,  and  by  James  Henthorn 

1727,  are  these  words:  "  Tulli  Leucorum,  Todd,  D.D.,  p.  152. 
sancti   Mansueti  primi  ejusdem  urbis  epis-  7'  See  vol.  ix.,  pp.  394,  395. 

copi."      In  the  margin  is  added,  that  he  72  See  tome  iii,,  pp.  28,  29. 

flourished  in  the  fourth  century,  and  such  is  73  See    Elias    Regnault's    "  Histoire    de 

the  most  probable  conclusion   at  which   it  l'lrlande,"  liv.  i.,  chap,  v.,  p.  54* 


September  3.]      LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS.  63 


to  have  been  not  exempt  from  temptation,  and  a  lapse  into  grievous  sin. 
Even  his  great  master,  St.  Patrick,  accuses  himself  of  ingratitude  towards  God, 
when  he  had  attained  the  use  of  reason ;  while,  in  later  times,  the  angelic 
St.  Aloysius  often  spoke  of  lapses  during  his  youth,  although  unsullied  by 
any  grievous  fault.  Still  he  deemed  it  the  period  of  his  sinfulness,  and  when 
he  knew  not  the  proper  service  of  his  Creator.  This  neglect  of  the  Divine 
commandments  was  in  time  most  fully  repaired.  In  the  case  of  Macnessius, 
as  he  advanced  in  years,  he  was  distinguished  for  his  great  virtues,  and  by 
the  performance  of  miracles,  which  fully  attested  his  great  sanctity. 

In  the  "  Feilire  "  of  St.  ^Engus,1  yet  in  a  very  enigmatical  form,  the  feast 
of  St.  Mac  Nisse  is  entered  at  the  3rd  of  September.  A  gloss  on  the  Leabhar 
Breac  copy  professes  to  give  the  name  and  family  of  both  his  father  and 
mother.2  There  are  some  incidental  but  unreliable  notices  of  our  saint,  in 
St.  Patrick's  Tripartite  Life,3  which  had  been  published  by  Father  John 
Colgan.  From  these  sources,  a  part  of  the  following  memoir  of  St.  Macnes- 
sius has  been  gleaned.  Moreover,  Colgan  had  intended  to  publish  the  acts 
of  St.  Macnessius,  at  the  3rd  day  of  September.*  Some  account  of  this  holy 
bishop  is  to  be  found  in  Porter.s  In  the  first  volume  of  the  Bollandists' 
"  Acta  Sanctorum  "  for  September,  and  at  3rd  day  of  this  month,  the  Acts  of 
St.  Macnessius  are  published,  under  the  editorial  supervision  of  Father  John 
Veldius.  They  consist  of  a  short  Life — rather  it  is  a  panegyric  of  our  saint — 
taken  from  one  belonging  to  the  Irish  College  of  the  Jesuits  at  Salamanca.6 
The  author  of  this  tract  is  unknown,  but  it  furnishes  intrinsic  evidence  of 
having  been  written  before  a.d.  1442,  when  the  See  of  Connor  was  united  to 
that  of^Down,  by  Pope  Eugenius  IV.  The  eulogium  in  question  is  annotated 
by  the  editor,  and  a  previous  or  preceding  commentary  is  given,  in  which 
nine  distinct  paragraphs  are  occupied  by  a  dissertation  on  that  veneration  paid 
to  the  saint.  It  treats,  also,  on  his  being  distinct  from  other  homonymous  saints ; 
on  the  place  and  time  of  his  episcopacy  ;  as  also  regarding  the  year  of  his 
death,  and  on  his  acts,  which  were  then  extant.  More  recently  still,  other 
writers  have  given  notices  of  St.  Mac  Nissi,  and  among  those  may  be  men- 
tioned Rev.  Alban  Butler,7  Rev.  Dr.  Lanigan,8  Rev,  M.  J.  Brenan,9  Rev.  P. 
J.  Carew,10  Rev.  S.  Baring-Gould,"  and  Very  Rev.  James  O'Laverty.12 

1  Article  ii. — Chapter  i. — In  the  is  comprised  in  thirteen  chapters,  and 
Leabhar  Breac  copy  is  the  following  numbered  P.  Ms.  xi.,  in  the  Bollandist 
rann  : —  Library.     It  is  added  that  it  had  the  follow- 

ColtnAn  "OpotriA  jrepcA  ing    title  : — "  hi.  Nonas  Septembris.      In- 

Lons-AjvA-o  groan  alaib  cipit      Vita     Sancti     Macnissi     episcopi  : 

true  mrre  cormbib  coronidem    vero    hanc :    Explicit    Vita    S. 

O  Chotroervib  ma^A-ib.  Engula,  qui  &  Macnessi  dicitur,  seddemorte 

Thus    rendered    in   Dr.    Whitley    Stokes'  ejus  nihil  exprimunt  prceterquam  diem." — 

English      translation  :  —  "  Colman       of  "Acta  Sanctorum,"  tomus   i.,   Septembris 

Druim  Ferta  :  Longarad  a  delightful  sun  ;  hi.,    Acta     S.    Macnescii.      Commentarius 

Mac    Nisse   with    thousands,    from    great  Prsevius,  sect.  9,  p.  664. 

Conderi."— "  Transactions    of   the    Royal  7  See  "  Lives  of  the  Fathers,  Martyrs  and 

Irish  Academy,"  Irish  Manuscript  Series,  other  principal  Saints,''  vol.  ix.,  September 

vol.  i.,  part  i.    On  the  Calendar  of  Oengus,  iii. 

p.  exxxvi.  8  See  "  Ecclesiastical  History  of  Ireland," 

2  See  ibid.,  p.  cxlii.  vol.  i.,  chap,  ix.,  sect,  i.,  p.  432,  and  vol.  ii., 

3  See    Colgan's    "Trias    Thauraaturga,"  chap,  xiv.,  sect,  ii.,  n.  26,  p.  308. 
Septima  Vita    S.     Paiiicii,    pars   ii.,    cap.  9  See  "  Ecclesiastical  History  of  Ireland," 
exxix.,  p.  146,  cap.  exxxiv.,  p.  147.  chap,  iii.,  p.  49. 

4  See  "  Catalogus  Actuum  Sanctorum  quae  I0  See  "  Ecclesiastical  History  of  Ire- 
MS.  habentur,  ordine  Mensium  et  Dierum."  land,"  Appendix,  p.  410. 

s  See  <<  Compendium  Annalium  Ecclesi-  "See   "Lives  of  the  Saints,"  vol.  ix., 

asticorum  Regni  Hibernke,"  cap.  vii.,  p.  173.      September  3,  pp.  36,  37. 

6  Of  this  life,  the  editor  remarks,  that  it  I2  In    his    "Historical   Account    of   the 


64 


LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS.      [September  3. 


The  birth  of  Macnessius  is  said  to  have  been  manifested  to  St.  Patrick, 
and  long  before  the  time  of  its  occurrence.  St.  Macnessius,  also  written 
Mac  Nissi'3,  or  Nisa1*,  was  the  son  of  Fobrec  or  Fobreach,1*  as  stated  in  the 
Annals  of  Tigernach.16  Such  is  the  statement  of  the  commentator  on  the 
Feilire  of  Oengus,  who  calls  his  father  Fobrece,  but  rather  confuses  his 
genealogy,  by  the  manner  in  which  it  is  given. "J  As  such,  it  is  to  be  found 
in  the  Leabhar  Breac  copy,  and  at  the  3rd  of  September.18  His  mother  was 
named  Cnes,^  a  daughter  to  Conchaid  or  Conchaide  of  Dal  Cethern. 
According  to  the  Life  of  our  saint,  as  published  by  the  Bollandists,  his 
mother  was  called  Ness.20  The  original  name  of  this  saint  is  said  to  have 
been  ^Engus.  We  are  told,  likewise,  that  he  was  called  Caeman  Breac, 
pronounced  Kev-awn  Brak,21  the  latter  word  having  the  meaning  "maculosus" 
or  "  spotted."22 

In  a  fountain  of  water,  which  miraculously  sprung  from  the  earth,23  it  is 


Diocese  of  Down  and  Connor,  Ancient  and 
Modem,''  vol.  iii.,  pp.  271   to  273. 

13  By  Colgan,  St.  Macnessius  or  Ccemanus 
is  said  to  have  been  the  son  of  Fabricius, 
son  to  Fieg,  son  of  Mail,  &c.  Thence  is  the 
line  transferred  to  that  of  St.  Maccarthen. 
See  "Acta  Sanctorum  Hibernise,"  xxiv. 
Martii.  Appendix  ad  Acta  S-  Maccarthenni, 
cap.  ii.,  iii.,  pp.  740,  741. 

14  The  Bollandist  editor  states  in  a  note  : 
"Alibi  rectius  Nisa :  unde  Sanctus  mac 
(Latins  Alius)  Nisa;  sive  Macnissius  dictus 
est."  See  "Acta  Sanctorum,"  tomus  i., 
.-•  eptembi is  iii.  Vila  S.  Macnescii.  n.  (b), 
p.  665. 

'5  For  further  particulars  regarding  the 
family  descent,  the  reader  is  referred  to  the 
Life  of  St.  Maccarthen,  Bishop  of  Clogher, 
chap,  i.,  at  the  15th  day  of  August,  in  the 
Fighth  Volume  of  this  work,  Art.  i. 

i6  Yet,  according  to  the  Annals  of  Tigher- 
naoh,  as  published  by  Dr.  O'Conor, 
Fobrach  was  his  brother.  This,  however, 
is  probably  a  mistake,  which  arose  from  the 
editor  having  confounded  ^op  with  pp  in  the 
Manuscript.  In  the  Dublin  copy  of  Tigher- 
nach  and  in  the  "  Chronicon  Scotorum," 
where  the  same  entry  occurs  verbatim,  the 
word  is  manifestly  pp  pater,  not  frater  See 
"  The  Book  of  Obits  and  the  Martyrology  of 
the  Cathedral  Church  of  the  Holy  Trinity," 
edited  by  John  Clarke  Crosthwaite  and  Rev. 
Dr.  Todd.      Introduction,  pp.  lxxiii.,  lxxiv. 

17  Thus  :  "  CAemAn  Opecc,  mac  nip, 
nuc  nertiAinoip,  mic  eipc,  nuc  echaic 
munt)pein<vip.  Ocuf  JTobpecc  auim  a 
Ach<My\.  •Aenjjur'  T>oni  a  cec  anim."  Its 
English  Translation  is:  "Caeman  Brec, 
Mac  Misi,  son  of  Nemaindir,  son  of  Eric, 
son  of  EchaidhMundremair.  And  Fobrece 
was  the  name  of  his  father.  But  Aengus 
was  his  first  name."  From  this  it  might  be 
inferred,  that  Caeman  Breac  or  Mac  Nisse 
had  for  his  father  Nemainder  ;  whereas  the 
writer's  meaning  appears  to  have  been,  that 
the  latter  was  father  of  Fobrece. 

18  In  alluding  to  the  Cathedral  Church  of 


Connor,  Porter  observes: — "  .Engus  Mac- 
nisius  primus  fait  hujus  Ecclesia:  Epi  copus 
et  Fundator.  Is  cognomentum  a  matre, 
more  insolito,  trahens,  vulgo  S.  Macnisa, 
vel  Macnisius,  sine  aliqua  alia  additione, 
dictus  est.  Patris  autem  nomen  Fobreiv  fuit, 
ut  tarn  e  Tigerjiaci  annalibus  quam  ex 
antiquo  Aengusiani  Mart)iologii  Scoliaste, 
ad  diem  tertium  Septembris.  intelligimus." 
— "  Compendium  Annalium  Ecclesiasti- 
coruni  Regni  Hibernian,"  cap  vii.,  p.  173. 

19  In  a  gloss  on  the  Martyrology  of 
/Engus  the  Culdee,  at  the  3rd  of  September, 
the  following  remarks  occur  : — 

".1.  Cnef  mgen  Chonch<\i-oe  x>o  X)aI 
Ceclupn  a  uiAcip  tleb  iiiac  Cnif  p<\cp<Mc 
h-e  ap  if  oc  p^cpAic  110  aLca  .1.  110 
cho'olAT)." 

It  is  thus  translated: — "i.e.,  Cnes, 
daughter  of  Conchaid  of  Dal  Cetherin, 
was  his  mother,  or  Mac  [son]  Cnis  Patraic 
[of  Patrick's  skin]  because  it  was  with 
Patrick  he  was  fostered,  7.e.,heused  to  sleep." 

20  In  a  note,  the  editor  adds  : — "  Alibi 
rectius    Nisa  :    unde   sanctus   mac   {Latins 

filius)  Nisce  sive  Macnissius  dictus  est." 
See  "Acta  Sanctorum,"  tomus  i.,  Septembris 
iii.     Vita  S.  Macnisii,  n.  (b),  p.  655. 

21  See  the  Rev.  James  O  Eaverty's  "  His- 
torical Account  of  the  Diocese  of  Down  and 
Connor,Ancient  and  Modern,"  vol. iii.,  p.  270. 

22  See  Dr.  O'Donovan's  "  Annals  of  the 
Four  Masters,"  vol.  i.,  n.  (n),  p.  168.  In 
the  same  work,  we  find  recorded  the  death 
of  a  St.  Caemhan  Breac,  of  Ros-each,  who 
departed  this  life  on  the  14th  of  September, 
a.d.  614. — Ibid.,  pp.  238,  2}Q,  and  n.  (z). 
Notices  of  this  latter  saint  will  be  found,  at 
the  14th  of  September,  in  a  subsequent  part 
of  this  volume.  It  is  probable,  our  saint 
had  been  incorrectly  confounded  with  him. 

23 "  Fabulosum  id  prorsus  est:  idem 
suspicor  de  vivo  fonte,  fortassis  hue  deri- 
vato  e  Vita  S.  Comgalii  citanda  ad  lit.  ;;/." 
— "Acta  Sanctorum,"  tomus  i.,  Sep- 
tembris iii.  Vita  S.  Macnissii,  auctore 
incerto,  n.  (c),  p.  665. 


September  3]       LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS.  65 


stated,  that  our  saint  was  baptised  by  the  Apostle  of  the  Irish  nation.  After- 
wards, he  was  known  as  Mac  Cneise  or  the  son  of  Cnes.2*  The  Christian 
name  bestowed  on  him  was  ^Engus,2s  and  his  surname  was  derived  from  his 
mother.  This  is  a  more  likely  derivation  than  that  one  given,26  where  he  is 
said  to  have  been  fostered  and  accustomed  to  sleep  with  St.  Patrick.  Where- 
fore, he  was  named,  as  we  find  reported,  Mac  Cnes  Patraic,  i.e.,  "  son  of 
Patrick's  skin."  Yet,  as  it  was  not  unusual  among  the  Irish  to  derive  a 
surname  from  the  mother,  we  might  probably  suppose  her  to  have  been  of 
a  more  distinguished  family  than  that  of  her  husband,  or  to  have  been  more 
remarkable  for  her  mental  endowments. 

He  was  placed  under  the  charge  of  Bishop  Bolcan  2? — a  disciple  of  St. 
Patrick — while  he  was  still  very  young.  To  him,  the  son  of  Ness  was 
entrusted  as  a  foster-child,  and  from  that  holy  bishop  his  education  had  been 
received.  When  young,  he  was  sent  to  take  charge  of  certain  cows  and 
their  calves.  A  deep  slumber  then  oppressed  him.  Meantime,  the  calves 
took  advantage  of  their  youthful  herdsman's  sleep  to  approach  the  cows, 
and  to  draw  the  accustomed  sustenance  from  them.  We  are  told,  that  the 
Bishop's  mother — also  the  nurse  of  our  saint — felt  displeased  at  his  neglect, 
and  struck  the  child.  This,  however,  she  did  not  with  impunity;  for  that 
hand,  with  which  she  chastised  the  youth,  became  powerless.  Whereupon,  the 
Bishop  required  his  foster-son  to  pray  for  her.  Immediately  on  complying 
with  such  request,  the  offending  member  was  again  restored  to  its  former 
strength.  From  such  a  circumstance,  and  owing  to  other  .miracles  of  a 
similar  nature,  the  fame  of  this  youthful  soldier  of  Christ  was  greatly  extended. 

Our  saint  was  a  most  docile  pupil  to  his  master,  while  going  through  the 
course  of  elementary  studies.  When  St.  Patrick  was  on  a  journey  through 
Dalaradia,28  having  met  Bolcan  with  our  saint,29  he  thus  addressed  the 
former :  "  You  and  your  successors  shall  always  be  subject  to  the  rule  of 
this  your  companion  and  to  his  successors."  The  Apostle's  allusion,  in  this 
prophetic  declaration,  referred   to  the  Bishopric  subsequently  obtained.30 


24  Yet,  in  the  Scholion  to  the  Calendar  of  mento  Aradii,  regis  Ultonice,  in  ea  olim 
yEngus,  in  the  Leabhar  Breac,  we  have  the  principatum  tenente." — "Trias  Thauma- 
confusing  and  ridiculous  statement,  that  she  turga,"  Prima  Vita  S.  Patricii,  n.  18, 
was  son  of  Nemainder,  son  to  Ere,  son  of  p.  8. 

Eochaid  Mundremar.     See  the  translation  in  29  In  a  comment  on  this  narrative,   the 

Very  Rev.  James  O'Laverty's  "Historical  Bollandist  editor  remarks  :  "  Id  forte    de- 

Account  of  the  Diocese  of  Down  and  Connor,  sumptum  est  ex  interpolatione  Vitce  Tripar- 

Ancient  and  Modern,"  vol.  iii.,  p.  271.  titce  8.  Patricii  num.  134,  ubi  puer  aliquis 

25  Latinized  /Eneus,  and  probably  given  Maccnissius  et  Sanctus  noster  perperam 
when  he  had  been  baptised.  On  it  is  a  note  confounduntur  ;  cum  hie  secundum 
by  the  Bollandist  editor  :  "  Post  Vitam  Wareeum,  qui  diliqenter  anliquitates  patrias 
scribitur  Engula,  quod  forte  diminutivum  scrutatus  est,  primus  fuerit  ecclesice  Conner- 
est  ab  Engus." — "Acta  Sanctorum,"  tomus  ensis  episcopus  et  tundator :  nee  veteris 
i.,  Septembris  iii.  Vita  auctore  incerto,  n.  Ecclesise  simplicitas  tulerit,  ut  ab  uno 
(2),  p.  665.  episcopatu  quis  transiret  ad  alterum  ;   quod 

26  In  a  gloss  on  the  Festilogy  of  St.  tamen  factum  oportuisset,  si,  qui  prius 
/Engus.  Connerensis    erat,     factus    Arth-mugiensis 

2?  See  an  account  of  this  holy  bishop,  in  fuisset,    uii   observat  Papebrochtus  citatus. 

the   Second  Volume  of  this  work,   at    the  Prceterea    Olcanus    discipulos    non    habuit 

20th  of  February.       Art.  ii.  ante  annum  450,  into  ex  Gallia  non  rediit 

28  The  words  in  the  Saint's  Life  are,  "in  ante  460  vel  forte  470,  ut  putat  Colganus: 

terra  Aradensium."     The  editor  in  a  note  si  ergo  Sanctus  noster  post  medium  seculi  5 

(e)    here   quotes    the   words     of    Colgan  :  puer     erat,    quandonam    a     S.     Patiicio 

"  Dal-aradia     est    maritima     et    orientalis  ordinatus  est  ? "     See   "Acta  Sanctorum," 

Tjitonice    regio,    ab    oppido    Ivorio   usque  tomus  i.,  Septembris  iii.     Vita  auctore  in- 

montem   Mis  versus  Aquilonem    protensa.  certo,  n.  (f),  p.  665. 

Nomen  desumpsit  a  stiipe   Fiachi,  cogno-  3°  See  ibid.,  sect  2,  p.  664. 

Vol.  IX.— No.  2.  e 


66  LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS.      [September  3. 


The  latter  illustrious  man  gave  certain  particular  charges,  regarding  the 
education  and  training  of  the  child.  These  trusts,  on  being  assumed,  were 
faithfully  observed  and  fulfilled.  It  would  appear,  from  some  remarks  in  the 
Irish  Apostle's  life,  that  the  saint,  when  a  boy,  carried  his  master's  books  in 
a  leather  case ;  v  that  he  had  been  entrusted  with  the  care  of  those  articles 
necessary  for  Divine  service ;  and  that  he  probably  attended  the  Bishop  in 
the  capacity  of  servitor  at  his  different  episcopal  ministrations.  That  the 
ancient  Irish  were  accustomed  to  have  their  books  thus  preserved  may  be 
still  proved  from  the  specimens  of  ecclesiastical  Manuscripts  preserved  to  our 
time.  Among  these  may  be  mentioned  the  celebrated  Book  of  Armagh,  the 
history  of  which  is  a  curious  one.32 

Already  have  we  mentioned  in  the  Life  of  St.  Patrick, 33  the  opposition 
he  met  with  from  Saran,  a  tyrannical  chief  in  the  northern  part  of  Ireland. 
This  man  pretended  to  repent,  for  the  many  acts  of  rapine  and  violence  he 
had  committed,  and  too  readily  did  Bishop  Olcan  absolve  him  from  those 
crimes.  Having  thus  incurred  St.  Patrick's  displeasure,  the  Apostle  pre- 
dicted, that  St.  Olcan's  possessions  should  afterwards  be  transferred  to  the 
boy  Macnessius.34  Then  taking  our  saint  under  his  own  immediate  charge, 
the  Apostle  instructed  his  youthful  disciple  in  the  principles  of  religion,  and 
in  those  studies  necessary  for  exercising  the  sacred  ministry.35  The  disciple, 
it  is  stated,  had  the  misfortune  to  lapse  into  grievous  sin,  and  he  suffered  a 
visible  punishment  in  consequence,  according  to  that  relation  given  in  St. 
Patrick's  Tripartite  Life.36  However,  the  Bollandist  editor  very  justly 
characterizes  this  as  a  foolish  fable,  and  he  states,  that  there  can  be  no  doubt 
of  our  saint's  sanctity,  and  that  it  would  be  utterly  improbable  he  could 
have  been  ordained  priest  and  afterwards  consecrated  bishop,  when  deprived 
of  one  of  his  hands,  in  the  manner  related.  The  anonymous  writer  of  St. 
Macnessius'  Acts  does  not  mention  this  incident,  although  he  introduces 
other  fabulous  accounts.  37 

Having  proved  himself  perfect  in  every  good  work,  according  to  tradition, 
St.  Macnessius  had  been  raised  to  the  episcopal  dignity  by  St.  Patrick.  We 
know  not  the  year  of  St.  Macnissius'  ordination ;  Ware  informs  us,  however, 


31  See  Colgan's  "Trias  Thaumaturga,"  cipulum,  tunc  prsesentem,  ejusque  in 
Septima  Vita  S.  Patricii,  pars  ii.,  chap.  quadam  pellicea  pera  codices  gestantem, 
cxxxiv.,  p.  147.  nempe  ad  S.  Macnessium,  postea   Episco- 

32  Before  the  lamented  death  of  Bishop  pum  Conderensem  :  et  ad  quendam  alium 
William  Reeves  of  Down  and  Connor,  that  virum  sanctum  nondem  natum,  Sanctum 
learned  man  had  undertaken  the  task  of  scilicet  Senamim  de  Inis  Altich.  Sic 
preparing  the  Book  of  Armagh  for  publica-  delicta  Sarani  sunt  ejus  spirituali  Patri,  et 
tion.  As  it  was  in  a  case,  to  which  a  strap  regeneratori  imputata,  et  in  eo  severe 
for  hanging  on  a  wall  had  been  appended,  punita." — Pars  ii.,  cap.  cxxxiv.,  p. 
Dr.  Reeves  was  accustomed  to  carry  it  sus-  147. 

pended  frorn  his  neck,  and  it  was  placed  3S  In  the  Tripartite  Life  of  St.  Patrick  we 

under  his  vest,  while   travelling.     Seethe  read  of  St.  Macnessius,  "  in  pietate  et  bonis 

Memoir    by    Norman    Moore,    in    Sydney  disciplinis  apud  Patricium  educaretur."   See 

Lee's  "National  Biography."  ibid.,  cap.  exxix.,  p.  146.      That  our  saint 

33  See  the  Third  Volume  of  this  work,  at  had  been  educated  by  the  Irish  Apostle  is 
the  17th  of  March,  Art.  i.  The  Life  of  St.  not  stated  in  the  Acts,  as  published  by  the 
Patrick,  chap  xv.  Bollamlists. 

34  Such  is  the  account  given  in  the  Acts  36  See  ibid. 

of     our    saint    written    by    the    unknown  37  It   is   added  :     Quales  occurrunt  apud 

author,  and  as  published   by  the  Bolland-  multos      sctiptores      Hibernicos,     prodigia 

ists.      However,  this  matter  is   differently  narrantes  stupenda  ?nagis  quam  vera,  vel qua 

stated   in  Colgan's   "Trias  Thaumaturga,"  ab  uno  Sancto  semel  sunt  facta,  pluribus 

Vita  Tripartita    S.   Patricii:   "  Adjecit  vir  tribucntes    aliter     atque    aliier   composita: 

sanctus  et  possessiones  ejus  esse  devolendas  potius     opinor,    quant     falleudi    voluntate 

ad  quendam  puerum,  ipsius  S.  Olcani  dis-  *  *  *  Numero  3.                                 . 


September  3.]      LIVES  OE  THE  IRISH  SAINTS.  67 


that  he  was  advanced  to  the  episcopal  dignity  in  the  fifth  century. 38  St. 
Macnessius  is  said  to  have  made  a  pilgrimage  to  the  seat  of  the  Apostles, 
and  to  Jerusalem,  visiting  also  other  remarkable  places  in  the  Holy  Land. 
In  the  panegyric  of  our  saint,  as  published  by  the  Bollandists,  we  are  told 
during  the  pilgrimage,  that  he  frequently  offered  up  his  prayers  to  God,  and 
that  he  brought  several  relics  with  him,  on  his  return  from  the  Holy  Land. 
Among  these  are  enumerated  a  stone  taken  from  our  Lord's  Sepulchre,  a 
portion  of  the  Blessed  Virgin  Mary's  hair,  a  bone  of  the  Apostle  St.  Thomas, 
portions  of  the  garments  belonging  to  the  Apostles,  and  one  of  the  bowls 
belonging  to  the  great  altar  at  Jerusalem.  He  returned  by  way  of  Rome, 
and  lodged  in  the  Apostolic  curia,  where  he  remained  for  some 
days.  There  he  had  been  treated  with  marked  distinction.  We  are 
informed,  moreover,  that  on  a  certain  day,  in  Rome,  Macnisius  consecrated 
and  ordained  Bishops,  Priests  and  Deacons,  the  Roman  clergy  acting 
as  his  assistants.  On  this  same  occasion,  the  poverty  of  the  Irish  mission 
was  taken  into  consideration  by  certain  Roman  magnates,  who  bestowed  on 
him  many  valuable  gifts,  among  which  were  to  be  found  several  gold,  silver, 
and  brazen  vessels.  During  his  residence  at  Rome,  through  the  efficacy  of 
his  prayers,  a  leper  was  cleansed  from  his  foul  disease.  Having  visited  the 
shrines  of  various  saints,  and  received  the  Sovereign  Pontiff's  benediction 
and  prayers,  he  returned  to  his  native  country,  bringing  with  him  the  many 
presents  he  had  received.  And  we  are  told,  that  not  only  the  people  of  his 
own  country,  but  those  of  surrounding  nations,  received  him  with  great 
rejoicing.39  When  Mac  Nessius,  with  his  remarkable  relics,-*0  left  Rome  for 
Ireland,  the  people  went  forth  to  meet  him,  from  the  churches,  towns,  villages, 
woods  and  mountains.  They  received  him  with  most  affectionate  demon- 
strations of  joy,  nor  were  any  found  absent  on  these  occasions  but  evil  doers, 
to  whom  the  presence  of  our  saint  was  a  standing  reproach. 

Soon  the  seed  of  Divine  wisdom  was  planted  in  every  direction,  the 
trumpet  of  the  Gospel  was  sounded,  and  churches  were  founded  by  our  saint. 
The  holy  Bishop  was  distinguished  for  the  performance  of  miracles,  He 
was  inebriated,  also,  with  a  spirit  of  prophesy,  and  illuminated  with  Divine 
Revelations.  Among  the  many  miracles  which  he  wrought,  St.  Macnesius 
healed  two  men,  one  of  whom  was  blind,  and  the  other  was  a  leper.  They 
presented  themselves  to  him  in  full  confidence  of  being  relieved  from  their 
infirmities ;  and  having  first  washed  themselves,  in  a  fountain  of  clear  water, 
one  of  them  received  the  gift  of  sight,  and  his  companion  was  cleansed  from 
his  leprosy,  through  the  prayers  of  our  saint.  He  also  delivered  a  boy,  named 
Colman,41  from  a  violent  death.  A  certain  wicked  man,  who  killed  the  father 
of  this  boy,  had  seized  upon  the  youth,  who  was  under  the  guardianship  of 
his  friends.  The  tyrant  had  resolved  upon  putting  him  to  death.  However, 
our  saint  interfered  to  preserve  his  life.     Finding  the  cruel  man  inexorable, 


38  "  Perhibetur  S.  Cailanus,  S.  Macnisii  4T  The  Bollandist  editor  cites  the  follow- 
episcopi  Connorensis  equalis,  sed  in  episco-  ing  passage  from  a  Ms.  of  Ward,  in  a 
patu  posterior,  ex  Nendrumenai  abbate  previous  Commentary  on  our  saint's  Acts, 
factus  Dunensis  ecclesiae  episcopus  sub  which  thus  reads  :  "  S.  Colmannus,  quern 
exitum  seculi  post  Christum  natum  quinti."  is  miraculo  liberavit  a  morte,  fuit  episcopus 
— Ware,  p.  52.  Kill-ruadhensis,   quae  nunc  obsoleta  sedes 

39  See  "  Acta  Sanctorum,"  tomus  i.,  Sep-  est  in  Aradeorum  regione  sita  ;  ad  oram 
tembris  iii.  Vita  auctore  incerto,  sect.  3,  stagni  juvenci  vulgo  Loch-Laodh  in  Ultonia, 
4,  pp.  664,  665.  ubi  ejus  festum  tanquam  patroni  colitur  xvi. 

40  See  Very  Rev.  James  O'Laverty's  Octobris." — "Acta  Sanctorum,"  tomus  i.. 
"  Bishops  of  Down  and  Connor,"  vol.  v.,  p.  Septembris  iii.  De  Sancto  Macniscio.  Com- 
222.  mentarius  prsevius,  sect.  3,  p.  662. 


68 


LIVES   OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS.       September  3. 


Macnessius  asked  as  a  favour,  that  the  boy  should  not  be  slain  until  brought 
to  a  pile  of  stones,*8  which  was  conspicuous  at  some  distance.  This  request 
he  obtained,  and  afterwards  our  saint  went  to  the  place.  There  he  engaged 
in  prayer.  The  youth  was  thrown  into  the  air,  so  that  his  body  might  be 
received  on  the  points  of  his  executioners'  spears.  Immediately,  however, 
he  was  conveyed  away  by  Angels,  and  deposited  on  the  holy  Bishop's  bosom 
free  from  all  injury.  Our  saint  afterwards  nurtured,  and  diligently  taught 
him  the  rudiments  of  Religion,  and  a  knowledge  of  the  Sacred  Scriptures. 
He  afterwards  founded  the  church  of  Killruaird,43  now  Kilroot,44  on  the  north 
side  of  Belfast  Lough.  In  the  townland  so  named,45  there  is  a  large  grave- 
yard, containing  some  portions  of  an  old  church,  which  was  about  sixty-six 
feet  in  length,  by  twenty-four  in  width/6     The  spot  is  rendered  memorable, 


1 

Templecorran  Church  Ruins, 
not  alone  by  its  having  become  the  primitive  see  of  St.  Colman,4?  but  owing 
to   other   interesting   circumstances/8     In    mediaeval   times,   Kilroot^  and 


43  "Ad  acervum  lapidum,"  &c.  Perhaps 
such  a  pile  as  is  now  known  under  the  name 
of  a  cromlech,  or  it  may  be  one  of  those  large 
cairns,  so  frequently  met  with,  on  eminences. 
in  different  places  throughout  Ireland. 

43  Colgan,  in  his  notes  on  the  Life  of  St. 
Corbmac,  states,  that  Kilruaidh  is  within  the 
bounds  of  the  former  territory  of  Dal-aradia, 
and  near  Lochlaodh.  See  "Acta  Sanc- 
torum Hibernise,"  xxvi.  Martii,  n.  36,  p. 
756. 

44  This  parish  contains  2,418a.  op.  i^r., 
in  the  barony  of  Lower  Belfast.  It  is  shown 
on  the  "  Ordnance  Survey  Townland  Maps 
for    the  County  of  Antrim,"  sheets  47,  53. 

45  It  contains  625  acres,  3  roods,  7  perches. 
See  ibid.,  sheet  53. 

4*The  south-east  and  south-west  angles 
are  all  that  remain  standing. 


47  His  festival  occurs  on  the  16th  of 
October. 

48  Here,  in  the  year  161 1,  the  first  Presby- 
terian congregat  ion  in  1  reland  was  est  ablished, 
and  in  the  cemetery adjoiningthe  little  village 
of  Ballycarry,  in  Kilroot  parish,  is  interred 
the  Rev.  Edward  Brice,  M.A.,  who  emi- 
grated from  Scotland,  and  the  first  Presby- 
terian minister  who  settled  in  Ireland.  He 
was  promoted  by  the  Protestant  bishop  to  be 
prebendary  of  Kilroot,  in  1613.  According 
to  the  inscription  on  his  tombstone,  he  died 
at  the  age  of  67,  in  the  year  1636.  See  the 
"  Dublin  Penny  Journal,"  vol.  iii.,  No.  120, 
p.  121,  and  Rev.  Dr.  James  Seaton  Reid's 
"  History  of  the  Presbyterian  Church  in 
Ireland,"  vol.  i.,  chap,  i.,  p.  98,  and  chap, 
iv.,  p.  203.     New  edition,  Belfast,  1867. 

49  This  parish  was  a  vicarage,  and  part  of 


Skptkmbkr  3  j      LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS.  69 


Templecorran  parishes  constituted  the  Tuogh  or  District  of  Braden  or  Broad 
Island,  now  known  as  Island  Magee.  The  unroofed  ruins  of  Templecorran 
Church s°  are  still  to  be  seen  near  the  Antrim  coast.  It  is  remarkable  as 
having  been  the  church  of  the  first  prebendal  benefice  of  Kilroot,  to  which 
Jonathan  Swifts1 — afterwards  the  celebrated  Dean  of  St.  Patrick's,  Dublin — 
had  been  appointed ;  but,  he  held  it  only  for  the  short  term  ot  two  years, 
when  he  resigned  it,s2  and  went  to  reside  with  Sir  William  Temple,  as  his 
secretary,  at  Moor-park,  in  England.  The  parish  of  Templecorran  was  a 
vicarage  and  part  of  the  benefice  of  Kilroot  or  Ballinure.  It  is  traversed  by 
the  roads  from  Carrickfergus  to  Island  Magee  and  Lame,  having  Belfast 
Lough  for  its  southern  boundary. 53 

In  that  Life  of  our  saint,  contained  in  the  Salamancan  Manuscript,  we  read, 
that  when  Macnessius  returned  to  his  native  country,  he  miraculously  changed 
the  current  of  a  river  named  Curi.5*  This  he  did,  in  order  that  the  murmuring 
of  its  waters  should  not  disturb  infirm  persons  in  a  monastery,  which  he  built  at 
a  place  called  Disart,  or  Desert.ss  The  waters  afterwards  took  a  distant  course 
from  that  spot.  On  a  certain  day,  when  he  laboured  there  with  his  monks, 
he  had  a  revelation,  that  in  company  with  other  holy  persons,  St.  Brigid56 
was  on  the  way  to  his  house,  in  order  to  confer  with  him  on  religious  subjects. 
Being  greatly  rejoiced  at  this  interior  admonition,  he  addressed  his  com- 
munity with  these  words:  "Brethren,  let  us  give  over  this  work  and  retire  to 
the  monastery;  we  must  prepare  whatever  may  be  necessary  for  the  holy 
guests,  who  are  journeying  hither,  and  who  shall  arrive  during  this  week."57 

St.  yEngus  Macnessius  is  reputed  to  have  been  the  first  founder,  and  to 
have  presided  as  Bishop  over  the  Church  of  Connor.s8  Its  establishment  is 
thus  referred  to  the  latter  half  of  the  fifth  century.     The  present  See59  com- 


the    benefice    of    Ballinure.       The  surface  suspects  it  might  have  been  a  small  stream, 

comes  down  from  the  basaltic  uplands,  a  little  noted  on  some  maps,  as  passing  near  Connor 

east  of  Lough    Mourne,  to   the  margin  of  towards  the  North.  See  "  Acta  Sanctorum," 

Belfast      Lough.         See      "  Parliamentary  tomus  i.,  Septembris  hi.    Acta  S.  Macniseii, 

Gazetteer  of  Ireland,"  vol.  ii.,  p.  531.  n.  (k),  p.  666. 

s°  The   annexed  illustration,  copied  from  ss  Hibernice,  "  Disert."     "St.    MacNissi 

that  in    the    "  Dublin  Penny  Journal,"  has  sought   in   the  vicinity   of  his    Church    of 

been  drawn  on  the  wood,  and  engraved  by  Connor  a  place  of  holy  retirement,  where  he 

Mr.  Gregor  Gray.  might  enjoy  undisturbed  meditation." — Very 

51  See   the    Life  of  Jonathan  Swift,   pre-  Rev.      James      O'Laverty's       "  Historical 

fixed   to   Thomas   Roscoe's   edition   ot  his  Account    of    the    Diocese    of    Down    and 

works,  vol.  i.,  pp.  xvi.,  xvii.  Connor,  Ancient  and  Modern,"  p.  271. 

s2  The  pathetic  story,  told  by   Sheridan,  s«  See  her  Life,  in  the  Second  Volume  of 

and   repeated    by   Sir  Walter   Scott,  in  his  this  work,  at  the  1st  of  February,  Art.  i. 
Memoirs  of  Swift,  prefixed    to  the  volumi-  57  This  miracle  is  recorded  in  the  Acts  of 

nous  collection  of  the  Dean's  works,  about  our  Saint,  published  by  the  Bollandists,  at 

his   having   procured   that  poor  clergyman  the  3rd  of  September.     See    "Acta  Sanc- 

who  lent  his  horse  to  obtain  it,  has  no  foun-  torum,"  tomus  i.,   Septtmbris.   iii.  Acta  S. 

dation  in  fact,  as  proved  by  that  ingenuous  Macnissii,  sect.  8,  p.  665. 
and  learned  writer,  William  Monck  Mason,  s8  The  See  of  Down  was  united  to  that  of 

in  his  admirable  and  most  researchful  work,  Connor  by  Pope  Eugenius  IV.     Henry  VI. 

11  The   History  and  Antiquities  of  the  Col-  approved  of  this  union,  as  appears  by  his 

legiate  and  Cathedral  Church  of  St.  Patrick's,  diploma,  given  in  the  sixteenth  year  of  his 

near  Dublin,"  book  ii.,  chap,  v.,  sect,  i.,  n.  reign,     A.D.,     1438.        See     Dubourdieu's 
(x)  p.  235.     His  account  of  that  extraordi-       "  Statistical  Survey  of  the  County  Antrim," 

nary  genius   is  one   of  the   most  exact  and  chap,  i.,  sect,  i.,  p.  15. 

authentic  biographies  of  the  Dean  hitherto  59  in    Irish    records    the    name    Connor 

written.  generally  appears   in    the   forms  Convene, 

53  See  "  Parliamentary  Gazetteer  of  Ire-  Conoipe,     Cotvoeine,     Comxvipe,     which 
land,"  vol.  ii.,  pp.  324,  325.  Colgan  occasionally  Latinizes  by  Condoria. 

54  The  Bollandist  editor  remarks,  that  he       See  "Trias  Thaumaturga,"  p.  146,  col.  2  ; 
cannot  find  a  river  called  Curi  :  although  he  p.  272,  c.  1  ;  p.  502,  c.   I.     The  tvo  in  the 


7o 


LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS.      [September  3. 


prises  several  churches,  which  on  one  or  more  occasions  had  been  formerly 
episcopal  seats,  and  had  conferred  a  title  on  their  respective  bishops.60 
Those  churches  within  the  limits  whicli  formerly  enjoyed  cathedral  honours 
were  Connor,61  Arthirmuigh,  Killanardh,  Cuilraithen,  Rechrann,  and  Rath- 
sithe.62 

It  would  seem,  from  the  Bollandist  Acts  of  our  Saint,  that  a  monastery63 
was  founded  at  Connor,  after  the  arrival  of  our  saint  in  Ireland,  and  on  his 
return  from  Rome.  The  episcopal  See  of  Connor  appears,  also,  to  have  had 
a  separate  and  an  independent  existence,  at  a  time  when  his  short  Acts  were 
written.6-*  The  union  of  Connor  with  the  See  of  Down  has  been  referred  to 
the  year  1442.  In  1458,  Patrick  Olynnan  was  vicar  of  the  cathedral  church 
of  Connor.6s  The  old  cathedral  of  St,  Saviour  at  Connor  had  been  partly 
destroyed  in  the  rebellion  of  164 1.  A  portion  of  this  having  been  re-roofed, 
and  thatched  with  straw,  was  afterwards  used  for  Protestant  service.66  The 
subsequent  rectory  church  was  built  in  18 18,  on  the  site  of  the  old  cathedral. 


CHAPTER     II. 

ST.  MACNESSIUS  VISITS  LANN-ELA  IN  COMPANY  WITH  ST.  PATRICK  AND  ST.  BRIGID— 
ADVISES  ST.  COLMANTO  FOUND  A  MONASTERY  AT  DROMORE — ST.  MACNESSIUS  IS  SAID 
TO  HAVE  ESTABLISHED  A  MONASTERY  AT  KELLS  NEAR  CONNOR— HIS  MIRACLES 
AND  PROPHECIES— HIS  DEATH — FESTIVAL  AND  COMMEMORATIONS— CONCLUSION. 

In  his  Acts,  it  is  stated,  that  in  company  with  St.  Patrick  and  St.  Brigid,1 
the  holy  bishop  had  been  journeying  through  Momonia,2  and  he  passed 
through  a  place,  called  Lann-ela.3  While  his  companions  passed  on,  our  saint 


middle  of  the  word  subsequently  passed  into 
«n.,  as  Mr.  O'Donovan  observes  :  "  In  the 
antient  Irish  manuscripts  we  find  tro  almost 
invariably  written  for  tin  of  the  modern  Irish 
orthography." — "Irish  Grammar,"  p.  34. 

t0  The  orign  of  the  name  is  thus  explained 
in  a  marginal  gloss  on  the  word  Chon,oer\ib 
(Connor)  in  the  Martyrology  of  .^Engus,  at 
the  3rd  of  September:  .1.  T>Aine  ha  con  .1. 
•OAine  Ambicir  com  aIIca  pnuif  ec  m  eo 
lupe  Via  [bicaOAUc],  i.e.,  "  Daire-na-conn, 
i.e.,  the  oak  wood,  in  which  were  wild  dogs 
formerly,  and  she-wolves  used  to  dwell  there- 
in." This  etymology  per  metathesim  was 
common  with  the  Irish,  as  Colgan  observes. 
He  conjectures  that  Dercon,  the  Church  of 
St.  Olcan,  was  identical  with  Connor, 
adding  :  "  Derechon,  seu  rectius  Dorechon, 
per  transpositionem  nostratibus  frequentem, 
idem  sit  quod  Condere  seu  Condore." — 
"  Acta  Sanctorum  Hibernire,"  xx.  Februarii. 
Vita  S.  Olcani  seu  Bolcani,  n.  8,  recte  9,  p. 
377. 

61  By  the  country  people  the  name  is  pro- 
nounced as  if  it  was  written  Con-yer. 

62  See  Rev.  Wm.  Reeves'  "  Ecclesiastical 
Antiquities  of  Down,  Connor  and  Dromore," 
note  T,  p.  237. 

6J  In  a  note  at  this  place,  the  Bollandist 
editor  states,  that  he  could  not  find  a 
Ccenobium  bearing  such  a  name,  but  that 
near  Conner  there  was  a  monastery  named 


Camber,  which  Ware,  in   "  De  Hibernia  et 

Antiquitatibus  ejus,"  calls  Comerer,  al 
Comber,  which  had  been  founded  A.D.  1199. 
See  cap.  xxvi.,  p.  180. 

64  After  alluding  to  the  foundation  of 
'*  Connerense  monasterium,"  it  is  added, 
"  in  quo  usque  hodie  sedes  episcopalis 
habetur."  In  a  comment  on  this  latter 
passage,  the  Bollandist  editor  infers,  that 
the  Life  of  St.  Macnessius  must  have  been 
written  before  a.d.,  1442,  when  the  See  of 
Connor  was  united  to  that  of  Down,  by 
Eugenius  IV.  See  "Acta  Sanctorum," 
tomus  i.,  Septembris  iii.  De  Sancio  Moc- 
nescio,  nn.  (g,  h),  p.  666. 

65  According  to  Prene's  Registry,  fol.  4. 

66  This  portion  was  probably  the  transept 
of  a  larger  building,  for  it  is  described  by 
those  who  have  attended  it,  as  having  stood 
north  and  south.  See  Ecclesiastical  Report 
of  1806,  p.  97. 

Chapter  II. — '  In  their  several  Lives,  as 
published  by  Colgan,  we  find  no  allusion 
to  the  circumstances  here  narrated. 

2  The  Bollandist  editor  remarks,  that  by 
the  native  Irish  it  is  pronounced  Moun,  and 
by  the  English  called  Mounster. 

3  Now  known  as  Lynally,  in  the  present 
King's  County,  and  formerly  within  the 
ancient  territory  of  Meath.  The  term  Lann, 
or  Lan,  was  applied  by  the  Britons  to  note 
a  sacred  place.    See  Colgan's  "  Trias  Thau- 


September  3. J       LIVES  Ot  THE  IRISH  SAINTS. 


remained  there,  and  perceiving  this,  St.  Patrick  sent  for  St.  Macnessius. 
When  this  latter  came  up,  he  was  asked  the  cause  for  his  stopping.  Our 
saint  then  said  to  St.  Patrick :  "  Over  that  place  in  which  I  stood,  I  saw  the 
Heavens  opened,  and  the  Angels  of  God  ascending  and  descending."*  St. 
Patrick  hereupon  said  :  "It  therefore  behoves  us  to  leave  religious  men 
here  to  serve  God."  Our  saint  replied  :  "  Holy  Father,  if  it  please  you,  do 
not  thus  determine.  For  a  child  of  my  family,  who  shall  be  born  sixty  years 
from  this  day,  and  whose  name  is  to  be  Colman  Ela,5  shall  there  found  a 
celebrated  monastery."  And,  as  the  Divine  Spirit  had  revealed  this  to  the 
man  of  God,  so  his  prophecy  was  afterwards  duly  fulfilled.  It  is  said,  while 
performing  his  journeys,  through  reverence  for  the  Gospels,  this  holy  man 
was  accustomed  to  bear  books  containing  its  text,  on  his  stooped  shoulders, 
they  being  secured  by  no  kind  of  fastening.  These,  with  such  like  virtues, 
and  also  miracles,  distinguished  our  holy  bishop,  during  his  sojourn  upon 
earth.6 

We  are  told,  that  St.  Colman  of  Dromore,?  after  the  year  500,  established 
a  noble  monastery,  by  advice  of  St.  Macnessius,  Bishop  of  Connor.  It  was 
situated  on  the  banks  of  the  river  Locha,8  a  former  name  for  the  Lagan, 
which  flows  through  Dromore.9  This  place  was  also  called  Druim 
Mocholmog,10  after  the  patron  saint.  It  must  have  been  erected,  before  a.d. 
514,  when,  at  the  very  latest,  Macnessius  died.11  Most  incorrectly  has 
Archbishop  Ussher,  by  a  mere  conjecture,  assigned  the  erection  of  Dromore 
monastery  to  the  year  550. I2     In  doing  so,  he  has  fallen  into  the  prevalent 


maturga,"  Septima  Vita  S.  Patricii,  pars,  ii., 
n.  219,  p.  183.  In  Wales,  at  the  present 
time,  many  local  denominations  have  Lann 
in  composition. 

4  The  Bollandist  editor  remarks  in  a  note, 
that  a  nearly  similar  vision  of  St.  Patrick  is 
related  by  Joceline,  in  which  it  is  stated, 
in  a  place  where  he  saw  much  light  and 
heard  the  canticles  of  an  angelic  choir,  the 
Irish  Apostle  predicted  that  a  Son  of  Life 
named  Colmanellus  should  there  build  a 
church,  and  gather  many  Sons  of  Light,  to 
be  companions  of  the  Angels.  See  Colgan's 
"Trias  Thaumaturga,"  Sexta  Vita  S. 
Patricii,  cap.  xcvi.,  p.  87.  Father  Veldius 
suspects,  that  the  vision  there  related  had 
been  transferred  to  St.  Macniscius,  with  the 
addition  of  the  sixty  years  term  elapsing  in 
the  case  of  Colman  Ela.  A  doubt  has  been 
expressed  by  Colgan,  as  to  whether  St. 
Patrick  alluded  to  St.  Colman,  the  future 
bishop  of  Dromore,  or  to  St.  Colman  Ela 
of  Lynally — often  styled  Colmanellus.  Both 
are  said  to  have  been  disciples  of  Mac- 
niscius, while  both  flourished  at  the  same 
time,  and  in  that  part  ot  Ulster  called 
Dalnardia,  or  more  properly  Dal-aradia. 
Seeidid.,  n.  106,  p.  113. 

5  The  feast  of  St.  Colman,  of  Lynally,  is 
kept  on  the  26th  of  September,  at  which 
day  notices  of  him  may  be  found,  in  the 
present  volume. 

6  See  "Acta  Sanctorum,"  tomus  i., 
Septembris  hi.  De  Sancto  Macniscio 
Episcopo,  Vita  auctore  incerto,  sect.  9,  p.  665. 

7  See  his  Acts,  in  the  Sixth  Volume  of 


this  work,  at  the  7th  of  June,  Art  i. 

8  "  The  River  Locha,  which  was  also 
called  CAfAri-l/me,  is  the  modern  La°an, 
upon  which  Dromore  is  built." — Rev.  Wm. 
Reeves'  "  Ecclesiastical  Antiquities  of 
Down,  Connor  and  Dromore,"  n.  (c),  pp. 
104,  105. 

9  In  the  Ecclesiastical  Taxation  of  the 
Diocese  of  Dromore,  compiled  A.D.  1306, 
the  Church  of  Drummore  is  rated  at  three 
marks,  the  Tenth  amounting  to  2s.  and  8d. 
The  church  of  the  parish — also  the 
cathedral  of  the  diocese — was  antiently 
styled  ''Ecclesia  Sancti  Colmani,"  or 
"Colmoci;"  but  under  the  charter  of 
James  I.,  in  1609,  "  Ecclesia  Christi  Re- 
demptoris  de  Drumore."  It  was  originally 
attached  to  a  monastic  institution,  and  it 
was  founded  by  St.  Colman  or  Colmac,  its 
first  bishop  and  abbot. 

10  In  the  calendar  of  the  Four  Masters,  he 
is  mentioned  at  the  7th  of  June,  where  his 
church  is  called  "Dmum  mocoltnoS,  "the 
ridge  or  hill  of  Mocholmeg,"  instead  of 
"0|unm  mop,  "the  great  ridge  or  hill."  The 
word  "orvuim  is  cognate  to  the  Latin 
dorsum;  thus,  Adamnan  Latinizes  Drium- 
cheat  by  Dorsum  Cete.  In  the  present 
instance,  it  refers  either  to  the  rising  ground 
over  the  town,  or  to  the  "  Great  Fort," 
which  is  near  the  town  on  the  east  side. 

11  See  Rev  Dr.  Lanigan's  "  Ecclesiastical 
History  of  Ireland,"  vol  i.,  chap,  ix.,  sect  i,, 
p.  432,  and  vol  ii.,  cap.  xiv.,  sect.,  ii.,  n.  26, 
p.  308. 

12  See      "  Britannicarum       Ecclesiarum 


72 


LI  VES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS.      [September  3. 


error  of  confounding  Colman-Eala,  of  Lynally  and  Muckamore,  with  Colaian 
or  Colmanellus  of  Dromore.^  He  seems  to  have  paid  no  attention  to  the 
date  of  Macnessius's  death,  although  he  had  before  him  the  Annals  of  Innis- 
fallen.  These  records  assign  it  to  as  early  as  the  year  506.  He  also 
confounded  **  the  monastery  near  the  Locha,  viz.,  of  Dromore,  with  that  of 
Muckmore,  a  place  in  the  County  of  Antrim.15 

It  has  been  stated,  that  St.  Macnessius  became  the  superior  of  a  religious 
community,  which  he  established  at  Connor,  and  that  he  continued  to  govern 
it  until  his  death.'6  Although  we  do  not  find  any  ancient  authority,  in 
confirmation  of  such  a  statement ;  yet,  considering  the  usual  customs  in  the 
foundation  of  early  missions  in  this  country,  we  may  regard  the  account  as 
fairly  probable.  There  is  reason  also  for  a  supposition,  that  the  original 
establishment  of  St.  Macnessius  was  not  situated  at  Connor,  but  at  a  place 
not  far  distant,  and  formerly  known  as  the  Desert  of  Connor.1?  It  is  now 
called  Kells,18  in  the  parish,  and  about  one  half  mile  west  from  the  church, 
of  Connor.  There  is  some  foundation  for  the  supposition,  that  this  monas- 
tery,^ and  not  Connor,20  is  the  representative  of  those  churches  founded  by 


Antiquitates,"     Index     Chonologicus,     ad 
annum  dl.,  p.  531.     Also  cap.    xvii.,    pp. 

45 !»  497- 

13  In  the  Life  of  St.  Colman,  published  by 
the  Bollandists,  at  the  7th  of  June,  several 
clues  are  given  to  the  discovery  of  the  real 
date,  for  the  foundation  of  Dromore,  and 
about  the  year  500  may  be  assigned.  That 
it  took  place  before  513,  the  following 
passage  proves,  because  St.  MacNissi  died 
in  that  year  :  "  Deinde  saepe  venerabilem 
Macnyseum  Conderensem  Episcopum  petit. 
— Illuc  perveniens,  in  omni  hilaritate  sus- 
ceptus  est :  ibique  paucis  diebus  mansit. 
Deinde  inito  consilio,  venerabilem  senem, 
ubi  locum,  serviendi  Deo  fundare  deberet 
consulit.  Qui  respondit  :  Voluntas  Dei  est, 
ut  in  finibus  campi  Coda  tibi  construas 
monasterium.  Beatus  igitur  Colmanus 
secundum  verbum  Sancti  Fontificis,  fines 
illas  adiit  :  ibique  in  valle,  sancto  Patricio 
quondumprseostensa  super  fluvium  vocabulo 
Locha,  sedem  sibi  constituit,  in  qua  sibi 
discipulorum  multitude  brevi  exeravit.'"' — 
"  Acta  Sanctorum,"  tomus  ii.,  Junii,  p.  26. 
The  Campus  Coba  here  mentioned  is  called 
rtiAJ  Cooa  in  the  Irish  Annals,  and  it 
belonged  to  a  district  of  Iveagh,  which  ex- 
tended to  the  neighbourhood  of  Newry, 
according  to  the  taxation  of  the  Diocese  of 
Dromore,  at  Domnachmore. 

14  At  a.d.  550,  compared  -with  a.d.  456, 
in  Index  Chronologicus.     See  pp.  521,  531. 

15  Harris  very  wisely,  and  after  him 
Archdall,  assign  the  foundation  of  Muck- 
more  to  about  550.  See  Rev.  Dr.  Lani- 
gan's  "  Ecclesiastical  History  of  Ireland," 
vol.  i.,  chap,  ix.,  sect,  i.,  n.  io,  pp. 
433,  434- 

16  See  Rev.  Wm.  Reeves'  "  Ecclesiastical 
Antiquities  of  Down  and  Connor  and 
Dromore,"  Appendix  n.  (T),  p.  238.  That 
a  succession  of  Abbots,  after  the  death  of 
St.  Macnessius,  continued  in  the  Monastery 


of  Connor,  appears  from  the  Annals  of  that 
place,  in  the  same  work. — Ibid.,  pp.  239  to 
243.  The  first  recorded  death  of  an  Abbot 
over  Connor  occurs  at  a.d.  773  [778],  more 
than  200  years  after  the  death  of  St.  Mac- 
nessius. 

17  According  to  the  Ecclesiastical  Taxa- 
tion of  the  Diocese  of  Connor,  compiled  in 
the  year  1306,  temporalities  belonging  to 
the  Abbot  of  the  Desert  of  Connor  are  set 
down  at  £8  6s.  8d.  The  tenth  of  this  was 
1 6s.  8d. 

18  It  is  shown  on  the  "  Ordnance  Survey 
Townland  Maps  for  the  County  of  Down," 
sheet  38. 

19  It  is  called  Ecclesia  Beatae  Marias  de 
Deserto  "  in  the  old  Terrier. 

20  At  the  Dissolution,  Connor  benefice 
was  but  a  vicarage,  the  rectory  and  advow- 
son  being  vested  in  the  Abbot  of  Kells.  St. 
Mac  Nissi's  Church  was  a  conventual 
one,  like  most  of  the  early  episcopal  seats 
of  the  primitive  Irish  Church ;  and  it  is  a 
very  curious  fact,  which  cannot  be  easily 
accounted  for,  otherwise  than  by  supposing 
the  episcopal  and  abbatial  offices  to  have 
been  early  combined  in  the  persons  of  St. 
Mac  Nissi's  successors,  that  the  rectories 
and  advowsons  of  the  principal  parishes  of 
Connor  diocese,  wherein  the  bishop  had 
property,  belonged,  at  the  Dissolution,  to  the 
Abbot  of  Kells.  Such  an  arrangement 
would  naturally  follow  from  a  partition  of 
the  two  functions,  and  the  appointment  of 
two  officers  to  discharge  the  duties  and  en-. 
joy  the  privileges  hitherto  combined  in  one. 
Thus,  while  the  Bishop  of  Connor  was  seised 
of  the  temporalities  ot  the  sixteen  towns  of 
Connor,  the  eight  towns  of  Glynn,  the  four 
towns  of  Duneane,  the  four  towns  of  Drum- 
maul,  the  four  towns  of  Kilroote,  and  the 
manor  of  Kilkenan,  the  Abbot  of  Kells  en- 
joyed the  advowsons  of  the  churches  built 
on  these  lands,   and   the  rectorial  tithes  of 


September  3.]       LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS  73 


St.  MacNissi,  the  first  bishop.  Its  ancient  church  appears  to  have  been 
attached  to  the  monastery,"  at  this  spot,22  while  the  founder  of  the  See 
fulfilled  in  person  the  united  offices  of  abbot  and  bishop.  From  undoubted 
annalistic  records,  the  junction  of  both  these  dignities  in  the  same  person  can 
be  traced  down  to  the  eleventh  century.  A  well-informed  writer,23  dis- 
tinguished for  his  great  erudition  and  research  on  the  subject  of  Irish 
Ecclesiastical  History,  is  unable  to  pronounce  when  those  offices  became 
permanently  separated.  He  thinks  it  likely,  however,  such  a  partition  took 
place  during  the  twelfth  century. 

Beside  a  river,  called  Curi,  St.  MacNissi  established  a  religious  house, 
and  it  may  be  inferred  from  a  passage  of  his  Latin  Life,2*  that  some  asylum 
for  aged  and  infirm  persons  was  near  it.  At  present,  it  flows  through  the 
valley,  called  Glenwherry,2s  and  in  the  Ulster  inquisitions  it  is  noticed  as  the 
(i  rivus  Glan-curry."  It  enters  the  parish  of  Connor,  and  leaving  its  church 
on  the  south,  it  winds  round  what  is  locally  styled  the  Abbey  of  Kells,  on 
the  north.  There  are  still  considerable  remains  of  an  ancient  building,  at 
the  spot.26  Under  the  name  of  the  Kells  Water,  that  stream  falls  into  the 
River  Main,  at  a  place  called  Ballyandraid.  It  is  related,  that  in  order  to 
save  those  who  were  infirm  at  that  place  from  the  sound  of  murmuring  water, 
St.  Mac  Nissi  removed  the  current  from  his  abode. 2?  Still  are  traces  of  an 
earlier  river-bed  visible,28  and  which  are  nearer  to  the  site  of  the  ancient 
church. 29  The  Rev.  William  Reeves  supposes,  that  about  the  period  of  the 
twelfth  century,  the  Abbey  de  Deserto  Connerice^  or  Kells,  became  an 
independent  establishment,  when  another  church  had  been  founded  for 
cathedral  or  parochial  purposes.  Subsequently,  it  was  called  the  Church  of 
Connor.3°     Thus  we  find,  that  the  foundation  of  what  is  called  Disertum  or 

the  parishes  which  contained  them.    To  the  infirmos  loci  molestaret,  per  ulteriorem  viam 

same  origin  may  be  traced,  also,  the  economy  currere    prsecepit  :   quod    continuo,    ut    ei 

of  the  Cathedral  of  Down,  where  the  Bishop  imperatum  est,  fecit." — "Acta  Sanctorum," 

was  Abbot,  and  the  Dean  was  Prior.  tomus  i.,  Septembris  iii.     Vita  auctore  in- 

21  According  to  Sir  James  Ware,  a  house  certo,  sect.  7,  p.  665. 

of  Regular  Augustine  Canons,  called  Kells,  25  Shown    on    the    "  Ordnance    Survey 

or  Disert,  was  here  dedicated  to  the  Blessed  Townland  Maps  for  the  County  of  Down," 

Virgin    Mary.       See     "  De     Hibernia     et  sheets  38,  39. 

Antiquitatibus    ejus    Disquisitiones,"    cap.  2<5  The  accompanying  illustration,  from  a 

xxvi.,  p.  183.  photograph   of  Mr.    T.    C.    Erwin,     Pho- 

22  It  was  founded  here,  before  the  year  tographer,  Ballymena,  taken  June,  1897, 
828,  by  Kelloch,  an  anchorite,  according  to  has  been  reproduced  on  the  wood,  and  en- 
Harris' Ware,  vol.  ii,   "  Antiquities  of  Ire-  graved  by  Gregor  Grey. 

land,"  chap,    xxxviii.,  p.   265.     This  state-  s7  The  Rev.   William  Reeves  conjectures 

ment  is  gathered  from  the  following  entry  that  the  rationale  for  such  change  may  have 

in  the  "Annals  of  the  Four  Masters,"  at  been,    that  he   shifted    his    monastery — no 

the  year  828:    "  Ce^llac  mc   Cont>tfiAi5  difficult    matter    for    a  house    built    more 

•Anjcoi|\e    t)ifi]\c   CeAlUvij."       See    Dr.  Scotorum — or  that  he  deepened  the  bed  of 

O'Donovan's  edition,  vol.  i.,  p.  442.      The  the  River. 

learned   editor   omitted  the  translation    of  28  In  the  Bleach  Green. 

this    passage    into    English.      It   may  be  29  This  information  was  communicated  by 

objected,  however,  that  such  refers,  not  to  Mr.    Robert    Brown,  of  Kildrum,  to   Rev. 

this  place,  but  to  Isertkelly,  in  the  county  of  James  O'Laverty.    See  "  Historical  Account 

Galway,  and  diocese  of  Kilmacduach.     It  is  of    the    Diocese    of    Down    and    Connor, 

marked  "Oir-ervc  Cellaij  on  Mr.   O'Dono-  Ancient  and    Modern,"   vol.   iii.,    p.    272, 

van's  exquisite  map  of  Hy-Many,  prefixed  note. 

to  "  The  Tribes  and  Customs  of  Hy-Many,  3°  He  adds  :  "  This  Church,  which  is  now 

commonly  called  O'Kelly's  Country."  only  parochial,   is  situate  half  an  English 

23  The  Rev.  Dr.  Reeves.  mile    S.E.   of  the   Abbey  of  Kells.     It  is 

24  As  published  by  the  Bollandists  :  probable,  also,  that  about  the  same  time 
"Fluvio  nomine  Curi,  monasterium  ejus  that  arrangement  was  entered  into  whereby 
quod  Latine  Desertum  dicitur,  praeterfluenti,  the  Abbot  became  seised  of  the  rectorial 
ne    sonitus    ejus    tarn     prope     transeuntis  tithes  and  ad  vowsons  of  all  the  neighbouring 


74 


LIVES  OF  THE  LRLSH  SAINTS.       [September 


Kells,  in  mediaeval  times,3x  must  be  relegated  to  the  very  earliest  ages  of 
Christianity,  and  it  had  a  succession  of  abbots  to  the  period  of  its  dissolution. 3' 
During  the  reign  of  King  Charles  I.  the  mediaeval  abbey  was  still  to  be  seen 
under  roof  ;33  but,  at  present,  the  west  gable  is  almost  the  only  part  of  the 


The  Abbey  of  Kells,  County  Antrim. 

building  which  remains.  It  stands  at  the  entrance  of  the  burial  ground, 
which  is  entirely  used  by  the  Roman  Catholics  of  that  neighbourhood.  It  is 
commonly  called  Templemurry  or  Templemoyle.34 

It  is  related,  in  the  Bollandists'  Acts  of  our  saint,  that  through  the  effect 
of  his  prayers,  St.  Macnessius  obtained  the  birth  of  a  son  for  a  woman 
advanced  in  age,  and  who  for  fifteen  years  previously  had  not  given  birth 


parishes  wherein  the  bishop  had  property. 
The  Church  of  Connor  stands  on  see 
land,  yet  the  advowson  of  the  vicarage  and 
the  rectorial  tithes  of  the  bishop's  sixteen 
towns  of  Connor  belonged  to  the  Abbot  of 
Kells.  The  Church  of  Glynn  stands  on  see 
land,  and  yet  the  advowson  of  the  vicarage 
and  the  rectorial  tithes  were  vested  in  the 
Abbot  of  Kells.  So  also  with  respect  to  the 
parishes  and  bishop's  lands  of  Drurnmaul, 
Dunean,  Killroot,  and  Kilkenan,  in  Island 
Magee.  The  Castle  and  certain  land  at 
Glenarm  were  antiently  held  under  the 
Bishop  of  Connor ;  and,  accordingly,  the 
advowson  of  the  vicarage  of  Templeoughter, 
with  the  rectory,  was  appendant  on  the 
abbacy  of  Kells." — Rev.  Wm.  Reeves' 
"  Ecclesiastical  Antiquities  of  Down,  Con- 
nor and  Dromore.''  Appendix  n.  (T), 
p.  261. 

31  The  ancient  name  of  this  Abbey  is  in 
a  deed  of  confirmation  from  the  Primate  to 


the  Prior  of  Neddrum  [circiter  A.D.  1190]. 
This  is  attested  by  "F.  Abbas  de  Dissert." 
— Cotton  Charters,  No.  40,  in  the  British 
Museum. 

32  Murtogh  Mac  Annullowe,  the  last 
Abbot,  was  seised  in  1542  of  eight  adjacent 
townlands  in  temporals  and  spirituals,  of 
the  tithes  of  ten  other  townlands,  and  the 
rectories  and  advowsons  of  nine  churches. 

33  In  1808,  a  bill  was  filed  by  Lord 
Mountcashell  for  the  recovery  of  the  im- 
propriate tithes  of  Kells,  in  which  was  the 
deposition  of  Daniel  Monaghan,  who  de- 
clared that  he  recollected  to  have  heard  his 
maternal  grandfather,  Murtogh  Dillon,  say, 
that  he  was  eleven  years  at  the  wars  of  Ire- 
land, namely,  the  rebellion  of  164 1,  and 
that  he  had  seen  the  Monastery  of  Kells 
after  its  dissolution,  and  before  it  was 
entirely  unroofed. 

34  See  Rev.  Wm.  Reeves'  "Ecclesiastical 
Antiquities      of      Down,      Connor,      and 


September  3.]       LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS. 


75 


to  any  offspring.  Again,  we  are  told,  the  father  to  the  great  St.  Comgall  of 
Bangor,35  who  was  named  Setna,  had  been  on  a  journey,  accompanied  by  his 
wife  Brig,  occupying  a  seat  in  a  chariot.  Seeing  our  saint  travelling  on  foot, 
Setna  said  to  his  wife :  4C0  woman,  descend  that  the  Bishop  may  take  a 
place  in  this  chariot."  But,  on  hearing  these  words,  our  saint  replied  :  "  Do 
not  disturb  her,  for  she  shall  give  birth  to  a  king,  who  will  rule  over  many."*6 
This  was  a  prediction  referring  to  St.  Comgall's  future  eminence. n  As  it  is 
probable,  that  St.  Comgall  of  Bangor  had  been  born,  in  the  year  510,3s  and 
as  it  is  said  our  saint  delivered  a  prophecy  regarding  him  the  day  before  his 
birth,  we  may  most  probably  conclude,  St.  Macniscius,  Bishop  of  Connor, 
had  been  living  in  that  year.  Our  saint  did  not  survive  the  birth  of  St. 
Comgall  for  many  years.  Other  miracles  are  recorded  in  his  Acts.  A  town 
that  refused  hospitality  to  our  saint  was  immediately  consumed,  as  a  punish- 
ment from  on  high. 39 

St.  Macnessius  is  said  to  have  been  advanced  in  years,  when  the  time  of 
his  death  arrived.  This  was  in  the  early  part  of  the  sixth  century,  although 
the  exact  date  has  not  been  ascertained.40  However,  he  departed  this  life, 
on  the  3rd  day  of  September,41  and  in  the  year  514,42  according  to  the  most 
probable  accounts  ;  43  although  the  Annals  of  Innisfallen  name  the  year  506, 
as  a  date  for  his  death,  with  the  words,  "  Quies  Macnisse  Condire."  The 
"Chronicum  Scotorum"  places  his  death  at  a.d.  508.44  Others  have  it  during 
the  year  507  ;  45  the  Annals  of  Tigernach  at  a.d.  510  j  and  Colgan,  on  the 
3rd  of  November,*6  a.d.  513.  The  Annals  of  the  Four  Masters  state,  that 
in  a.c.  5T3,  the  tenth  year  of  Muircheartach's  reign,  St.  Macnisi,  i.e.,  Aengus, 


Dromore,:' Appendix,   n.  (f),  pp.  95  to  97. 

35  See  his  Life,  in  the  Fifth  Volume  of 
this  work,  at  the  10th  of  May,  the  date  for 
his  festival,  Art.  i. 

36  For  a  fuller  account  of  this  incident,  the 
reader  is  referred  by  the  Bollandist  editor  to 
the  Acts  of  St.  Comgall,  published  at  the 
10th  of  May,  in  their  great  collection. 

37  See  "  Acta  Sanctorum,"  tomus  i., 
Septembris,  iii.  Acta  S.  Macnescii,  sect.  7, 
8,  p.  665. 

38  In  his  previous  Commentary,  to  the 
Acts  of  St.  Macnescius,  the  Bollandist 
editor  observes,  regarding  St.  Comgall,  "  ut 
habent  ejus  Acta,  torn,  ii.,  Maii,  pag.  583." 

39  See  "Acta  Sanctorum,"  tomus  i.,  Sep- 
tembris iii.  Acta  S.  Macnescii,  sect.  6,  p.  665. 

40  Porter  states  :  "  Evivis  hie  cessit  senex 
venerabilis,  3  Septembris,  Anno  Domini 
507:  vel  secundum  alios,  514." — "Com- 
pendium Annalium  Ecclesiasticorum  Regni 
Hiberniae,"  cap.  vii.,  p.  173. 

41  He  died  on  the  3rd  day  of  September, 
and  under  this  day  of  the  month  his  festival 
is  placed  in  the  Martyrology  of  -dingus  the 
Culdee  : — 

"nuc  msse  co  rmli-o 
o  chotiDetub  m<\n<\ib." 

"  Mac  Nisse  with  thousands 
From  the  great  Condere." 

42  His  death  is  recorded  in  the  Annals  of 
Tigernach  as  follows  :— " 5 10  [recte  514]. 
Kl  iiii.  true  mr-p.  .1.  <\enj;ur<  erpuc 
Conx>er\e  <juieuic  ;     cuiuf    j?r\4cer*    [recte 


p.&cen]  iTobrvaech  -oiccurerc,  cuiurtnacep 
Cnerr  ittge-n,  C  homcAi'oe  -oe  -oaiL  Cecepen, 
A  <\u&  normriAcuf  ere  mac  Cneirre." — 
"  514s  Kal  iiii.  Mac  Nissi,  i.e.,  ^Engus, 
Bishop  of  Connor,  rested  ;  whose  father  was 
called  Fobraech  ;  whose  mother,  Cness, 
was  daughter  of  Comchaide  of  the  Dal 
Ceteren,  from  whom  he  was  named  Mac 
Cneisse." 

43  See  "Ecclesiastical  History  of  Ireland," 
vol.  i.,  chap,  viii.,  sect,  ix.,  p.  403,  and 
sect,  xiv.,  p.  422,  ibid. 

44  See   William   M.   Hennessy's  edition, 

PP-  36,  37- 

45  •«  Ware,  following  these  Annals,  has 
(Ant.,  cap.  29)  the  year  507.  Harris,  with 
his  usual  sagacity,  observes  (Bishops  at 
Connor),  that  this  date  does  not  agree  with 
that  of  the  Innisfallen  Annals,  which  have 
506.  But,"  writes  Rev.  Dr.  Lanigan, 
"Ware  knew  what  Harris  did  not,  viz., 
that  said  506  was  the  same  as  our  507. 
Archdall  (at  Conner)  left  a.d.  506,  as  he 
found  it.  But  Ware  (in  Bishops)  adds  that, 
according  to  some,  Macnisse  died  A.D. 
514.  He  alluded  to  the  Four  Masters  and 
Colgan,  who  have  (A.A.S.S.  p.  190)  a.d. 
513,  514."  See  "Ecclesiastical  History 
of  Ireland,"  vol.  i.,  chap,  ix.,  sect,  ii.,  p. 
435,  and  n.  31,  p.  439. 

46  This  is  an  error  of  the  printer,  as  Sep- 
tember was  evidently  intended.  See  "Acta 
Sanctorum  Hiberniae,"  Januarii  xxix.  Vita 
S.  Gildse  Badonici,  n.  13,  p.  190. 


76 


LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS.      [September  3. 


Bishop  of  Coinnere,  or  Connor,  departed  on  the  3rd  day  of  November.4* 
The  insertion  of  November  for  September  is  an  error,  on  the  part  of  those 
annalists.48  The  Bollandists  inform  us,  that  Castellanus  refers  the  death  of 
St.  Macniscius,  Bishop  over  Connor,  to  about  the  year  600,  or  589.  But, 
they  state,  that  by  protracting  his  life  to  either  of  these  years,  Castellanus  *9 
appears  to  have  confounded  our  saint  with  the  Abbot  Macniscius.  The 
holy  Bishop  and  founder  of  the  see  was  buried  in  the  city  of  Connor.5° 

The  festival  of  St.  Macnessius  was  celebrated  on  the  3rd  of  September, 
according  to  the  Martyrology  of  Aengus,  and  all  the  Irish  Calendars.  In 
the  Kalendar. of  Drummond,  he  is  recorded  at  the  same  date.51  Also, 
Castellanus,52  and  the  more  recent  Marty rologists  place  it  at  the  3rd  of 
September.  In  the  Diocese  of  Connor,  his  festival  is  celebrated  with  a 
Double  Office  of  the  first-class,  and  with  an  Octave;  in  conjunction  with  St. 
Malachy  O'Morgair,  he  is  esteemed  as  the  principal  patron  over  that 
ecclesiastical  division  of  Ireland.  Nicholas  Anthony  O' Kenny,  the  Protono- 
tary  Apostolic,  published  Proper  Masses  for  the  Patron  Saints  of  France  and 
of  Ireland,  in  the  year  1734.53  Those  were  edited  and  printed  by  order  of 
Clement  XII. 54  Among  them  is  to  be  found  a  Mass,  at  the  3rd  day  of 
September,55  and  proper  for  the  feast  of  St,  Macnessius,  Bishop  and  Con- 
fessor, as  likewise  general  Patron  over  the  Church  and  Diocese.  The 
Bollandist  editor  has  inserted  this  Mass ;  or  at  least  the  proper  portions  of 
it,  in  a  previous  commentary.56 


47  See  Dr.  O'Donovan's  Edition,  vol.  i., 
pp.  168,  169. 

48  Dr.  Lanigan  is  at  fault,  in  his  conjecture, 
as  not  having  examined,  probably,  a  copy  of 
the  Annals  of  the  Four  Masters.  After 
citing  Ware's  Antiquities,  cap.  2g,  and 
Bishops,  he  says,  "  Here  again  Harris  comes 
forward  with  a  correction  of  Ware,  and  quotes 
Colgan  as  saying,  that  Macnisse  died  on  the 
3rd  of  November,  513.  As  to  513,  it  was 
the  same  as  Ware's  514  ;  but  the  variation 
November  for  September  was  owing  to  a  mere 
error  of  the  press  \2\  A.A.S.S.p.  190),  z.  cir- 
cumstance quite  common  in  Colgan's  work. 
Elsewhere,  he  has  third  of  September  {ib.  p. 
377),  which  day  he  refers  for  the  Acts  of  Mac- 
nisse." See  "  Ecclesiastical  History  of 
Ireland,"  vol.  i.,  chap,  ix.,  sect,  ii.,  n.  32, 
P-  439- 

49  1  hey  say,  that  Castellanus,  at  page  968, 
most  probably  makes  the  Abbot  Macniseus 
a  different  person  from  the  Bishop  of  Connor. 
The  Bollandist  editor  also  remarks,  "abbas 
enim  Me  obiit  anno  jSg,  non  circa  D  C,  ut 
Castellanus  vull." 

50  "  Sanctus  Mac  Cneisi  episcopus,  qui 
jacet  in  sua  civitate  nomine  Connyre,  quae 
est  in  regione  Dalnaraidhe." — Vita  S. 
Comgalli,  in  Liber  Kilkenniensis,  fol.  90  /;, 
col.  2  ;  and  also  Fleming's  "  Collectanea 
Sacra,"  p.  304. 

51  At  iii.  Nonas.  "  Apud  Hiberniam 
Natale  Sanctorum  Confessorum  Luin 
Colman  et  Meic  Nissi." — Bishop  Forbes' 
"  Kalendar  of  Scottish  Saints,"  p.  23. 

53  In  Martyrologio  Universali,  at  the  3rd 
of  September,  he  states  :   "  In  Ultonia,  pro- 


vincia  Hiberniae,  S.  Magnissius  episcopus 
Connerensis."  In  the  supplement  to  ids 
work,  he  more  rightly  adds :  ".Macniseus, 
id  est  filius  Nisae,  quod  erat  nomen  matris 
ejus-''     See  p.  705. 

53  Bishop  de  Burgo  has  unaccountably 
omitted  St.  Macnessius,  in  the  "  Officia 
Propria  Sanctorum  Hibernise,"  published  in 
Dublin,  1751. 

54  See,  also,  the  Rev.  Alban  Butler's  "Lives 
of  the  Fathers,  Martyrs,  and  other  principal 
Saints,"  vol.  ix.,  iii.  September. 

55  The   Bollandist   editor   of   our   Saints' 
Acts  declares,  that  the  memory  of  St.  Mac- 
is  ascribed  to  the  same  day  in  some 

MSS.  Catalogues  of  the  Saints  of  Ireland, 
"  quos  habemus  sub  involucio  *%*  MS.167.  " 
He  thinks  it  strange,  however,  this  saint 
had  been  omitted  by  Henry  Fitzsimon,  the 
Irish  Jesuit,  who  names  other  holy  men 
much  less  distinguished,  and  by  Father 
Hugh  Ward,  belonging  to  the  Order  of 
Friars  Minor,  in  his  catalogue  of  the  Irish 
Saints,  which  he  sent  to  Rosweyde  in  the 
year  1627.  However,  in  a  MS.  forwarded 
by  Ward  to  Rosweyde  or  to  Bollandus, 
there  are  some  notices  of  St.  Macnessius 
which  have  been  already  given,  partly  in  a 
previous  note,  and  extracted  from  the 
learned  work  of  Dr.  Reeves.  See  "Acta 
Sanctorum,"  tomus  i.,  Septembris,  iii. 
Commentaiius  prasvius,  sect.  3,  p.  662. 

56  I  have  inserted  here  the  proper  portions 
of  this  Mass  taken  from  the  same  work  : — 
"  Introitus.  Cogitavi  dies  antiquos,  & 
annos  aeternos  in  mente  habui :  &  meditafus 
sum  nocte  cum  cordo  meo  ;    &  exercitabar 


September  3.]       LIVES  OE  THE  IRISH  SAINTS.  77 


There  was  another  Saint  Macnessius,57  in  Ireland,  who  also  bore  the 
name  Oena  -<4Engus,  in  Latin  ^Eneas  or  ^Engussius.  He  was  Abbot  over 
Clonmacnoise,  situated  on  the  banks  of  the  Shannon,  and  on  the  Western 
Meathian  boundaries.  Although,  there  was  an  accidental  concordance  of 
names,  between  our  saint  and  this  Abbot  just  mentioned ;  yet,  the  circum- 
stances of  their  separate  places,58  festival  days/9  and  the  years  of  their 
respective  deaths,60  fully  suffice  to  discriminate  them. 

The  Church  of  Annatrim  in  the  parish  of  Offerlane,  at  the  foot  of  Slieve 
Bloom  Mountain  and  in  the  Diocese  of  Ossory,  is  said  to  have  been  dedicated 
to  the  memory  of  this  saint.  Such,  however,  we  believe  to  be  a  mistake,  as  the 
present  holy  Bishop,  Mac  Nissi,  has  been  called  Caeman  Breac,  and  he  has 
been  confounded  with  Caemhan,  the  Patron  of  Eanach-Truim,  venerated  on 
the  3rd  of  November.61  Doubtless,  many  misconceptions  have  tended  to 
obscure  St.  Mac  Nissi's  Acts,  but  our  Christian  traditions — generally  so 
respectable  in  the  Irish  Church — have  preserved  his  virtues  and  merits,  as 
the  Patriarch  of  one  among  our  most  ancient  dioceses,  and  as  a  Patron 
whose  memory  is  deserving  the  veneration  of  his  devout  clients. 


Article  III. — St.  Lon,  or  Loman,  also  called  Lon-garadh,  of 
Disert-Garadh,  or  of  Magh  Tuathat,  Queen's  County.  [Sixth 
Century. ~\  In  the  ancient  monastic  schools  of  Ireland,  learning  and  piety 
were  admirably  combined ;  and  this  too  at  a  very  early  period,  as  we  can 
learn  from  the  traditional  and  written  accounts  regarding  the  present  devout 
scholar.  In  the  Feilire  of  St.  y£ngus,  at  the  3rd  of  September,  Longarad, 
"  a  delightful  sun,"1  is  mentioned,  as  having  had  his  commemoration.  We 
find  a  festival  recorded,  also,  in  the  Martyrology  of  Donegal,2  at  the  same 
date,  and  in  honour  of  Lon-garadh.     In  the  manuscript  copy  of  that  calendar, 


&   scopebam   spiritum   meum.      Psalmus.  Vitali   cibo   recreati   gratias   tibi,  Domine, 

Voce  mea  ad  Dominum  clamavi,  voce  mea  agimus   &   rogamus,   ut    quod   ad    gloriam 

ad  Dominum  clamavi,  voce  mea  ad  Deum,  sumpsimus    sancti    tui   praesulis   Macniscii, 

&  intendit  mihi.  Gloria  Patris,  &c.  Cogitavi,  ejus  precibus  sit  nobis  contra  hostiles  impetus 

&c.     Oratio.    Sancti    Macniscii,    Domine,  auxilium.     Per  Dominum,  &c."     After  the 

confessoris    tui    &    pontificis,     merito    ad-  insertion    of  the   foregoing   the    Bollandist 

juvemur;    ut   sicut    te    in    illo    mirabilem  editor  remarks:  "Haec  publicam  &solennem 

praedicamus,  ita  in  nos  misericordum  fuisse  hujus    sancti    Episcopi   venerationem   satis 

gloriemur.      Per  Dominum,   &c.      Lectio  superque  probant. " 

Epistol^e  beati  Pauli  Apostoli  ad  Hebi  aeos ;  57  See  notices  of  him  in  the  Sixth  Volume 

Fratres.  Plures  facti  sunt  sacerdotes,   &c,  of  this  work  at  the  13th  of  June,  Art.  ii. 

usque  adfinem  capitis.     Gradual.  Beatus  58  Connor  and  Clonmacnois  are  more  than 

vir,  qui  timet  Dominum,  in  mandatis  ejus  eighty  Irish  miles  apart, 

cupit  nimis.     ~f.  Potens  in  terra  erit  semen  S9  Mac  Nissi  of  Clonmacnois  is  venerated 

ejus,      generatio      rectorum      benedicetur.  on  the   13th  of  Jun**,   while  Mac  Nissi  of 

Alleluia,   alleluia.     ~ft.  Gloria  &  divitiae  in  Connor's  feast   occurs  on   the  3rd  of  Sep- 

domo  ejus,  &  justitia  ejus  manet  in  saeculum  tember. 

seculi.       A   Sequentia     sancti     Evangelii  ^  While  the  death  of  Mac  Nessius,  Bishop 

secundum      Matthreum  ;      Homo      quidam  of  Connor,  is  assigned  to  the  early  part  of 

peraegre  proficiscens,  &c.   Credo.    Offer-  the   sixth    century,    that  of    Mac   Nessius, 

torium.    Meditabor  in  mandatis  tuis,  quae  Abbot  of  Clonmacnois,  is  placed  towards  its 

dilexi   valde  ;   &  servavi    manus  meas    ad  close. 

mandata  tua,  quaedilexi.     Secreta.  Sucri-  6l  See  an  account  of  him,  at  that  date,  in 

ficium  nostrum,  Domine,  beatus  Macniscius  the  Eleventh  Voiume  of  this  work, 

sacerdos    magnus    majestatis    tuae     occulis  Article  hi.—1  See  translations    of  the 

reddat   acceptum,    qui   se   tibi    dum    vixit,  Royal   Irish   Academy,"    Irish  Manuscript 

sanctam    &   placentem  hostiam  immolavit.  Series,  vol.  i.,  part  i.     On  the   Calendar   of 

Per  Dominum,  &c.     Communis.  Laetabitur  Oengus.     By   Whitley   Stokes,   LL.D.,    p. 

Justus  in  Domino,  &  sperabit  in  eo  :  &  lauda-  cxxxvi. 

buntur  omnes  recti  corde.    Postcommunio.  a  Edited  by  Rev.  Drs.  Todd  and  Reeves, 


78  LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS.      [September  3. 


a  space  had  been  left  after  the  insertion  of  his  name,  to  fill  in  the  title  of  his 
dignity,  the  O'Clerys  being  uncertain  as  to  whether  they  should  style  him 
11  priest,"  "  abbot,"  or  "  bishop."3  His  original  name  seems  to  have  been 
Lon,  or  Loman,  to  which  the  name  of  his  place  was  afterwards  added.  It  is 
possible,  that  he  may  be  the  same  as  Lon  or  Lonn  of  Cill  Gobhra,  who  is 
venerated  on  the  24th  of  June.*  The  present  Lon-garadh  is  said  to  have 
belonged  to  Sliabh  Mairge,  or  to  have  been  of  Magh  Tuathat.s  He  is  called 
Lon-garadh  Coisfinn,6  of  Disert  Garadh,  in  the  north  of  Osraighe.  He  was 
surnamed  Garadh,  from  Disert  Garadh,  in  the  Queen's  County,  where  he 
probably  had  a  cell.?  Sliabh  Mairge  is  a  denomination  still  preserved  in 
Slievemargy,  now  a  barony  in  the  Queen's  County,  and  a  district  that  formerly 
extended  very  near  to  the  present  city  of  Kilkenny.  Towards  the  south,  it 
continued  between  the  courses  of  the  Nore  and  Barrow,  forming  the  eastern 
boundary  of  the  principality  of  Ossory.  This  latter  ridge  is  now  better 
known  as  the  Johnswell  Mountains.8  The  tribe  Ui-Fairchellaigh  or  Ui- 
Foircheallain  gave  name  to  a  district,  now  known  as  a  large  parish  called 
OrTerrilan,  west  of  Mountrath,  in  the  Barony  of  Upper  Ossory,  Queen's 
County.  The  ancient  name  of  the  plain,  in  which  this  tribe  was  seated,  was 
Magh-Tuathat.9  The  parish  of  OrTerlane,  contains  the  interesting  ruins  of  Ana- 
trim,  and  only  at  present  the  site  of  the  monastery  of  Mondrehid,I0but,  it  seems 
not  certain,  that  Disert  Geradh,  or  Cill  Gabhra,  can  be  identified.  Near  Castle- 
town," in  this  same  parish,  there  is  an  old  cemetery,  enclosing  the  ruins  of 
an  interesting  and  a  mediaeval  church,  now  called  Churchtown,  and  of  con- 
siderable dimensions.  Old  toghers  or  bohers  are  yet  traceable,  and  leading 
from  it  in  different  directions.  The  original  Irish  name  for  this  church  seems 
to  be  lost.  Within  the  memory  of  a  middle-aged  man,12  the  ruins  were  much 
more  perfect,  and  a  very  beautiful  east-end  window  remained  in  the  gable, 
now  destroyed.13  An  old  stone  font  lay  out  under  the  canopy  of  heaven  in 
the  graveyard.14  Lon-garadh  was  denominated  "  of  the  White  Legs,"  either 
because  they  were  covered  with  a  whitish  hair,  or  because  they  were  smooth 
and  very  white.15     Lon  is  said  to  have  been  a  doctor  in  teaching,  in  history, 


pp.  234,  235.  son-in-law  to  Peter,  Earl  of  Ormonde,  took 

3  See  the  appended  note  of  Rev.  Dr.  Todd,  forcible  possession  of  this  castle.  He  then 
p.  234,  n.  1. — Ibid.  garrisoned  and  held  it  for  some  time  in  war- 

4  See  an  account  of  him,  at  that  date,  in  like  opposition  to  the  Fitzpatricks.  Subse- 
the  Sixth  Volume  of  this  work,  Art.  iv.  quently,  he  resigned  it  to  the  ancient  pro- 

s  Of  Magh  Garadh,  in  Ui  Fairchellaigh,  prietors,  and  accepted  in  lieu  of  it  the  manor 
and  of  Cill  Gabhra,  in  Sliabh  Mairge,  he  is  and  lands  of  Grantstown.  See  the  "  Par- 
called,  in  old  documents.  liamentary  Gazetteer  of  Ireland,"  vol.  i.,  p 

6  Coisfinn  ;  i.e.,  of  the  white   foot.     See  374. 
"  Martyology     of     Donegal,"     edited     by  "  In  May,  1870,  Mr.  Daniel  F.  Dowling, 

Rev.  Drs.  Todd  and  Reeves.     Note  by  Dr.  then  living  in  Castletown,  and  certainly  not 

O'Donovan,  p.  234.  much  over  40  years  of  age. 

i  See  "  Book  of  Obits  and  Martyrology  I3  With  many  other  details  of  an  interest - 

of    the    Cathedral    Church    of    the    Holy  ing  character,   which  he  promised  to  put  on 

Trinity,"  edited  by  John  Clarke  Crosthwaite  record,  and   he  related   the   facts  embodied 

and  Rev.  Dr.  Todd.  Introduction,  p.  lxxii.  in  the  text  to  the  writer.     Some  fine  sped- 

*  See   John    Hogan's    "  Kilkenny  :    the  mens  of  its  carved  lime-stones  were  at  the 

Ancient  City  of  Ossory,"  &c,  parti.,  p.  30.  heads  of  graves,  and  others  were  placed  in 

9  See  Dr.  O'Donovan's  "  Annals  of  the  positions  to  preserve  them  from  similar  uses, 
Four  Masters,"  vol.  i.,  n.  (o),  p.  560.  by  that   respectable  and   highly  intelligent 

10  Lewis'    "Topographical  Dictionary  of  man. 

Ireland,"  vol.  ii.,  pp.  446,  447.  14  The  country  people  often  resort  to  it, 

11  Evidently  so  called  from  an  old  castle,  and  they  use  water,  found  in  its  cavity,  as  a 
the  ruins  of  which  are  still  to  be  seen  on  the  lotion  for  the  cure  of  warts. 

southern  banks  of  the  River  Nore.     Early  js  Such   is  the   statement  of  the  glosso- 

in  the  sixteenth  century,  Sir  Oliver  Morres,  grapher  on  /Engus,  contained  in  the  "  Lea- 


September  3.]      LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS.  79 


in  laws  and  in  poetry.  This  saint  was  regarded,  likewise,  as  the  Augustine 
of  Ireland;  such  was  the  depth  and  range  of  his  ecclesiastical  knowledge.16 
He  was  passionately  addicted  to  a  love  of  literature;  but,  it  would  seem,  he 
was  not  remarkable  for  lending  his  much-prized  books  to  others  who  desired 
their  use  or  possession. '?  The  most  valuable  codices — especially  the  copies 
of  Gospels  and  ritual  Books — were  often  kept  in  polaire  or  leathern  cases 
and  in  tiaga^  or  satchels. '9  These  latter20  usually  hung  from  pegs  fastened 
in  the  walls  of  the  old  Irish  monasteries.  In  the  time  of  St.  Patrick,  a  legend 
is  related,  that  the  Irish  Apostle21  desired  a  skin  on  which  he  slept  and  stood, 
while  celebrating  the  holy  sacrifice  of  the  Mass,  to  be  converted  into  a  sack 
or  satchel,  which  might  serve  to  hold  books.  These  were  then  fastened  to 
the  girdles  of  six  attendant  boys,  who  accompanied  six  Irish  clerics,  on  a 
Roman  pilgrimage.22  This  saint  is  said,  likewise,  to  have  been  a  great  lover 
and  collector  of  books.  St.  Columkille23once  paid  him  a  visit ;  but,  accord- 
ing to  the  legend,  Lon-garad  hid  his  books,  and  his  visitor  predicted  that 
after  Longarad's  death,  no  man  would  be  able  to  read  the  works  which  were 
in  his  possession,2*  and  which  were  so  inhospitably  withheld,  from  one  who 
could  so  thoroughly  appreciate  their  value.  It  is  a  curious  remark,  how 
many  similar  ancient  customs  have  prevailed,  and  in  countries  so  very  far 
remote,  when  we  undertake  the  task  of  making  antiquarian  comparisons. 
At  the  present  time,  in  the  Abyssinian  monasteries — and  notably  in  that  of 
Souriani — the  disposition  of  the  monks'  manuscripts  is  to  Europeans  very 
original.  Those  manuscripts  are  usually  hung  in  leather  cases  or  satchels, 
tied  with  leather  thongs,  and  having  straps  attached  to  the  cases.  By  these, 
the  books  contained  in  them  depend  from  long  wooden  pegs,  fastened  in  the 
walls. 25  Those  wooden  pegs  project  underneath  a  shelf,  carried  in  the 
Egyptian  style  around  the  walls,  and  at  the  height  of  the  door-top.26  Three 
or  four  manuscripts  are  hung  on  one  peg,  or  even  on  more,  if  the  Cordices 


bhar  Breac  "  copy  of  his  "  Feilire."  Art.  i. 

16  An  ancient  vellum  book,  which  we  have  22  See   Colgan's    "  Trias   Thaumaturga," 

mentioned  under  St.  Brigid's  life,  at   1st  ot  Vita  Septima  S.  Patricii,   pars  ii„  cap.  ix., 

February,   and  under  St.   Patrick's,  at  the  p.  130. 

17th  March,  states,  that  Lon-garadh,  in  his  23  See  his  Life  at  the  9th  of  June,   in  the 

habits  and  life,  was  like  to  Augustine,  who  Sixth  Volume  of  this  work,  Art.  i. 

was  very  wise.  24  See  "  Transactions  of  the  Royal  Irish 

*f  It  is  probable,  like  most  literary  men,  Academy,"  Irish  Manuscript  Series,  vol.  i., 

he  had  found  from  experience,  how  difficult  part  i.     On    the    Calendar  of  Oengus.     By 

it  was  to  recover  or  recall  them  when  lent ;  Whitley  Stokes,  LL.D.,  pp.  cxl.,  cxli. 

and,  at  a  time  when  copies  of  tracts  had  not  2S  See  the  Hon.  Robert  Curzon's  "Visit 

been  sufficiently  multiplied,   their  absence  to  Monasteries  in  the  Levant,"  part  i.,  chap, 

might   have   much  retarded   his  pursuit  of  viii.,  p.  93.     There  is  also  an    illustrative 

knowledge,  under  difficulties  of  the  period.  wood-cut,  representing  this  singular  arrange- 

18  Called  in  Irish  ciaja,  in  the  legend  of  ment,  and  the  interior  of  the  library.     It 

Longaradh.  serves  to  revive  in  our   imagination   some 

'9  In  Latin  usually  called  scetha,  or  sceta,  very  probable  scenes  of  our  ancient   Irish 

squesa  or  cetha,   meaning  in  English,    "a  monastic  community  or  library  rooms, 

sheath."  26  The   Library   room    at    Souriani    was 

20  The  Book  of  Armagh  has  also  the  about  twenty-six  feet  long,  twenty  wide,  and 
significant  term  of  scetha,  at  fol.  191,  a.a.  twelve  in  height ;  its  roof  was  formed  of  the 
It  is  worthy  of  notice,  also,  that  in  Sulp'crps  trunks  of  palm  trees,  across  which  reeds  were 
Severus'  Preface  to  his  Vita  S.  Mcuuu.,  l.c  laid.  These  supported  a  mass  of  earth  and 
printed  text  reads:  "  Libellum  quern  de  plaster,  of  which  the  terrace  roof  was  corn- 
vita  S.  Martini  scripseram  scheda  sua  posed.  The  windows,  at  a  good  height  from 
premere."  See  at  p.  483,  in  George  Horn's  the  ground,  were  unglazed  ;  but,  they  were 
very  complete  edition  of  the  works  of  that  defended  with  bars  of  iron-wood,  or  some 
writer,  published  at  Amsterdam,  in  1665, 8vo.  hard  kind  of  wood.     The  door  opened  into 

21  See  the  Life  of  St.  Patrick  in  the  Third  the  garden,  and  its  lock  was  of  wood,  also, 
Volume  of  this  work,  at  the  17th  of  March,  according  to  the  peculiar  construction  used 


8o  LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS.      [September 


be  small.  The  usual  size  of  these  books  is  that  of  a  small  and  very  thick 
quarto.  The  books  of  Abyssinia  are  bound  in  the  ordinary  way  ;  sometimes 
in  wooden  boards,  which  occasionally  are  elaborately  carved  in  rude  and 
coarse  devices.  The  straps,  attached  to  the  book  cases,  were  intended  also 
to  support  these,  and  the  manuscripts  were  carried  over  the  shoulders. 
A  very  interesting  account  is  given  about  the  manner  in  which  Abyssinian 
manuscripts  are  written;  most  usually  on  skins  or  vellum,  but  occasionally, 
too,  on  charta  bombycina.  The  ink  used  by  the  scribes  is  a  compound  of 
gum,  lampblack  and  water.  It  is  jet  black,  and  it  keeps  the  colour  for  ever ; 
while  it  is  not  corrosive  or  injurious,  either  to  the  pen  or  paper.  The  scribes 
use  a  reed  pen.  The  ink-horn  is  the  small  end  of  a  cow's  horn,  stuck  into 
the  ground,  at  the  feet  of  the  scribe.  The  Abyssinian  manuscripts  are 
adorned  with  the  quaintest  and  griraest  illuminations  conceivable.  The 
colours  are  composed  of  various  ochres,  and  laid  over  the  outlines  of  figures, 
first  drawn  with  the  pen.*?  The  foregoing  recorded  facts  may  probably  throw 
considerable  light  on  the  preservation  of  the  ancient  books  of  Erinn,  and 
especially  as  relating  to  the  legendary  account  of  St.  Longaradh's  death.  It 
is  said,  that  the  book  satchels  of  Erin,  and  the  gospels,  and  the  lesson  books 
of  the  students,'8  fell  from  their  racks,  on  the  night  of  Lon-garadh's  death.a9 
Another  account  states,  that  this  happened  in  an  apartment  where  St.  Colum- 
kille  and  others  dwelt.  St.  Columkille  then  announced  to  Baethin  the  death 
of  Lon,  of  Garadh,  in  Ossory.3°  It  was  believed,  also,  that  no  person  had 
such  a  knowledge  of  books  as  Lon-garadh  ;  for,  it  is  related,  he  used  to 
understand  them  in  a  most  perfect  manner.  Universal  regret  for  Lon-garadh's 
death  was  felt  in  all  the  monasteries  and  schools  of  Ireland,3T  and  we  have 
still  some  Irish  poems  extant  which  give  expression  to  it.32  There  is  still 
extant  in  an  old  Treatise  some  notices  of  this  St.  Longard,  of  Dysart  Lon- 
gard,  whose  death  brought  such  confusion  to  the  Libraries  of  Ireland,  in  his 


in    Egypt   from   time   immemorial.       That  "  Lon  died,  [Lon  died] 

library     contained     perhaps     nearly     fifty  Garad  was  unfortunate  ; 

volumes,    while    the     entire    literature    of  He  is  a  loss  to  learning  and  schools, 

Abyssinia  did  not  include  more  than  double  Of  Erin's  isle  to  its  extremities. " 

such  a  number  of  works.     Some  old  Coptic  — See  ibid.,   p.  lxxii. ,   where   a   somewhat 

and  Syiiac  manuscripts  were  found,  also,  and  different    version   is   given,    and   where  the 

purchased  by  the  Hon.  Mr.  Curzon,  while  lines  are  ascribed  to  St.  Columkille. 

at  Souriani.  3*  In  the  gloss  to  the  "Feilire"  in  the  Leab- 

27  Many  other  curious  particulars  are   to  har  Breac  copy  are  the  two  following  Irish 

be  gleaned  concerning  the  art  of  writing  in  stanzas,  with  their  literal  English  translation  : 
that  country  from  the  book,  already  quoted,  If  manb  ton 

of  the  Hon.  Robert  Curzon.     See  part  i.,  i)o  clulL  gapA-o  mop  itvooti 

chap,  vii.,  viii.  "O  Opitvo  coniL&p  AcnpeAb 

3*This  allusion  preserves  the  tradition  of  Icoich  legitvo  Agur  fcoi. 

the  multiplicity  of  schools,  which  had  been  -oxbach  Lou 

established    in    Ireland,    during   the   sixth  1  C1IL  5Ap<vo  mop  moon 

century.  1)"oich  le^mo  Agur  fcol 

29  This  account  is  also  to  be  found  in  the  urop  Openn  x>&]\&  hop. 
MS.  Book  of  Fermoy.      See  "  Proceedings  Dead  is  Lon 

of  the  Royal  Irish  Academy,"  vol.  i.,  part  i.,  Of  Cell  garad — great  the  evil  ! 

Irish  MSS.  Series,  pp.  35,  36.  To  Erin  with  her  many  homesteads 

30  See  this  curious  legend  in  "  The  Book  It  is  ruin  of  learning  and  schools. 
of  Obits  and  Martyrology  of  the  Cathedral               Died  hath  Lon 

Church    of    the  Holy  Trinity,"    edited   by  In  Cell  garad— great  the  evil ! 

John    Clarke     Crosthwaite    and    Rev.    Dr.  It  is  ruin  of  the  learning  and  schools 

Todd.     Introduction,  pp.  lxxi.,  lxxii.  Of  Erin's  island  over  her  border." 

3'  It  was  said  in  an  Irish  stanza   given  by  —  "Transactionsof  the  Royal  Irish  Academy," 

the  O'Clerys— thus  translated  into  English—  Irish  Manuscript  Series,  vol.  i.,  part  i.     On 

and    regarding   the   incident  of  our  saint's  the  Calendar  of  Oengus,  by  Whitley  Stokes, 

departure: —  LL.D.,  p.  cxlii. 


September  3.]      LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS. 


81 


time.33  Also,  an  abridged  version  of  this  same  story  is  found  in  a  copy  of 
the  Felire  /Engusa,  at  the  3rd  of  September,  in  the  Leabhar  Breac  version. 
It  is  told  more  at  length  in  the  notes.  His  private  collection  of  books 
included  a  curriculum  of  all  the  sciences. 34  His  learning  was  greatly 
extolled.  It  is  said,  although  illegible — owing  to  long  keeping,  injury,  damp, 
or  probably  to  bad  ink — his  books  were  preserved  for  ages  after  his  time.35 
The  date  for  Lon-garadh's  departure  from  this  life  is  not  recorded  ;  but,  as 
being  a  contemporary  of  St.  Columbkille,  he  must  have  lived  in  the  sixth 
century. 


Article  IV. — Translation  of  St.  Erentrude's  Relics,  at  Salzburg. 
Already  at  the  30th  June — the  day  for  her  principal  feast1 — we  have  given 
the  Acts  of  this  holy  Abbess  of  Nunberg,2  near  Salzburg,  in  Upper  Austria. 
As  there  stated,  the  3rd  of  September,  a.d.  1305,  was  regarded  as  the  date 
for  the  translation  of  her  relics  3  to  the  crypt  at  Salzburg,  where  at  present 


The  Cathedral  and  City  of  Salzburg. 

they  are  preserved.*  The  district  around  it  in  Roman  times  formed  a  part 
of  Noricum,  and  the  city  itself  was  called  Juvavia,s  where  her  brother,  or, 
according  to  most  writers,  her  uncle,  St.  Rupert,6  built  a  celebrated  monastery, 


33  In  the  Ten  Folia  of  the  "  Book  of 
Leinster,"  belonging  to  the  Franciscan 
Community,  Merchants'-quay,  Dublin,  page 
17,  column  3. 

34  Thus  expressed  in  a  note. 

35  See  Professor  Eugene  O'Curry's  "Lec- 
tures on  the  Manusciipt  Materials  of  Ancient 
Irish  History,"  lect.  i.,  pp.  17,  18,  and 
Appendix  No.  xvn.,  pp.  501,  502. 

Article  iv.—  '  See  the  Sixth  Volume  of 
this  work,  at  that  date,  Art.  i. 

2  Latinized  "  Nonnarummontis  Monas- 
terium." 


3  See  Colgan's  "Acta  Sanctorum  Hiber- 
nian," Martii  xxvii.  De  S.  Erentrude 
Abbatissa  Nunbergensi,  p.  770. 

4  Seethe  Bollandist's  "  Acta  Sanctorum," 
tomus  v.,  Junii  xxx.  De  S.  Erendrude  Virg. 
Abbatissa  Salisburgi  in  Bavaria.  Commen- 
tarius  Prsevius,  num.  6,  9,  pp.  5^!»  5^2« 

s  See  Mabillon's  "  Annales  Ordinis  S. 
Benedicti,"  tomus  i.,  lib.  xviii.,  sect,  li., 
p.  611. 

6  See  his  Acts,  in  the  Third  Volume 
of  this  work,  at  the  27th  of  March,  Art. 
ii. 


82  LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS.      [September  3. 


and  became  its  first  bishop.  On  the  northern  side  of  the  Carinthian  moun- 
tain-chain, it  commands  a  most  extensive  view  of  the  Bavarian  plain  stretching 
northwards.  In  due  course,  Salzburg  became  an  archiepiscopal  see,  while  its 
archbishop  was  recognised  as  Primate  of  Germany,  and  an  Elector  of 
Germany.  He  possessed  many  large  domains  in  Austria,  Styria  and 
Carinthia.7  The  archbishops  adorned  the  city 8  with  many  splendid  buildings, 
and  its  situation — one  of  the  most  picturesque  in  Germany — presents  a  noble 
amphitheatre  of  Alpine  mountains  as  a  background  towards  the  south.  The 
streets  are  narrow  and  crooked,  and  the  squares  are  small  but  regular.  The 
present  cathedral  was  built  in  the  seventeenth  century.9  On  the  3rd  of 
September,  the  feast  of  a  translation  of  St.  Erentrude's  relics  is  commemorated 
by  Arturus  a  Monasterio,10  Dorganus,"  Wion,12  Menard, '3  and  Ferrarius.1* 
The  Bollandists,1*  likewise,  have  references  to  it  at  this  date. 


Article  V. — Translation  of  the  Relics  of  St.  Foillan.  The 
translation  of  St.  Foillan's  body  is  commemorated  at  this  date,  according  to 
Molanus,1  Dorgan,  Wion,  Menard,  Ferrarius,  in  "Catalogus  generalis 
Sanctorum,"  and  Wilson,  in  "  Martyrologium  Anglicanum."  On  this  day, 
the  remains  of  St.  Foillen,  Martyr,  were  removed  from  Nivelles,  in  Belgium, 
at  the  instance  of  the  Abbot  of  Fosse.  The  chief  feast  of  St.  Foillan  is  held 
on  the  31st  of  October,  where  further  notices  of  him  may  be  found.2  The 
present  feast  is  noticed  by  the  Bollandists.3  Three  principal  feasts  are 
instituted  in  honour  of  St.  Foillan — that  of  his  death,  on  the  3 1  st  of  October ; 
that  of  the  discovery  of  his  body,  on  the  16th  of  January;  and  that  of  its 
translation,  on  the  3rd  of  September. 


Article  VI. — St.  Balin  or  Balloin,  of  Tech-Saxon.  The  present 
holy  man  was  a  brother  to  St.  Gerald,  or  Garalt,  whose  life  has  been  given, 
at  the  13th  of  March.1  The  Martyrologies  of  Marianus  O'Gorman,  of  Cathal 
Maguire,  and  of  Donegal,2  record  the  festival  of  St.  Balan  or  Balloin,  at  the 
3rd  of  September.3  It  is  stated,  that  he  came  from  England  to  Ireland,  with 
his  brothers,  Gerald,  Berikert*  and  Hubritan,s  after  the  middle  of  the  seventh 
century.     He  lived  at  a  place,  called  Tech-Saxan,  or  the  House  of  the 


i  See  James  Bell's  System  of  Geography,  Septembris  iii.     Among    the   pretermitted 

Popular  and    Scientific,"    vol.  i.,   part  ii.  Feasts,  p.  598. 

Austria,  chap,  v.,  sect,  i.,  p.  436.  Article    v. — 'In     his     additions     to 

8  The  accompanying  illustration,  from  a  Usuard,  issued  A. n.  1573. 

local  photograph,  has  been  drawn  on  the  a  In  the  Tenth  Volume  of  this  work, 

wood,  and  engraved  by  Mr.  Gregor  Grey.  3  See     "  Acta     Sanctorum,"     tomus     i., 

Another  view  of  Salzburg,  but  taken  from  a  Septembris   iii.      Among   the   pretermitted 

different  direction,  may  be  seen  at  the  30th  Saints,  p.  601. 

of  June— feast   of    St.   Erentrude — in   the  Article  vi. — '  In  the  Third  Volume  of 

Sixth  Volume  of  this  work,  Art.  i.  this  work.     See  Art.  iii. 

9  From  1614  to  1668,  by  the  architect,  2  In  the  edition,  published  by  Rev.  Drs. 
Santino  Solari  of  Como.  See  Charles  Todd  and  Reeves,  at  the  3rd  of  September, 
Knight's  "  Penny  Cyclopaedia  of  the  Society  such  an  entry  seems  to  have  been  acciden- 
for  the  Diffusion  of  Useful  Knowledge,"  tally  omitted  ;  however,  in  the  Table 
vol.  xx. ,  p.  374.  appended,  it  is  supplied.     See  pp.  232  to 

10  In  his  *'  Gynseceum  "   is  noticed  :    S.  235,  362,  363. 

Erentrudis  (al  Erendrudis)  abbatissa  Bene-  J  See  Colgan's  "  Acta  Sanctorum  Hiber- 

dictinse  translatio  Salisburgi  in  Bavaria."  niae,"  Martii  xiii.     Vita  S.  Giraldi  Abbatis 

"  In  his  Benedictine  Menology,  Elitherensis  et  Magionensis,  n.  5,  p.  602. 

"In  "  Lignum  Vitse."  *  He  is  also  said  to  have  been  called  Nem. 

13  In  his  Benedictine  Martyrology.  See  notices  of  him,  at  the  18th  of  February, 

14  In  "  Catalogus  Generalis  Sanctorum."  and  at  the  6th  of  December. 

■s  See    "  Acta     Sanctorum,"    tomus   i.,  s  As  Uuilbrithi  or  Hulbriten,  his  name  is 


September  4  ]      LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS.  83 


Saxons,  most  probably  because  it  had  been  founded  or  occupied  by  himself, 
or  by  his  brothers,  or  by  some  of  his  countrymen,  who  accompanied  him  from 
England.  This  place  is  said  to  have  been  in  Athenry  Parish,  in  the  Diocese 
of  Tuam,  and  County  of  Gal  way.  A  house  of  Franciscans  of  the  Third 
Order  was  there  in  the  time  of  Colgan.  Castellan  places  this  St.  Balo  in  the 
province  of  Connaught,  and  his  feast  at  the  present  day,  as  noted  by  the 
Bollandists.6  

Article  VII. — St.  Colman,  of  Cluain  or  Druim  Ferta  Mughaine, 
now  Kilclonfert,  King's  County.  In  the  Feilire  of  St.  Aligns,  at  the 
3rd  day  of  September,  we  have  an  entry  for  the  feast  of  Colman  of  Druim 
Ferta.1  A  commentator,  on  that  copy  contained  in  the  Leabhar  Breac, 
states,  that  the  place  is  to  be  identified  with  Cluain  Ferta  Mugaine  in 
OfTaly.2  It  is  at  present  known  as  Kilclonfert,  a  parish  3  in  the  Barony  of 
Lower  Philipstown,  and  King's  County.  Some  ruins  of  the  old  Church  are 
still  visible.  Near  them  may  be  found  the  well  of  St.  Colman,  but  corruptly 
called  St.  Cloman's  welU  It  is  probable,  Archdall  thought  this  Kilclonfert 
was  identical  with  Clonfert  Mulloe,5  which  he  incorrectly  places  in  the 
King's  County.6  There  is  an  allusion  to  a  Colman  and  his  companions  in 
the  Martyrology  of  Christ  Church,  but  not  in  its  prefixed  Calendar,  at  the 
iii.  of  the  September  Nones,  the  present  day.  Most  likely  it  is  this  saint's 
festival  which  is  commemorated ;  but,  it  seems  difficult  to  account  for  the 
introduction  of  his  companions. ?  According  to  the  Martyrology  of  Donegal,8 
veneration  was  given  at  the  3rd  of  September  to  Colman,  of  Cluain-Ferta  or 
Druim9-Ferta.  This  place  is  also  called  Mughaine,  in  Ui  Failghe,I0or  Offaly, 
a  district  in  Leinster." 


Jfourtb  2Bap  of  September 


ARTICLE  I.— ST.  ULTAN,  SAID  TO  HAVE  BEEN  BISHOP,  OR  MORE 
PROBABLY  ABBOT,  OF  ARDBRACCAN,  COUNTY  OF  MEATH. 

[FIFTH  AND  SIXTH  CENTURIES.] 

DISTINGUISHED  for  his  sanctity  and  learning  at  an  early  period,  St. 
Ultan  is  said  to  have  been  the  founder  of  an  ancient  Irish  See,  at 
present  merged  in  the  Diocese  of  Meath.      He  is  commemorated  in  the 

set  down,  in  the  Irish  Calendar,  at  the  24th  s  See  a  letter  of  P.  O'Keeffe,  from  Mount  - 

of  April.  rath,  and  dated  December  1st,  1838.  "Letters 

6  See  "Acta   Sanctorum,"  tomus  i.,  Sep-  containing     information    relative     to     the 

tembris  iii.    Among  the  pretermitted  Saints,  Antiquities  of  the  Queen's  County,  collected 

p.  600.  during  the  progress  of  the  Ordnance  Survey 

Article  VII.— *See  "Transactions  of  the  in  1838,"  vol.  i.,  pp.  119,  120. 

Royal  Irish  Academy,"    Irish   Manuscript  6  See  "  Monasticon  Hibernicum,"  p.  379. 

Series,     vol.  ii.,  part    i.     On  the  Calendar  7  See  the  edition  of  John  Clarke  Crosth- 

of  Oengus,  by  Whitley  Stokes,   LL.D.,   p.  waite  and   Rev.   Dr.   Todd.     Introduction, 

cxxxvi.  p.  )xx.  and  p.  153. 

3  See  ibid. ,  p.  cxli.  8  Edited  by  Drs.  Todd  and  Reeves,  pp.  233, 

3  This  parish  contains   10,266a.  3r.  I5p.,  234. 

and  it  is  marked  on  the  "Ordnance  Survey  9  A  note  by  Dr.  Todd,  at  Druim,  states  : 
Townland  Maps  for  the  King's  County,"  "  The  word  Droma  is  written  as  a  gloss  over 
sheets  9,  10,  18,  19.  Th  townland  proper  C  uain,  meaning  that  we  should  read  Drum- 
is  on  sheet  10.  fert,  not  Clonfert,  here. 

4  See   Dr.  O'Donova       "  Annals  of  the  I0  In  the  Table  appended  to  this  Martyr- 
Four  Masters,"  vol.  ii.,  n.  (r),  p.  914.  ology,  we  have  an  Irish  entry  thus  rendered 


84 


LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS.      [September  4. 


Felire  of  ^Engus,  at  this  date,1  and  with  allusion  to  what  must  have  been 
a  more  ancient  legend  regarding  him.  We  have  already  partially  treated 
about  St.  Ultan  and  his  writings,  in  connection  with  the  life  of  St.  Brigid,  Virgin 
and  first  Abbess  of  Kildare.2  At  the  4th  of  September,  likewise,  in  the 
published  Marty rology  of  Tallagh,3  we  find  a  festival  recorded  in  honour  of 
Ultan  Mac  Hua  Conchobar.  He  was  therefore  held  to  be  of  the  O'Connor 
family.4  An  entry  is  to  be  found  in  that  copy,  contained  in  the  Book  of 
Leinster,s  and  somewhat  different.  The  words  "  in  Ardbrec  w  are  added,  as 
if  to  intimate,  that  he  belonged  to  Ardbraccan.  He  is  also  noticed  by  various 
writers,  and  among  these  are  Archbishop  Ussher,6  Sir  James  Ware,?  Father 
John  Colgan,8  Bishop  Challenor,9  and  the  Bollandists.10  The  Rev.  Alban 
Butler,"  gives  some  account  of  St.  Ultan,  thought  to  have  been  first  Bishop 
of  Ardbraccan,  in  Meath. 

He  was  descended  from  the  race  of  Irial,  son  to  Connel  Cearnach, 
according  to  the  O'Clerys."  He  is  said  to  have  been  related  to  the  great 
St.  Brigid,13  on  the  maternal  side.1*  Her  mother,  as  we  have  already  seen, 
was  Brodsecha,  daughter  to  Dalbronaigh.  St.  Ultan  is  said  to  have  been 
the  brother  of  Broicsech,  daughter  of  Dallbronach,  i.e.,  they  were  both  of 
the  Dal  Conchubhair. 

His  birth  is  related  to  have  taken  place  so  early  as  a.d.  467. js  However, 
it  seems  most  probable— if  we  take  into  account  the  Acts  of  St.  Ultan  and 
the  year  assigned  for  his  death— that  his  birtli  must  be  referred  to  a  date  long 
subsequent  to  the  period  already  stated.  In  a  table  appended  to  the 
Martyrology  of  Donegal,16  and  within  brackets,  it  is  laid  down,  that  Ultan  of 
Ard-Brecain,17  was  a  disciple  of  St.  Declan.18     Here,  again,  there  seems  to 


into  English  :  "  Colman  of  Cluain-ferta 
[Drom-forta  in  the  Felire  of  ^Engus] 
Mugaine  [in  Ui  Failghe].  See  ibid.,  pp. 
382,  383. 

"See  "The  Battle  of  Magh  Rath," 
edited  by  Dr.  O'Donovan,  p.  243,  n.  (v). 

Article  i—  '  In  the  "  Leabhar  Breac" 
copy  is  the  following  rann  : — 

1n  mon  plAich  cenecAil, 
1n  ■OAcblaiche  becam 
<*5<mc  mor*  mm  m^ccam 
1m  U  Lie  an  <Mrvo  bneccAm. 

Thus  rendered  into  English,  by  Dr.  Whitley 
Stokes:— "The  great  sinless  prince,  in 
whom  the  little  ones  are  flourishing,  greatly 
play  the  children  round  Ultan  of  Aid 
Breccain." — "Transactions  of  the  Royal 
Irish  Academy,"  Irish  Manuscript  Series, 
vol.  i.,  part  i.  On  the  Calendar  of  Oengus, 
p.  exxxvi. 

9  See  the  Second  Volume  of  this  work, 
at  Feb.  1,  Art.  i.,  chap.  i. 

3  Edited  by  Rev.  Dr.  Kelly,  p.  xxxiii. 

4  According  to  Ussher  "  Ex  eodem  enim 
;Conchubarensium    sive  Counoreorum   fami- 

lia." — "  De  Primordiis  Britannicarum  Ec- 
clesiarum,''  cap.  xvii.,  p.  965. 

5  Thus  entered,  UlriAn  m<vc  h  Conchoban 
m  Arvobnec. 

6  See  "  Britannicarum  Ecclesiarum  Anti- 
quitates,"  cap.  xvii.,  pp.  426,  499. 

?  See  "De  Scriptoribus  Hibernise,"  lib.  i., 


cap.  3,  pp.  22,  23. 

5  In  "Trias  Thaumaturga. "  See  Tertia 
Vita  S.  Brigidae,  p.  527,  Prologus,  and  n.  I, 
p.  542  ;  Sexta  Vita  S.  Brigida?  Prologus, 
p.  582,  and  nn.  3,  5,  pp.  597,  598. 

9  See  "  Britannia  Sancta,"  part  ii. ,  p.  119. 

10  See  "  Acta  Sanctorum  Septembris," 
tomus  ii.  Among  the  pretermitted  Feasts, 
PP-  3.  4 

11  See  "Lives  of  the  Fathers,  Martyrs 
and  other  principal  Saints,"  vol.  ix.  Sep- 
tember iv. 

12  See  the  "  Martyrology  of  Donegal," 
edited  by  Rev,  Drs.  Todd  and  Reeves,  pp. 
234,  235. 

13  See  her  Life,  at  the  1st  of  February, 
in  the  Second  Volume  of  this  work,  Art.  i. 

14  According  to  the  old  Scholiast,  on  the 
Irish  Hymn,  composed  in  Praise  of  St. 
Brigid. 

's  Such  is  the  entry  in  a  more  recent  hand, 
as  found  in  the  O'Clerys'  Calendar;  "467 
natus."  Note  of  Rev.  Dr.  Todd.  See 
"Martyrology  of  Donegal,"  edited  by  Drs. 
Todd  and  Reeves,  p.  235. 

16  See  the  edition  of  Rev.  Drs.  Todd  and 
Reeves,  pp.  478,  479. 

17  To  him  has  been  ascribed  the  miracle 
of  a  sunk  fleet. 

18  His  life  has  been  already  given,  at  the 
24th  of  July,  in  the  Seventh  Volume  of  this 
work,  Art  i.  See  chap.  iii.  for  the  miracle 
to  which  allusion  has  been  made  in  the  pre- 
ceding note. 


September  4.]      LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS. 


«5 


be  an  anachronism,  and  Ultan  has  probably  been  confounded  with  that  holy 
man,  his  namesake,  who  is  called  the  son  of  Erc.x9  No  connected  biogra- 
phical account  remains  of  St.  Ultan.  Colgan  is  of  opinion,  however,  that  he 
was  bishop  over  the  ancient  See  of  Ardbraccan,20  in  the  County  of  Meath. 
Yet,  in  the  Kalendar  of  Drummond.  this  saint  is  only  distinguished  as  a 
Priest  and  Confessor,  remarkable  for  his  exemplary  life  and  for  holiness*. 

According  to  very  ancient  legend,21  one  of  his  usages  was  to  feed,  with 
his  own  hands,  every  child  who  had  no  support  in  Erin.22  Another  account 
states,  that  he  he  had  a  most  charitable  care  for  the  infants  of  those  women, 
who  died  of  the  Buidhe  Chonaill  or  yellow  plague.  The  first  mention  of  the 
Bolgach  or  Small  Pox,23  appears  in  the  Annals  of  lnnisfallen,  at  a.d.  569  ; 
but,  this  is  supposed 2*  to  have  been  a  mistake  for  the  leprosy,  which  was  an 
epidemic  about  that  time  ;  whereas,  only  about  a.d.  675,2s  or  67a,26  did  the 
Bolgach  first  prevail  in  Ireland.  However,  the  first  outbreak  of  another 
pestilence,  known  as  the  Buidhe-Chonnaill  is  said  to  have  taken  place  in 
Magh-Itha,2?  in  Fotherta  of  Leinster,  in  663  ;28  while  it  seems  to  have 
culminated  in  a  still  greater  mortality  the  following  year.  A  remarkable 
eclipse  of  the  sun  preceded  this  public  calamity  in  the  month  of  May,  a.d. 
664. 29  According  to  Venerable  Bede,  it  happened  on  the  3rd  of  May,  the 
same  year,  and  about  ten  o'clock  in  the  morning  ;  while,  besides  the  ravages 
produced  throughout  Ireland,  that  pestilence  depopulated  the  southern 
coasts  of  Britain,  and  afterwards  extending  into  the  province  of  Northumbria, 


J9  He  is  said  to  have  immediately  suc- 
ceeded St.  Declan,  as  Abbot,  at  Ardmore. 
See  notices  of  him,  in  the  Third  Volume  of 
this  work,  at  the  14th  of  March,  Art.  hi. 

20  See  "  Trias  Thaumaturga,"  Quarta  Ap- 
pendix ad  Acta  S.  Patricii,  pars  iii.  De 
Scriptoribus  Actorum  Sancti  Patricii,  p. 
217. 

21  See  the  Book  of  Obits  and  Martyrology 
of  the  Cathedral  Church  of  the  Holy 
Trinity."  Edited  by  John  Clarke  Crosth- 
waite  and  Rev.  Dr.  Todd.  Introduction, 
pp.  xxv.,  xxvi. 

22  The  curious  mode,  by  which  he  fed  the 
children  playing  around  him,  is  to  be  found 
in  a  note  appended  to  the  Leabhar  Breac 
copy  of  the  Feilire,  and  there  too  are  some 
Irish  verses  quoted  in  his  praise,  although 
their  meaning  is  not  wholly  intelligible. 
See  "Transactions  of  the  Royal  Irish 
Academy,"  Irish  Manuscript  Series,  vol.  i., 
part  i.  On  the  Calendar  of  Oengus,  by 
Whitly  Stokes,  LL.D.,  pp.  cxlii.,  cxliii. 

23  This  loathsome  and  dangerous  form  of 
disease  had  prevailed  in  China  and  Hindos- 
tan  from  remote  antiquity,  and  it  is  supposed 
to  have  originated  at  Mecca,  about  a.d.  569, 
before  the  birth  of  Mahomet.  Afterwards, 
it  extended  over  Africa,  and  reached  Europe. 
See  Moore's  "  History  of  the  Small  Pox," 
p.  no. 

2*By  William  Robert  Wilde,  M.D.,  in 
his  historical  Report  on  the  Diseases  of  Ire- 
land, to  be  found  in  the  volumes  of  the  Census 
Commissioners  of  Ireland  for  a.d.  1851. 

25  According  to  the  Annals  of  Clonmac- 
noise. 


26  At  this  year  we  read  :  "Lepra  gravissima 
in  Hibernia  que  vocatur  Bolgach." — Rev. 
Dr.  O'Conor's  "  Rerum  Hibernicarum  Scrip- 
tores,"  tomus  iv.,  Annales  Ultonienses. 

27  A  plain  in  the  Barony  of  Forth,  and 
County  of  Wexford. 

38  According  to  the  Annals  of  Clonmac- 
noise,  this  plague  happened  A.D.  660,  but 
this  account  is  incorrect.  The  Annals  of 
Ulster  state  at  a.d.  633  :  "  Tenebre  in 
Kalendis  Mair  in  ix  hora,  et  in  eadem  estate 
celum  ardescere  visum  est.  Mortalitas  in 
Hibernia  pervenit  in  Kalendis  Augusti  .  .  . 
In  campo  Ito  in  Fothart  exarsit  mortalitas 
primo  in  Hibernia.  A  morte  Patricii  cciii. 
Prima  mortalitas  cxii." — Rev.  Dr.  O'Conor's 
"Rerum  Hibernicarum  Scriptores,"  tomus 
iv.,  Annales  Ultonienses. 

29  Dr.  William  Robert  Wilde  writes : 
"  The  second  outbreak  of  the  Buidhe  Chon- 
nail,  or  yellow  plague,  commenced  about 
the  middle  of  the  seventh  century.  Tigher- 
nach,  whose  annals  are  more  chronologically 
correct  than  most  others,  dates  its  com- 
mencement at  a.d.  664,  but  the  Annals  of 
lnnisfallen,  and  the  Obits  of  Christ's  Church, 
Dublin,  have  assigned  a  date  so  early  as  656. 
Allowing  for  the  chronological  discrepancy 
among  early  annalists,  there  appears  every 
reason  to  believe  that  this  great  pestilential 
period  was  also  affected  by  the  same  law 
which  has  so  frequently  appeared  to  influence 
the  progress  of  epidemic  constitutions,  and 
lasted  ten  years  ;  Tighernach  himself  gives 
two  entries  relating  to  it,  with  an  interval  of 
three  years  between.  The  Welsh  annaals 
would  make  it  twenty." 


36  LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS.       [September  4. 


it  wasted  the  country  far  and  near,  destroying  a  great  multitude  of  persons.30 
Among  those  who  died  of  the  Buidhe  Chonnaill  this  year  in  Ireland  is 
mentioned  St.  Ultan  Mac  h  Ui-Cunga,  Abbot  of  Cluain-Iraird  or  Clonard  ;31 
and,  it  is  not  improbable,  he  may  have  been  confounded  with  the  St.  Ultan, 
who  wrote  St.  Brigid's  Acts.  For  the  exercise  of  his  great  charity,  when 
Fursa32  had  been  removed  from  the  abbacy  of  old  Mochta  of  Louth,  Ultan 
was  elected.  It  is  stated,  he  often  had  fifty,  and  thrice  fifty  children,  with 
him  together,  although  it  was  difficult  for  him  to  feed  them  all.  To  St. 
Bracan  or  Brecain33  has  been  attributed  the  foundation  of  Ardbraccan 
Monastery,  and  from  him  the  place  has  been  named.34  It  seems  probable, 
that  Ultan  was  for  some  time  under  his  rule  in  that  place.35 

We  find  it  stated,  that  after  St.  Bracan36  had  departed  for  the  Arran 
Islands,  our  saint  became  Abbot  of  Ardbraccan  Monastery,  in  the  County 
of  Meath.  Ussher  supposes  Ultan  to  have  been  a  Bishop  at  Ardbraccan. 3? 
He  belonged  to  the  Third  Class  of  Irish  Saints.38  In  the  parish  of  Burry,3? 
in  the  Deanery  of  Kells,  County  of  Meath,  there  was  a  well,40  dedicated  to 
a  St.  Ultan— probably  the  present  saint.  That  spring  was  called  Tobar- 
Ultan,  but  it  no  longer  exists.41  This  holy  man  is  said  to  have  lived  on 
terms  of  great  intimacy  with  St.  Fechin  of  Fore.43  From  the  latter,  it  is 
stated  he  asked  a  request.43  His  habit  of  penitence  was  accompanied  by 
great  austerity.  Cuimin  of  Coindeire  remarked,  that  St.  Ultan  had  a  prison 
of  stone,  or  of  boards  against  his  side ;  and  that  he  used  to  bathe  in  cold 
water,  during  the  prevalence  of  a  sharp  wind.44 

Among  the  Irish  writers,  St.  Ultan  of  Ardbraccan  has  been  classed.  To 
him  is  attributed  an  Irish  Hymn,  in  praise  of  St.  Brigid.45  It  has  been 
published  of  late  in  the  u  Liber  Hymnorum."  We  are  informed,  moreover, 
that  it  was  he,  who  made  the  Latin  verse  at  the  end  of  it.     The  Latin  poem 


30  See    "  Historia     Ecclesiastica     Gentis  Britannicavum  Ecclesiarum,"  cap.  xvii.,  p. 
Anglorum,"  lib.  iii.,  cap.  xxvii.  965. 

31  See  Dr.  O'Donovan's  "Annals  of  the  38  See  Ussher's  "Britannicarum  Ecclesia- 
Four  Masters,"  vol.  i.,  and  nn.  (p,q,  x),  pp.  rum  Antiquitates,"  chap,  xvii.,  p.  474. 

274  to  277.  39 Described  on  the  "Ordnance  Survey 

32  As   we   have  said   in  the  Life  of  St.  Townland  Maps  for  the  County  of  Meath," 
Fursey,  in  the  First  Volume  of  this  work,  sheets  16,  17,  23. 

Art.  i.,  at  the  1 6th  of  January,  another  saint  *°  It  is  noticed  in  the  Ordnance  Survey 

of  the  name  seems  to  have  been  commemo-  papers  relating  to  the  County  of  Meath,  and 

rated  in  our  Calendars.     But,  this  is  inferred  now  preserved  in  the  Royal  Irish  Academy, 

rather   than   proved,   from  a   difference  in  *l  See  Rev.  A.  Cogan's  "  Diocese  of  Meath, 

genealogical  accounts.  Ancient  and  Modern,"  vol.  ii.,  chap,  xvi.,  p. 

33  His  feast  was  held  on  the  16th  of  July,  311,  n. 

at  which  date  some  accounts  of  him  may  be  42  See  his  Life  at  the  20th  of  January,  in 

found  in  the  Seventh  Volume  of  this  work,  the  First  Volume  of  this  work,"  Art.  ii. 

Art.  i.  43  See   Colgan's    "  Acta   Sanctorum   Ili- 

34  See  Archdall's  "  Monasticon  Hiberni-  bernise,"   xx.  Januarii.     Secunda    Vita    S. 
cum,"  p.  511.  Fechini,  cap.  xxix.,  p.  136. 

35  From  him  Ardbreccan  was  sometimes  **  Thus   runs  the  English  translation  of 
called  Tobar  Ultain  or  Ultan's  Well.     See  his  quatrain  :  — 

Edward  O'Reilly's M  Chronological  Account  .,       ,         ..     .... 

of  nearly  Four  Hundred  Irish  Writers,"  &c,  "  Ullan  lovres  *!1S  children  ; 

p   xiv#  A  prison  for  his  lean  side, 

' 3<5  His  death  has  been  assigned  to  about  And  a  bath  in  cold  water 

AD  650.  In  the  sharp  wind  he  loved. 

3?  Ussher  writes  :  "  Unde  colligimus  eun-  «  Martyrology    of     Donegal," 

dem    hunc    Episcopum    Ultanum    ratione  J^    "  Rey   Drs/Tod Jyand  Reeves,  pp. 

quidem  origims  Conchubarensem  fuisse  die-  CU,LC"  "j  x^y-  ■"•*«                                    rr 

tum  ;  Ardbrechanensem  vero,  respectu  ad  2$f'  ?$$'    .         .  , 

sedem  habito,    quod   hodiernum    Miden.sis  II  begins  Wllh  :~ 

Prsesulis  est  domicilium."— "  De  Primordiis  Dpigic  be  bio  c  maic. 


September  4.]      LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS. 


«7 


which  comes  after  the  Life  of  St.  Brigid46  by  Cogitosus,  was  written  by 
him.  It  begins  with  "  Cogitis  me  Fratres."  Its  style  is  similar  to  that  in 
the  Book  of  Kilkenny ;  yet,  it  is  not  the  same  production.  In  the  time 
when  the  two  sons  of  Aodh  Slaine  were  Kings,-*?  Ultan  is  said  to  have  com- 
posed the  Life,  as  also  the  Latin  and  Gaedhlic  Poems.'*8  Others  think  St. 
Columba4?  was  the  author  of  the  Hymn. 

The  Third  Life  of  St.  Brigid,  as  published  by  Colgan,s°  is  assigned  to 
the  authorship  of  St.  Ultan,  Bishop  of  Ardbraccan.  This  Manuscript  Life 
was  received  from  the  learned  Father  Stephen  White,*1  an  Irish  Jesuit,  who  was 
well  versed  in  the  antiquities  of  his  native  country.  The  author  does  not 
publish  his  name,  says  White ;  he  nevertheless,  reveals  himself,  as  being  from 
the  Island  of  Hibernia,*2  and  as  being  of  Irish  origin.53  After  the  last  words, 
in  a  life  of  the  sainted  Virgin,  the   author  first  places   her   proper   Latin 


46  The  author  of  the  above  memorandum 
seems  to  allude  to  the  Latin  verses  at  the 
end  of  St.  Brigid's  Third  Life,  in  "  Trias 
Thaumathurga."  Colgan  endeavours  to  show 
it  had  been  written  by  St.  Ultan.  See  n.  I, 
p.  542. 

47  These  were  named  Diarmaid  and  Blath- 
mac,  who  reigned  jointly  for  seven  years — 
from  a.d,  657  to  A.D.  664 — and  who  died 
of  the  great  plague,  known  as  the  Bruidhe 
Connail  in  the  year  664.  See  Dr.  O'Dono- 
van's  "Annals  of  the  Four  Masters,"  vol.  i. 
Vet,  as  St.  Ultan  Mac-Ui-Conchobhair, 
according  to  the  same  authority,  died  A.D. 
656,  the  statement  in  the  text  seems  to  be 
inaccurate  as  to  the  date.  See  pp.  268  to 
277. 

48  See  Introduction  to  the  "  Calendar  of 
the  Saints  of  Ireland,"  edited  by  Drs.  Todd 
and  Reeves,  p.  xxv. 

49  His  Life  is  given  at  the  9th  of  June,  in 
the  Sixth  Volume  of  this  work,  Art  i. 

soFrom  an  old  codex,  belonging  to  the 
monastery  of  St.  Magnus,  at  Ratisbonn,  in 
Bavaria.  This  was  accompanied  with 
various  marginal  annotations,  partly  taken 
from  a  MS.  belonging  to  the  monastery  of 
St.  Autbertus,  at  Cambray,  and  partly  from 
a  MS.  preserved  at  the  Island  of  All  Saints, 
in  Ireland.  The  Cambray  MS.  had  been 
furnished  by  Dr.  Georgius  Colvenerius,  who 
was  distinguished  for  his  research  and  love 
of  antiquities.  Besides  the  All  Saints  MS., 
received  from  Longford  County,  Colgan 
obtained  another  MS.  from  the  Carthusian 
Collection  at  Cologne.  The  Ratisbonn  MS. , 
we  are  told,  had  been  written  in  Irish 
characters,  and,  as  supposed,  six  or  seven 
hundred  years,  before  Colgan's  time,  that  is 
to  say,  in  the  tenth  or  eleventh  century.  A 
fifth  MS.  was  in  Colgan's  possession,  and 
he  received  it  from  Dunensis  monastery,  in 
Flanders. 

st  He  thought  that  the  author  of  this  third 
life  must  have  been,  either  St.  Virgil  or  St. 
Erard,  Irishmen,  who  flourished  in  Bavaria 
in  the  eighth  century.  However,  Colgan 
could  not  agree  with  White,  that  its  author- 
ship was  attributable,  to  either  of  those  saints 


named  by  him  ;  since  no  writer  or  authority, 
had  heretofore  stated  their  having  compiled 
St.  Brigid's  biography. 

52  This  is  indicated  in  the  first  line.  Col- 
gan says,  the  Hymn  which  he  published  was 
found  in  the  Irish  MS.,  commonly  called 
the  Leabhar  Iomaun ;  in  Latin,  Liber 
Hymnorum,  by  our  national  antiquaries. 
In  this  MS.  were  contained,  also,  many 
hymns,  composed  by  different  Irish  saints. 
From  it,  Colgan  obtained  the  last  line,  which 
was  wanting  in  the  St  Magnus  MS. 

53  In  the  Leabhar  Iomaun,  an  old  scholiast 
prefixed  the  following  proemium,  or  argu- 
ment, to  this  Hymn  :  "  Sanctus  Nemidius 
Laimhoidhain,  id  est,  Mundimanus,  com- 
posuit  hunc  Hymnum  in  laudem  S.  Brigida? 
vel  sanctus  Fiegus  Sleptensis,  Audite 
Virginis  laudes,  est  ejus  initium  :  vel  S. 
Ultanus  de  Ardbrecain  composuit  in  S. 
Brigidse  laudem :  ipse  enim  comprehendit 
miracula  S.  Brigidse  in  uno  libro  :  Ordo 
alphebeticus  in  eo  servatur  et  ad  imita- 
tionem  rithmi  Noscarii  compositus  est. 
Quatuor  sunt  in  eo  capitula  et  quator  lineae 
in  singulis  capitulis  et  sedecim  syllabae  in 
qualibet  linea."  Three  points  must  here  be 
noted,  as  Colgan  remarks.  I.  In  the  Hymn, 
published  by  him,  the  number  of  sixteen 
syllables,  in  each  line,  is  not  preserved,  as 
he  says  may  be  instanced  in  the  fourth  and 
fifth  lines.  But,  the  Latin  reader  may  find, 
on  investigation,  that  there  are  sixteen 
syllables  in  the  lines  mentioned,  as  in  most 
of  the  other  stanzas.  There  are,  however, 
five  lines  that  either  fall  short,  or  exceed 
that  number  of  syllables.  2.  As  published, 
by  Colgan,  the  Hymn  consists  of  five  in- 
stead of  four  strophes.  3.  If  what  the 
scholiast  states  be  true,  that  the  words, 
Audite  Virginis  laudes,  commenced  the 
hymn,  and  that  there  were  four  divisions  or 
parts  in  it,  two  of  the  last  must  be  wanting, 
and  three  other  strophes,  which  are  placed 
before  these  lines,  must  have  been  intended 
as  a  preface.  Or,  if  we  can  be  sure,  that 
absolutely  speaking,  there  were  only  four 
cantos  in  it,  the  fifth,  which  is  not  found  in 
the  St.  Magnus  MS.,  must  be  an  addition  to 


88 


LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS.        [September  4. 


Hymn,  and  then,  having  completed  the  Latin  lines,  he  pours  forth  prayers 
to  St.  Brigid,  piously  invoking  her  intercession,  in  the  Irish  idiom  and 
character — a  circumstance  somewhat  remarkable.54  There  are  two  various 
readings  appended  to  the  Hymnus  de  Brigida  Virgine.55  That  St.  Ultan 
was  the  author  of  this  Hymn,  and  consequently  of  the  Third  Life,  would 
seem  to  be  established,  in  Colgan's  opinion,  from  certain  remarks  of  an  old 
Scholiast,  on  the  same  Hymn.  Those  comments  are  given  in  a  note. 
Even,  although  the  Scholiast  doubts,  whether  St.  Nennidius,  St.  Fiech,  or 
St.  Ultan  be  its  author,  his  very  words  are  thought  to  be  conclusive,  in 
showing  this  latter,  to  have  been  the  writer,  both  of  the  Life  and  Hymn  j 
since  he  is  said  to  have  composed  both  one  and  the  other,  in  praise  of  St. 
Brigid,  and  both  were  contained  in  one  book.  The  Scholiast  even  cites  a 
portion  of  a  line,  from  this  Hymn,  which  agrees -with  what  has  been 
published,  by  Colgan.  Now,  it  is  not  known,  that  St.  Nennidius  or  St. 
Fiech  wrote  a  Life  of  St.  Brigid,  whether  in  one  tract,  or  in  more  than  one 
part. 

Such  a  supposition  of  St.  Ultan  having  been  the  author  of  St.  Brigid's 
Third  Life,  however,  has  been  contravened  by  various  judicious  critics. 
The  Rev.  Dr.  Lanigan  will  not  allow  St.  Ultan,  or  any  other  writer  of  the 
seventh  century,  to  have  written  the  many  strange  fables,  with  which  the 
Third  Life  of  St.  Brigid  has  been  crammed.*6  It  differs  from  the  two  first 
Lives,  in  many  material  points.  Comparing  this  biography,  with  the  First, 
Second,  Fourth  and  Fifth  Lives  of  St.  Brigid,  in  Colgan's  work,  it  will  be 
found,  that  many  particulars,  there  related  concerning  her,  are  not  contained 
in  those  tracts  alluded  to;  while,  the  number  of  divisions  it  contains  is  said 


the  original  number.  Colgan  then  con- 
cludes, that  as  no  authority  states  St. 
Nennidius  or  St.  Fiech  to  have  written  St. 
Brigid's  Acts  in  a  book,  and  as  it  could  be 
shown  from  this  writer,  and  from  other 
sources,  that  St.  Ultan  wrote  her  Acts,  in  one 
book,  and  also  a  Hymn  in  her  praise;  it 
would  seem,  this  latter  must  have  been  the 
author  of  St.  Brigid's  third  life,  published 
by  Colgan,  with  the  metrical  lines  post- 
fixed,  and  that  he  was  composer,  both  of 
the  prose  life  and  of  the  Hymn.  See  Colgan's 
"  Trias  Thaumaturga,"  Tertia  Vita  S. 
Brigidae,  n.  80,  p.  545. 

5+  This  metrical  composition  is  headed, 
Hymnus  de  Brigida  Virgine.  The  lines  run 
as  follow  : 

Christus   in    nostra    Insula,    qua;    vocatur 

Hibernia 
Ostensus   est   hominibus,   maximis   mirabi- 

libus ; 
Quie  perfecit  per  felicem  ccelestis  vitse  vir- 

ginem. 
Praecellentem  pro  merito  magno  in  mundi 

circulo. 
Hymnus  iste,  angelica  summaeque  Sanctae 

Brigidae 
Fari  non  valet  omnia  virtutum  mirabilia, 
Quae  nostris  nunquam  auribus,  si  suit  facta, 

audivimus, 
Nisi    per  istam  Viiginem,    Maria;    Sanche 

similem. 


Zona  sanctre   militae   sanctos    lumbos   pre- 

cingere 
Consuevit  diurno,  noclurno  quoque  studio  : 
Consummato    certamine    sumpsit     palman 

victoria; 
Refulgens  magno  splendore,  ut  sol  in  cceli 

culmine. 
Andite  Virginis  laudes,  sancta  quoque  merita. 
Perfectionem,  quam  promisit,  viri liter  adim- 

plevit. 
Christi  Matrem  se  spopondit,    diclo  atque 

factis  fecit. 
Brigida  automata  veri  Dei  Regina. 
Brigida  Sancta  sedulo  sit  nostro  in  auxilio, 
Ut  mereamur  coronam  habere,  ac  lauitiam. 
In  conspectu  Angelorum   in   saecula  ssecn- 

lorum, 
Christe    Jesu    author    bonorum    miserere, 

obsecro  omnium. 

55  In  a  note,  attaching  to  these  words  in 
the  Hymn,  Brigida  automata,  Colgan  re- 
marks, that  in  the  Irish  MS.  Automata  was 
found,  which  should  be  changed  for  his 
emendation.  The  Greek  word  avro^arov 
signifies  self-moving,  or  a  mechanical  in- 
strument, so  curiously  and  ingeniously 
constructed,  that  it  seems  to  act  of  its  own 
accord,  and  without  any  apparent  cause  or 
motor.      See  ibid,  p.  542,  and  n.  81,  p.  545- 

56  See  "  Ecclesiastical  History  of  Ireland," 
vol.  i.,  chap,  viii.,  sect,  ii.,  n.  18,  p.  380. 


September  4.]      LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS. 


89 


to  exceed  those  in  the  Fourth  Life,  by  about  twenty-three  chapters.57  That 
St.  Ultan  wrote  the  Acts  of  St.  Brigid,  is  asserted  by  an  author  of  her  Life 
in  Irish,  by  a  certain  Scholiast,  as  also  by  Archbishop  Ussher58  and  by  Sir 
James  Ware.59  From  the  probability  of  some  metrical  lines  appended 
having  been  composed,  by  the  same  author,  in  the  opinion  of  White, 
Colvenerius  and  Ward,  Colgan  maintains,  that  the  Life  written  was 
identical  with  that  published  by  him.  This  conclusion  is  supposed  to  be 
further  warranted,  by  the  usual  clause,  "  Explicit  Vita  S.  Brigidae,"  postfixed 
to  the  life  of  a  Saint,  coming  after,  and  not  before,  that  Hymn,  as  found  in 
the  St.  Magnus  MS.,  and  written  many  ages  before  Colgan's  time.  In  the 
St.  Autbert  MS.,  it  comes  after  a  Carmen,to  which  follows  the  Hymn.61 
To  St.  Ultan  has  been  attributed  the  spirit  of  prophecy.  It  is  said  his 
prophecies  remain  in  metre,  and  in  the  Irish  language.62  A  prophetic 
Poem63  extant  is  ascribed  to  St.  Ultan  of  Ardbraccan.  He  is  said  to  have 
foretold  the  arrival  of  the  English  in  Ireland,  and  that  they  should  annex  it 
to  the  Kingdom  of  England.  He  is  stated  also  to  have  been  the  teacher  of 
Tirechan,  who  wrote  from  the  dictation  of  Ultan,6*  two  Books,  on  the  Acts 
of  St.  Patrick.  These  Books  are  yet  in  manuscript,  and  Archbishop  Usher 
frequently  quotes  passages  from  them,  so  that  we  may  conclude,  he  had 
them  in  his  possession. 6s  These  Annotations  are  in  the  Book  of  Armagh. 
Ultan  is  said  to  have  written  a  Life  of  St.  Patrick,66  but  this  is  uncertain.6? 
It  was  he,  as  we  are  told,68  that  collected  the  miracles  of  St.  Brigid,  into  one 


s?  This  is  Colgan's  statement.  Yet,  it 
must  refer,  not  to  the  relative  numerical 
divisions  of  Chapters,  but  to  additional 
matter,  in  the  Third  Life.  Colgan's  di- 
visions of  the  six  lives  are  as  follows  :  viz. 
First,  metrical  Life,  53  stanzas  of  four  lines 
each,  Irish  with  Latin  translation  ;  Second 
Life,  36  chapters,  with  prologue ;  Third 
Life,  131  chapters  prose,  with  supple- 
mentary metrical  lines  ;  Fourth  Liie,  divided 
into  two  books,  the  first  book  containing 
52  chapters,  while  the  last,  having  100,  is 
prefaced  by  a  prologue ;  the  Fifth  Life 
comprises  58  chapters ;  while  the  Sixth 
metrical  Life  contains  68  sections,  more  or 
less  imperfect,  with  prefatory  and  supple- 
mental lines.  To  these  several  biographies 
are  appended  learned  notes  by  the  editor. 

58  See  "  De  Primordiis  Ecclesiarum  Bri- 
tannicarum,"  cap.  xvii.,  p.  1067. 

59  See  "De  Scriptoribus  Hibernise,"  lib.  i., 
cap.  iii.,  pp.  22,  23. 

60  This  piece  is  headed,  "  Carmen  de 
eadem  (Scil.  S.  Brigida.)  MSS.  Autberti :" 
its  lines  are  as  follows : — 

Brigida  nomen  habet,  gemino  et  diademate 
fulget 
Quam  colimus    fratres,    Brigida    nomen 
habet. 
Virgo    fuit    Domini,     mundo    et    crncifixa 
manebat 
Intus  et  exterius,  Virgo  fuit  Domini. 
Despiciebat  ovans  instantis  gaudia  Vitae, 

Et  falsos  fastus  despiciebat  ovans. 
Horruit  et  fragiles  mundi  fallentis  honores  ; 

Divitias,  pompas  horruit  et  fragiles 
Gaudia  perpetuae  spectaus  et  prcemia  vita; 
Suscepit,  certse  gaudia  perpetuae       . 


E  superis  resonat  intus  cum  sedibus  Echo 
Tubarum  sublimis  e  superis  resonat. 

Mitte  beata  preces  pro  nobis  Virgo  benigna  : 
Ad  Dominum  semper  mitte  beata  preces. 

61  Colgan  remarks,  that  he  found  some 
words,  appended  to  this  Carmen.  These 
showed  it  had  been  composed  by  the  author 
of  St.  Brigid's  Life,  and  of  the  Hymn,  which 
preceded  it.  He  also  thinks,  that  the  words 
"  cum  tuba  sublimis,"  should  be  substituted 
for  "Tubarum  .Sublimis."  The  writer's 
meaning  appears  to  be,  that  he  had  a  hope 
of  obtaining  Holy  Brigid's  intercession, 
when  the  trumpet  should  sound,  on  the  day 
of  General  Judgment.  See  Colgan's  "Trias 
Thaumaturga,"  Tertia  Vita  S.  Brigidae,  p. 
542,  and  nn.  82,  83,  p.  545,  ibid. 

62  Edward  O'Reilly  possessed  copies  of 
these  ascribed  prophecies.  See  "Chrono- 
logical Account  of  nearly  Four  Hundred 
Writers,"  &c,  p.  xlv. 

63  It  is  found  in  Messrs.  Hodges  and 
Smith's  collection,  and  in  the  R.  I.  A.marked 
No.  221.     This  is  a  folio  paper  MS. 

64  Harris'  Ware,  vol.  iii.  "  The  Writers 
of  Ireland,"  book  i.,  chap,  iv.,  p.  30. 

65  Fol.  xvi.,  Book  of  Armagh. 

66  See  Sir  James  Ware,  "  De  Scriptoribus 
Hiberniae,"  lib.  i.,  cap.  iii.,  p.  23. 

.  °?  Edward  O'Reilly  writes  :  "  The  copy 
of  the  Life  of  our  Apostle,  that  we  have 
seen  attributed  to  Ultan,  is  certainly  the 
production  of  a  more  modern  pen." — 
"Chronological  Account  of  nearly  Four 
Hundred  Writers,"  &c,  p.  xlv. 

68  By  the  O'Clerys  in  the  "  Martyrology 
of  Donegal,"  edition  of  Rev.  Drs.  Todd  and 
Reeves,  pp.  236,  237.      . 


9o  LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS.        [September  4. 


book,  and  he  gave  them  to  Brogan  Claen,6^  his  disciple.  It  is  said,  likewise, 
that  Ultan  commanded  him  to  turn  them  into  verse,  so  that  it  was  the  latter 
that  composed,  "  The  victorious  Brighit  loved  not,"  as  it  is  found  in  the 
Book  of  Hymns.?0  St.  Ultan  died  at  Ardbraccan,  about  three  miles  from 
Navan,  in  the  present  County  of  Meath. 71  He  is  said  to  have  completed 
the  extraordinary  age  of  one  hundred  and  eighty  years.  The  O'CIerys' 
Irish  Calendar  even  adds,  that  he  was  one  hundred  and  eight-nine  years  old, 
when  he  resigned  his  spirit  to  heaven.  This  does  not  seem,  however,  to 
rest  on  any  sure  basis  of  calculation.  He  died  on  the  4th  day  of  September. 
According  to  the  Annals  of  Clonmacnoise,  his  death  occurred,  a.d.  653 ; 
Ware  has  it  at  the  date  655  ;?2  but  according  to  the  Annals  of  Ulster,  those 
of  the  Four  Masters,  and  most  other  authorities,  it  happened  a.d.  656.73 
The  Annals  of  Ulster  again  note  his  death,  under  the  year  662  ;  and,  as  they 
state,  according  to  another  Book,?*  which  had  been  in  possession  of  the 
author. 

In  the  Martyrology  of  Christ  Church  he  is  recorded  as  a  Bishop  and 
Confessor,  at  the  ii.  Nones  of  September.?5  He  is  not  noticed,  however,  in  the 
Calendar  prefixed.  By  Greven  he  is  set  down  as  Vultan,  at  the  4th  day  of 
September,  and  as  an  Abbot  in  Ireland ;  while  a  similar  entry  is  given  in 
the  Florarium  Manuscript,  in  possession  of  the  Bollandists.?6  The  Martyr- 
ology of  Donegal??  registers  him  as  Ultan,  Bishop?8  of  Ard-Brecain,  at  the  4th 
day  of  September.  At  this  same  date,  he  has  been  commemorated  in 
Scotland. 79  Thus,  in  the  Kalendar  of  Drummond,80  he  is  mentioned  with 
special  eulogy. 

The  feast  of  this  Saint  had  been  celebrated  with  an  office  in  former 
times,  as  we  learn  from  various  manuscripts  still  preserved.8'  Even 
local  traditions  regarding  him  exist.  In  the  demesne  of  the  Protestant 
bishop  of  Meath,  near  Ardbraccan,  St.  Ultan's  well  is  still  shown.  It  is 
circular,  and  in  diameter  it  measures  nine  feet  and  a  half.  It  is  reputed 
sacred,  and  to  a  period  not  far  distant,  stations  were  there  made  on  the  vigil 
of  St.  Ultan's  feast.     Several  other  holy  wells  and  stone  crosses,  bearing  his 


**  Abbot   of  Rostuirc,    in    Osory.     His  could  have  fallen  into  the  error  of  writing  : 

feast  falls  on  the  17th  of  September.     See  "Non  novimus  hunc   Vultanum  aut   Ulta- 

Colgan's     "Trias    Thaumaturga,"    Prima  num   abbatem,    nisi   forsan,  idem  sit    cum 

Vita  S.  Brigidoe,  nn.  I,  2,  p.  518.  Ultano    abbate    Hiberno,    sed     in    Belgio 

70  The   Irish   title   for  which  is  leabAp  defuncto,  de  quo  actum  est  I  Maii."     Seep, 

lomann.  3.     It  is  sufficiently  plain,  that  the  entiy 

1*  "Obiit  apud    Ardbrechain    in    Midia  refers  to  St  Ultan,  Abbot  of  Ardbraccan. 

pridie     Nonas     Septembris     anno     salutis  77  Edited  by  Drs.  Todd  and  Reeves,  pp. 

dclv.,  aliis  DCLVi." — Sir  James  Ware,  "  De  234,  235. 

Scriptoribus   Hibemiae,"  lib.  i.,    cap.    iii.,  ?8  In  a  note  by  Dr.  Todd,  he  remarks  at 

p.  23.  this  notice:  "The  word  eappcop,  bishop, 

73  Colgan  has  his  death  at  a.d.   656,  or  is  inserted  by  the  more  recent  hand,  and  the 

657.     See  "  Trias  Thaumaturga,"  Prsefacio  word  '  Episcopus  Midensis  '  is  written  in  the 

ad  Lectorem,  p.  515.  margin."     Ardbraccan  is  now  united  in  the 

73  So  state  ths  O'CIerys.  diocese  of  Meath  withsome  other  ancientsees. 

7*  Dr.  O'Donovan's  "  Annals  of  the  Four  79  See    Bishop    Forbes'    "  Kalendars  of 

Masters,"  vol.  I.,  pp.  268,  269,  and  note  (d).  Scottish  Saints." 

"  See  "  The  Books  of  Obits  and  Martyr-  8o  Thus  :    "In    Hibernia   Natale    Sancti 

ology  of  the  Cathedral  Church  of  the  Holy  Presbyteri  et  Confessoris  Ultani  admirande 

Trinity,"  edited  by  John  Clarke  Crosthwaite  vitae  ac  sanclitatis  viri." — Ibid.,  p.  23. 

and  Rev.  James  Henthorn  Todd,  p.  153.  8l  A  MS.  in  T.C.D.,  classed  B,  3,  1,  con- 

76  See    "  Acta    Sanctorum    Septembris,"  tains  at  September  the  4th,  Nones  ii.  Ultain, 

tomus  ii.    Die  Quarta  Septembris.     Among  Epis.et.  Conf.  ix.  Lect.     A  MS.  in  T.C.D., 

the  pretermitted  Feasts.     It  seems  strange —  classed  B,  3,12,  contains  at  September  the 

especially  after  the  entry  which  follows  at  4th,  Nones  ii.,  Ultain,  Archiepis.  et  Primas 

the  end  of  next  column— that  the  editors  Hiberniae,  ix.  Lect. 


September  4.]      LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS.  91 


name,  exist  in  the  County  of  Meath.82  Long  after  St.  Ultan's  time,  a.d. 
784,  we  read  of  a  Translation  of  his  relics  at  Ardbraccan.8*  The  monastery 
and  its  abbots  appear  in  our  annals ;  but  the  ravages  of  the  Danes  are  often 
recorded,  during  the  ninth,  tenth  and  eleventh  centuries.  At  length,  the 
abbey  of  Ardbraccan  fell  into  dissolution,  and  the  town  into  obscurity,  after 
the  English  Invasion.8*  However,  although  denuded  of  all  ancient 
buildings,  which  in  rimes  past  had  their  own  religious  interest  and  beauty ; 
still  survive  the  memorials  of  St.  Ultan's  charitable  labours  for  the  orphan 
children  and  the  poor,  united  with  the  graces  of  literary  endowment,  and 
reverence  for  those  who  were  renowned  as  saints  in  the  earlier  eras  of 
Christianity. 


Article  II. — Translation  of  St.  Cuthbert's  Relics.  We  are  told 
that  in  the  Sarum,  York  and  Durham  Kalendars,  at  this  date,  the  com- 
memoration of  a  feast  was  held  for  a  Translation  of  St.  Cuthbert's  relics.1 
We  find,  that  on  this  day,  also,  in  the  Irish  Church  a  festival  was  kept  to 
honour  that  Translation,  made  by  order  of  Bishop  Aldhune,  a.d.  999. 2  For 
a  fuller  account  of  the  original  transfer,  we  are  referred  to  Simeon  of  Durham, 
and  to  Mabillon.  The  holy  founder  of  Lindisfame  had  a  heavenly 
prescience,  that  after  his  death,  England  should  be  over-run  with  a  host  of 
invading  infidels;  and,  before  his  death,  he  took  care  to  admonish  his 
disciples,  that  when  such  calamity  should  be  imminent,  to  chose  some  other 
abode,  and  to  fly  from  their  ravages.  They  were  also  to  take  his  remains 
with  them,  and  to  seek  some  safer  place  for  their  repose.  None  of  those 
monks  survived,  to  witness  the  fulfilment  of  that  tradition  in  such  scenes  of 
depredation  ;  and,  as  we  have  already  narrated,3  over  one  hundred  years 
passed  away  after  his  death,  before  the  Danish  pirates  made  their  inroads  on 
the  coasts  of  England.  Towards  the  close  of  the  eighth  century,  the  exposed 
situation  of  Lindisfame  recalled  St.  Cuthbert's  monition  to  the  memory  of  its 
inmates.  In  the  year  793,4  the  Danes  made  their  first  descent  on  that  island, 
when  the  monastery  was  plundered,  and  almost  totally  destroyed. s  The 
treasures  of  the  church  were  borne  away,  and  many  of  the  monks  were  slain, 
while  others  were  made  captives.6  Such  of  the  religious  as  escaped  to  the 
main  shore  returned  again  to  the  island,  and  set  about  repairing  those 
damages.  The  bishops  and  other  pious  persons  afterwards  re-edified  and 
restored  the  monastery,  which  flourished  until  the  year  867.7  In  875, 
North umbria  was  dreadfully  infested  with  the  Danish  pirates ;  while  the 
churches  and  monasteries  were  especially  devoted  to  destruction.  Then 
Eardulph,  the  Bishop  of  Lindisfame,  who  led  a  community  life,  Eadred  the 
abbot,  and  the  community  of  monks,  resolved  upon  leaving  their  place,  and 


8a  See   Rev.    A.    Cogan's    "  Diocese    of  3  See  the  Life  of  St.  Cuthbert,  Bishop  of 

Meath,  Ancient  and  Modern,"  vol.  i.,  chap.  Lindisfame,  at  the  20th  March,  in  the  Third 

vii.,  p.  52.  Volume  of  this  work,  Art.  i.,  chap.  iv. 

83  See  Archdall's  "  Monasticon  Hiberni-  4  On  the  seventh  of  the  Ides  of  June, 
cum,"  p.  511.                                                              s  See    Mabillon's    "Annales    Ordinis   S. 

84  See    Rev.     A.    Cogan's    "  Diocese  of  Benedicti,"  tomus  ii.,  lib.  xxvi.,  sect,  xxiv., 
Meath,  Ancient  and  Modern,"  vol.  i.,  chap.  p.  308. 

vii.,  pp.  53,  54.  6  This  was  doubtless  to  obtain  sums  of 

Article  11. — *  See  Rev.  S.  Baring-Gould's  money  for  their  ransom.     Symeon  Dunel- 

"  Lives  of  the  Saints,"  vol.  ix.,  September  mensis  gives  an  account  of  this  depredation, 

4th,  p.  50.  and  of  the  vistole  judgments,  which  after- 

2  See  Rev.  John  Lingard's  "  Antiquities  wards  befel  the  spoilers, 
of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Church,"  chap,  viii.,  n.  7  See  Walter  Scott's  "  Border  Antiquities 

44,  p.  163.  of  England  and  Scotland,"  vol.  ii.,  p.  144. 


92 


LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS.      [September  4. 


on  carrying  with  them  the  sacred  depository  of  the  founder's  relics,  before 
which  so  many  and  such  great  miracles  had  been  wrought.  In  the  meantime, 
coming  to  the  Island  of  Lindisfarne,  the  barbarous  Danes  again  burned  down 
the  church  and  monastery,  leaving  the  ruins  in  that  wrecked  condition  in 
which  they  are  now  presented  to  us.8  Still  are  they  venerable  monuments 
of  the  grand  Irish-Romanesque  style  of  the  eighth  and  ninth  centuries  ;°  and 
those  ruins  left  a  model  for  the  still  more  majestic  and  glorious  edifice  of 
Durham  Cathedral.     The  monks  wandered  as  did  the  Jews  of  old  in   the 


Castle  and  Priory  Ruins  of  Lindisfarne. 

desert,  with  the  Ark  of  the  Covenant,  and  for  seven  years  they  had  no  secure 
rest  for  St.  Cuthbert's  bones.  Having  ranged  throughout  all  that  country  to 
escape  from  the  hands  of  their  savage  enemies,  and  being  quite  spent  with 
fatigue,  Eandulf  and  Eadred  resolved  to  pass  over  into  Ireland,  which  even 
at  this  time  had  become  a  prey  to  the  Scandinavian  invasions.  At  the  mouth 
of  the  River  Derwent.they  embarked,  but  a  prodigious  storm  arising,  they 
were  obliged  to  return  to  the  port  they  had  left.  This  was  deemed  a  Divine 
monition,  which  they  were  obliged  to  obey  ;  and  accordingly,  it  was  deter- 
mined to  remain  in  England.10     For  want  of  food  and  other  necessaries, 


8  In  the  Fourth  Volume  of  Sir  William 
Dugdale's  *■*  Monasticon  Anglicanum,"  there 
is  a  fine  copperplate  engraving  of  the  ruined 
abbey  on  Lindisfarne  Island,  with  a  view  of 
the  ruined  castle  on  its  steep  crag  seen 
through  the  arch  in  the  distance.  See  p. 
687. 

9  Already  have  we  furnished  an  illustration 
of  the  ruins  of  Lindisfarne  Priory,  in  the 
Third  Volume  of  this  work,  at  the  13th  day 
of  March,  under  our  notices  of  St.  Gerald  or 
Garalt,  Abbot  of  Eliterid  and  Bishop  of 
Mayo,  Art.  iii.  ;  but,  the  accompanying 
illustration   presents  another   view    of    the 


remnants  of  that  Priory,  with  the  isolated 
castle  on  the  steep,  out  at  sea,  and  in  the 
distance.  Copied  from  an  approved  original, 
it  has  been  reduced,  drawn  on  the  wood, 
and  engraved  by  Gregor  Grey. 

10  According  to  William  of  Malmesbury, 
after  this  failure  to  reach  Ireland,  St.  Cuth- 
body  was  honourably  interred  at 
Ubbenford,  now  Norham,  near  the  River 
Tweed,  where  it  lay  for  many  years,  until 
the  coming  of  King  Ethelred.  See  "I)e 
Gestis  Pontificum  Anglorum,"  lib.  iii., 
sect.  129,  p.  268.  Edition  of  N.  E.  S.  A. 
Hamilton. 


September  4.]      LIVES  OE  THE  IRISH  SAINTS.  93 


many  of  their  followers  then  deserted  them,  so  that  none  were  left  with  St. 
Cuthbert's  remains  but  the  bishop,  the  abbot,  and  seven  other  persons,  who 
had  devoted  themselves  to  his  service.  After  they  had  shifted  about  for  seven 
years,  and  when  Haldena,  the  Danish  tyrant,  had  fled  from  the  Tyne,  the 
body  of  St.  Cuthbert  was  brought  to  the  Monastery  of  Crec,  where  the 
monks  were  lovingly  received  and  hospitably  entertained  for  four  months." 
At  length,  King  Guthred  was  received  as  King  at  Oswiesdune,  both  by  the 
Danes  and  Northumbrians,  and  he  gave  protection  to  the  monks.  In  882, 
the  relics  of  St.  Cuthbert  rested  at  Cunecasestre  or  Conchester,  a  small  town 
a  few  miles  from  the  Roman  Wall,  and  now  known  as  Chester  upon  the 
street.  There  the  Bishop's  see  continued  for  one  hundred  and  thirteen 
years.  King  Alfred  and  the  Danish  leader  gave  to  that  church  all  the  land 
lying  between  the  Tyne  and  the  Tees,  with  protection  for  a  month  to  all 
persons  that  fled  to  the  saint's  shrine.12  In  995,  Bishop  Aldune  conveyed 
St.  Cuthbert's  remains  to  Ripon  for  greater  security  from  the  Danes.  Four 
months  afterwards,  they  were  brought  to  Durham.  Then  a  chapel  had  been 
constructed  on  a  grand  elevation  over  the  River  Tyne,  and  a  monastery  had 
been  established  near  it,  owing  to  the  willing  labour  of  the  country  people. 
Like  many  of  the  ancient  religious  houses  in  those  troublesome  times,  the 
site  was  fortified  as  a  protection  against  unscrupulous  aggressors.  In  fine, 
on  the  4th  of  September,  a.d.  999,  Bishop  Aldune  had  St.  Cuthbert's  remains 
encased  in  a  shrine,  and  there  they  were  solemnly  exposed  for  the  veneration 
of  pious  pilgrims.  The  Bollandists  have  an  entry  of  the  translation  of  St. 
Cuthbert's  relics  at  the  4th  of  September,^  as  found  in  many  ancient 
Martyrologies.  On  the  annual  recurrence  of  this  anniversary,  we  find  it 
called  the  Feast  of  the  Translation  of  St.  Cuthbert x*  in  various  Irish 
Kalendars.  In  the  Annals  of  the  Cistercian  Monks,  its  commemoration 
is  likewise  recorded.15  In  the  Irish  Church,  to  celebrate  this  event,  an 
office  had  been  instituted.16  It  was  comprised  in  Nine  Lessons.1?  It 
would  seem,  however,  to  have  been  introduced  into  our  Island  by  the  Anglo- 
Normans.18  In  the  Scottish  Kalendars,'9  this  Festival  of  the  Translation 
of  St.  Cuthbert's  relics,  is  to  be  found,  and  with  a  concurrence  that  shows  it 
to  have  been  one  of  particular  devotion.  Thus,  at  the  4th  of  September,  it 
occurs  in  the  Kalendars  of  Hyrdmanistoun,20  of  Culenros,21  of  Arbuthnott,22 
of  the  Aberdeen  Breviary,23  and  of  Thomas  Dempster.^ 

11  See  Sir  William  DugdaleVMonasticon  latio  Sancti  Cuthberti,  ix.  Lect. 
Anglicanum,"  &c.,  edition  of  John  Caley,  l8  In  T.C.D.,  a  MS.,  classed  B,  3,  18,  19 
Esq.,  Henry  Ellis,  LL.B.,  and  Rev.  Bulkeley  (the  Sarum  Breviary,  England),  records  at 
Bandinel,  M.A.,  vol.  i.,  pp.  221,  222.  Nones  ii.  September(Septeniber  4th),Trans- 

12  See  Rev.  S.  Baring  Gould's  "Lives  of  latio  S.  Cuthberti,  Lect.  iii. 

the  Saints,"  vol.  ix.,  September  4U1,  p.  51.  I9  See  "Bishop   Forbes'   "Kalendars  of 

13  See    "Acta    Sanctorum    Septembris,"       Scottish  Saints." 

tomus  ii.    Die  Quarta  Septembris.     Among  20  Thus  :    "Translatio   Sancti   Cuthberti 

the  pretermitted  Feasts,  p.  2.  Episcopi." — Ibid.,  p.  45. 

14  In  T.C.D.  a  MS.  classed  B,  3,  9,  records  2I  Thus  :  "  Translatio  Sancti  Cuthberti." 
at  September  4th,  Nonas  ii.,  Visitatio  Sancti  — Ibid.  p.  61. 

Cuthberti  Epis.  et  Conf.  aa  Thus  :  "Translatio    Sancti    Cuthberti 

*S  The  Translation  of   St,  Cuthbert  there  Episcopi. "—Ibid. ,  p.  104. 

occurs,  at  the  4th  of  September,  p.  398.  23  Thus  :  "  Translations  Cuthberti  Epis- 

16  At     September    the    4th,    Nones    ii.,  copi  et  Confessoris,   ix.    Lect.  nisi   factum 

Translatio    Sancti   Cuthberti    Episcopi   et  fuerit  in  quorundum." — Ibid.,  p.  120.     The 

Confessoris,    ix.     Lect.,    is    found    in    the  latter  words  we  apprehend  to  mean,  unless 

Calendar  list  of  the  MS.  Culdee  Antiphon-  the  office  interfere  with  one  of  a  superior 

arium  of  Armagh  Metropolitan  Church,  and  rite. 

classed  B.I.I.,  T.C.D.  24See  "  Menologium  Scoticum,"  where  we 

*  A  MS.  in  T.C.D.,  classed  B,  3,13,  con-  read  :     "  Dunelmice     Cuthberti    praesulis, 

tains  at  September  the  4th,  Nones  ii.,  Trans-  monachi  Maelrosiensis.  M  A."— Ibid.,  p.  210. 


94 


LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS.      [September  4. 


Article  III. — St.  Ness,  Nessa,  or  Munessa,  of  Ernaidh,  said  to 
have  been  Urney,  in  the  County  of  Tyrone.  [Fifth  Century.]  Those, 
who  treat  about  the  bountiful  designs  of  the  Almighty  in  reference  to  the 
present  holy  virgin,  have  remarked,  that  she  was  possessed  with  the  graces 
of  the  Holy  Spirit,  through  the  virtues  which  are  innate  in  a  good  disposi- 
tion; and  from  the  divers  species  of  all  created  things,  she  understood  the 
Creator  ;J  and  He  being  thus  understood,  she  loved  Him  with  all  her  heart, 
and  with  all  her  soul.  For  the  love  and  desire  of  such  affection,  she  looked 
down  with  disregard  on  all  the  riches,  the  delights,  the  splendours,  and  the 
charms  of  this  world's  glory,  while  she  despised  them  in  her  heart.  At  this 
date  there  is  a  brief  notice  of  St.  Monessa,  Virgin,  in  Rev.  S,  Baring- 
Gould's  "  Lives  of  the  Saints."2  In  the  opinion  of  Colgan,  this  was  the 
holy  virgin  mentioned  in  the  various  lives  of  St.  Patrick,  as  having  been 
bora  in  Britain  of  royal  parentage.3  The  Bollandists  have  acts  of  St. 
Munessa  or  Monessa,  Virgin,  at  the  4th  day  of  September.*  Those  acts  are 
chiefly  extracted  from  the  various  Lives  of  St.  Patrick,  as  published  by 
Colgan.  There  is  a  prefixed  commentary.5-  They  had  also  a  Manuscript6 
formerly  sent  by  the  Jesuit  Father  Stephen  White  to  Father  Rosweyd,  which 
referred  to  St.  Muneria  or  Munessa,  daughter  to  a  King  of  the  Britons, 
baptised  by  St.  Patrick,  and  who  died  in  Ireland.  Munessa,?  Momessa,  or 
Memessa,8  as  she  has  been  variedly  called,  was  a  noble  and  beautiful 
damsel,  said  to  have  been  the  daughter  of  a  prince,  who  reigned  in  a  certain 
part  of  Britain.  By  Probus  she  has  been  called  Muneria.9  She  is  also 
denominated  Ness  and  Nessa.  This  virgin  was  of  royal  birth,  and  she  is 
generally  supposed  to  have  been  the  daughter  of  a  British  king.10  Without 
telling  us  in  what  country  the  baptism  of  Memessa  took  place,  Jocelyn 
would  fain  make  us  believe,  that  St.  Patrick  went  to  Great  Britain  after  his 
mission  had  commenced."  The  saint's  authority,12  however,  is  vastly 
preferable  to  that  of  a  writer,  who  in  the  same  chapter  has  so  many  apparent 


Article  hi. — *  Scotus  and  other  theolo- 
gians have  taught,  that  from  the  promptings 
of  the  natural  law  and  reason,  God  may  be 
known  and  loved  by  the  human  creature, 
not,  however,  with  a  love  to  ensure  salva- 
tion. In  the  case  of  the  present  holy  virgin, 
said  to  have  known  God  through  the  natural 
law,  yet  the  concurrence  ofDivine  Grace 
assisting  her  is  not  excluded  in  the  words  of 
the  writer  of  St.  Patrick's  Third  Life,  where 
he  writes,  "per  illas  creaturas  cognovit 
Creatorem  earum,  et  per  auxilium  Sancti 
Spiritus." 

*  See  vol.  ix.,  September  4,  pp.  47,  48. 

3  See  "  Trias  Thaumaturga,"  Tertia  Vita 
S.  Patricii,  cap.  Ixxviii.,  and  nn.  74,  75,  pp. 
27,  34.  QuaitaVitaS.  Patricii,  cnp.  lxxxviii., 
p.  46. 

4  See  "Acta  Sanctorum  Septembris," 
tomus  ii.  Die  Quarta  Septembris.  De  S. 
Munessa  seu  Monessa,  Virg.  in  Hibernia, 
pp.  225  to  228.  Edited  by  Father  Con- 
stantine  Suysken. 

s  In  eight  paragraphs. 

6  Marked  with  this  title  *J«  MS.  167,  D. 
Nomina  Sanctarum  Faminarum  quarumdam 
ex  Prosapia  Regum  Scotorum  Hibernia;. 

7  1  hus  is  this  pious  virgin  called  in 
Colgan's    "Trias    Thaumaturga,"  by    the 


author  of  Tertia  Vita  S.  Patricii,  cap.  Ixxviii. 
p.  27.     See  also  n.  74,  p.  34,  ibid. 

8  Thus  styled  by  Jocelyn.  See  Vita  Sexta 
S.  Patricii,  cap.  clix.,  p.  100. 

9  See  Probus  or  Quinta  Vita  S.  Patricii, 
lib.  ii.,  cap.  xxv.,  p.  59.  Colgan  states,  that 
this  writer  wrongly  calls  her  Muneria,  and 
that  Joceline  is  also  incorrect  in  writing  her 
name  Memessa.     See  n.  74,  p.  34. 

10  This  is  expressly  stated  in  various  Lives 
of  St.  Patrick  ;  and  owing  to  the  context,  in 
which  allusion  is  made  to  her,  it  may  also 
be  inferred  from  the  life  by  Probus. 

11  See  Colgan's  ''Trias  Thaumaturga," 
Sexta  Vita  S.  Patricii,  cap.  clix.,  p.  ioo,  and 
cap.  xcii.,  p.  86. 

12  It  is  generally  allowed,  that  St.  Patrick 
did  not  write  his  Confession,  until  he  had 
established  his  see  at  Armagh,  and  towards 
the  close  of  his  life.  In  it,  he  declares,  that 
he  would  be  afraid  to  be  out  of  Ireland, 
even  for  so  short  a  time  as  should  enable 
him  to  visit  his  relatives,  lest  he  should 
disobey  the  commands  of  Christ  our  Lord, 
who  had  ordered  him  to  come  among  the 
Irish,  and  to  remain  with  them  for  the  rest 
of  his  life.  See  Rev.  Dr.  Lanigan's  "Eccle- 
siastical History  of  Ireland,"  vol.  i.,  cap.  vii., 
sect.  1,  p.  319. 


September  4.]      LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS. 


95 


misstatements.1*  In  the  Triparite  Life  of  St.  Patrick,  it  is  said,  that  the 
daughter  of  a  British  king — seemingly  this  Munessa  or  Muneria — came  into 
Ireland.  She  went  to  Kill-na-ningen,  near  Armagh,  to  be  instructed  by  the 
saint, x4  according  to  the  same  account.  As  the  spring-time  of  her  youth 
made  her  beautiful,  writes  Jocelyn,  and  the  elegance  of  her  form  made  her 
lovely,  while  in  her  countenance  the  lilies  and  the  roses  of  the  garden  were 
mingled  together  ;  very  many  princes  of  royal  lineage  desired  her  in  marriage. 
However,  in  nowise  could  she  be  persuaded  or  compelled  to  give  her  consent. 
She  had  early  formed  the  desire  of  becoming  a  Christian.  Yet,  had  she  not 
been  washed  in  the  holy  font,  though  in  her  manners  she  represented  the 
purity  of  Christian  faith.  Her  parents  being  Heathens,  endeavoured  with 
words  and  with  stripes,  to  frustrate  her  resolution ;  but  the  firmness  of  her 
virgin  purpose  being  built  on  the  rock  of  Christ,  could  neither  be  subverted 
by  their  persuasions,  nor  by  force.  Nor  could  she,  through  any  of  their  evil 
doings,  be  moved  from  her  fixed  determination.1*  Having  a  long  time  thus 
vainly  laboured,  by  united  consent,  her  parents  brought  her  to  St.  Patrick,'6 
the  fame  ot  whose  holiness  was  proved  and  published  through  all  that  country, 
by  many  signs  and  miracles.  Then,  they  unfolded  to  him  the  purpose  ol 
their  daughter,  earnestly  entreating  him,  that  he  would  bring  her  to  the  sight 
of  that  God,  whom  she  so  loved,  and  towards  whom  her  heart  had  yearned.'7 
The  saint  hearing  this  rejoiced  in  the  Lord,  giving  thanks  to  Him,  whose 


13  As  for  instance,  concerning  thirty  British 
bishops  who  are  said  to  have  been  in  Ireland. 
He  also  states  the  Isle  of  Man  had  been  then 
subject  to  Britain  ;  not  to  mention  the  fall  of 
Merlin,  the  magician,  and  other  absurd 
narratives.  See  Colgan's  "  Trias  Thauma- 
turga,"  Sexta  Vita  S.  Patricii,  cap.  xc, 
p.  86. 

14  See  Colgan's  "  Trias  Thaumaturga," 
Septima  Vita  S.  Patricii,  lib.  iii.,  cap. 
lxxiii.,  p.  163. 

'5  The  following  account  of  the  incidents 
contained  in  the  text  varies  considerably  in 
detail,  yet  referring  apparently  to  the  same 
subject  matter.  "One  time  there  came 
nine  daughters  of  the  King  of  the  Long- 
bards,  and  the  daughter  of  the  King  of 
Britain,  on  a  pilgrimage  to  Patrick  ;  they 
stopped  at  the  east  side  of  Ard-Macha, 
where  Coll-na-ningean  is  to-day.  There 
came  messengers  from  them  to  Patrick,  to 
know  if  they  should  proceed  to  him.  Patrick 
said  to  the  messengers  that  three  of  the 
maidens  would  go  to  heaven,  and  in  that 
place  (i.e.  Coll-na-ningean)  their  sepulchre 
is.  'And  let  the  other  maidens  go  to 
Druim-fenneda,  and  let  one  of  them  proceed 
as  far  as  that  hill  in  the  east.'  And  so  it 
was  done.  Cruimthir  went  afterwards,  and 
occupied  Cengoba ;  and  Benen  used  to 
carry  fragments  of  food  to  her  every  night 
from  Patrick.  And  Patrick  planted  an 
apple  tree  in  Achadh-na-elti,  which  he  took 
from  the  fort,  in  the  north  of  the  place,  i.e. 
Cengoba ;  and  hence  the  place  is  called 
Abhall- Patrick,  in  Cengoba.  It  was  the 
milk  of  this  doe,  moreover,  that  used  to  be 
given  to  the  lap-dog  that  was  near  the 
maiden,  i.e.  Cruimthir." — Miss  M.  F. 
Cusack'b  "  Life  of  St.  Patrick,  Apostle  of 


Ireland."  William  M.  Hennessy's  transla- 
tion of  the  Irish  Tripartite  Life  of  St. 
Patrick,  part  iii.,  pp.  485,  486.  Coll-na- 
ningean  is  rendered  "the  hazel  tree  of  the 
virgins,"  but  the  denomination  is  now  obso- 
lete. Druim-fenneda  is  rendered  "  the  ridge 
of  the  declivity,"  but  the  name  is  also  obso- 
lete. Cengoba  is  explained  by  the  Rev. 
Dr.  Reeves  as  "  the  hill  of  grief ;  "  and  he 
states,  that  the  tradition  of  the  country  con- 
nected the  memory  of  the  nine  pilgrim 
virgins  with  Armagh  Breague,  in  Upper 
Fews.  Somewhat  similar  to  the  foregoing 
account  is  that  in  the  Latin  Tripartite  Life, 
as  published  by  Colgan,  part  iii.,  chapters 
lxxiii.,  lxxiv.  In  notes  appended,  he  seems 
to  regard  Cruimthir,  or  Crumtheris,  as  a 
different  person  from  the  King  of  Britain's 
daughter,  Munessa. 

16  Following  the  context  of  the  Third 
Life  of  St.  Patrick,  it  may  be  supposed  the 
baptism  of  Munessa  must  have  been  per- 
formed in  Ireland.  It  is  there  stated,  that 
her  parents,  hearing  about  the  great  reputa- 
tion of  St.  Patrick,  brought  her  to  him.  See 
Colgan's  "Trias  Thaumaturga,"  Tertia  Vita 
S.  Patricii,  cap.  lxxviii. ,  p.  27. 

•7  The  author  of  St.  Patrick's  Fourth  Life 
states,  that  nine  daughters  of  a  King  of  the 
Lombards  were  received,  with  the  daughter 
of  a  King  of  Britain,  at  this  time,  and  that 
all  were  recommended  by  the  Irish  Apostle 
to  places  where  they  might  serve  God  for 
the  rest  of  their  lives.  See  Colgan's  "Trias 
Thaumaturga,"  Quarta  Vita  S.  Patricii, 
cap.  lxxxviii.,  p.  46.  Colgan  thinks  those 
daughters  of  the  King  of  Britain  are  pro- 
bably not  different  from  the  daughters  of 
Enoch,  venerated  on  the  9th  of  September. 
See  ibid.,  note  69,  p.  50. 


96  LIVES  OE  THE  IRISH  SAINTS.      [September  4. 


breath  doth  blow  even  whither  and  how  he  listeth  ;  and  who  oftentimes  calleth 
to  Himself,  without  any  preaching,  those  whom  he  had  predestined  for  eternal 
life.  Afterwards,  having  expounded  to  the  damsel  the  rules  of  Christian  Faith, 
he  catechised  and  baptised  her,  while  confessing  her  belief  in  the  true  Faith. 
He  also  strengthened  her  with  the  Sacrament  of  the  body  and  blood  of  Christ. 
St.  Ness,  or  Munessa,  is  classed  among  the  holy  virgins,  who  received  the  veil 
from  St.  Patrick.18  The  chief  incidents  of  her  life  must  be  referred  to  between 
the  year  432,  when  St.  Patrick  came  to  open  his  mission  in  Ireland,  and  to 
about  the  year  460,  when  he  is  thought  to  have  departed  this  life,  in  the 
opinion  of  Fathers  Papebroke  and  Suyskens.  The  latter  supposed,  that  the 
baptism  and  reception  of  St.  Munessa  happened  during  the  last  five  years  of 
the  life  of  Ireland's  great  Apostle.  J9  Having  received  the  Holy  Viaticum, 
Munessa  fell  to  the  ground  in  the  midst  of  her  prayers,  and  breathed  forth 
her  spirit.  Thus  she  ascended  from  the  font,  spotless  and  washed  from  all 
sin,  led  by  angels  to  the  sight  of  her  fair  and  beautiful  beloved.  Then  did 
St.  Patrick,  and  all  who  were  present,  glorify  God.  With  honourable 
sepulture,  they  committed  Munessa's  holy  remains  to  the  earth.20  The 
various  Lives  of  St.  Patrick  do  not  name  the  place  of  this  interment,  nor 
where,  in  aftertime,  the  community  of  holy  women  was  established,  as  he 
had  then  predicted.21  Probus,  or  the  author  of  the  Apostle's  Fifth  Life,  only 
tells  us,  that  in  his  own  day,  the  memory  of  St.  Muneria  had  been  observed 
in  that  same  place,22  which  appears  to  have  been  known  to  him  by  tradition. 
The  death  of  this  holy  virgin  has  been  assigned  to  a.d.  450,  in  one  of  the 
Manuscripts,23  sent  by  Father  Stephen  White 2*  to  Father  Rosweyde.  The 
Martyrology  of  Donegal 2S  states,  that  veneration  was  given  at  the  4th  of 
September,  to  Ness  of  Ernaidh.  According  to  William  M.  Hennessy,  this 
place  is  to  be  identified  with  Urney,  in  the  County  of  Tyrone.26  If  the 
present  Munissa  be  identical  with  the  King  of  Britain's  daughter,  who  with 
nine  daughters  of  the  Lombard  King,  lived  or  died  at  Coll-na-ningean,  near 
Armagh,  or  at  another  place,  called  Druim-Fennedha,  the  foregoing  statement 
of  Mr.  Hennessy  cannot  be  admitted.  Nor  can  the  distinction  between  that 
foregoing  daughter  of  the  British  King  and  the  present  St.  Munessa  be 
regarded  as  properly  established. 27 


Article  IV. — St.  Comhgall,  of  Both-Conais,  County  of  Donegal. 
^'eve?tth    Century, ,]      At  the   4th  of  September,   we  find  entered  in   the 


18  See  Colgan's  "Trias  Thaumaturga,"  in  ipsa  vetere  Scotia  seu  Hiberniaaut  mortui 
Quinta  Appendix  ad  Acta  S.  Patricii,  cap.  sunt,  aut  post  mortem  eo  translati.  Ex 
xxiii.,  p.  269.  quorum  plurimis  pauciorum,  qui  sequuntur, 

19  See  "Acta  Sanctorum  Septembris,"  nomina  nic  (sell.  Dilingen,  as  seams)  ubi 
tomus  ii.     Die  Quarta  Septembris.     De  S.  dego,  reperta  dabo." 

Munessa  seu  Monessa,  Virg.   in  Hibernia.  =•»  Thus  written:  "  Muneria,  quae  et  Me- 

Commentarius  prrcvius,  sect.  6,  p.  226.  messa    virg<>,    filia    regis,    baptisata  a    S- 

:°  See   Colgan's    "Trias  Thaumaturga,"  Patricio,  qui  ejus  aniinam  in  coelum  ascen- 

Sexta  Vita  S.  Patricii,  cap.  clix.,  p.  100.  dentem  viderat  circa  annum  salutis  CCCCL." 

21  See  the  Bollandists'  "  Acta  Sanctorum  =5  Edited  by  Drs.  Todd  and  Reeves,  pp. 

Septembris,"   tomus   ii.     Die  Quarta  Sep-  2t,6   237, 

tembris.     De    S.     Munessa  seu    Monessa,  =6  See  where  mention  is  made  of  this  place, 

Virg.  in  Hiberma.    Commentanus  proevius,  at  lhe   IIth  of  February,  as  also  at  the  1st 

sect   2,  p.  226.  and  3rd  of  August. 

"See   Colgan's      'Trias   Thaumaturga,'  «7  See   Colgan's    "Trias   Thaumaturga," 

Quinta  Vita  S.  Patricii,  lib.  11.,  cap.  xxvi.,  Quarta  Vita  S.  Patricii,  cap.  lxxxviii.,  p.  46, 

P-  59-  and  nn.  70,  71,  p.  50,  and  Septima  Vita  S. 

•3  Marked  ^  MS.  167  F  ,  and  having  the  Patricii,  lib.  iii.,  cap.  lxxiii.,  p.  163,  and  nn. 

title:   "Octavus  Catalogus  Sanctorum,  qui  100,  IOI,  p.  187. 


September  4  ]      LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS.  97 


Martyrology  of  Tallagh1  the  name  Comgall  of  Boith  Conais,a  as  having  been 
venerated.  He  is  said  to  have  been  the  brother  of  St.  Cele-Christ,  or 
Christicola,  whose  family  and  parentage  have  been  already  noticed  in  his 
Acts,  which  occur  at  the  3rd  of  March. 3  It  is  said,  he  descended  from  the 
race  of  Eoghan,  son  to  Niall.  This  saint  must  have  been  born  sometime 
about,  or  after,  the  middle  of  the  seventh  century.  We  read,  that  his  place 
was  situated  in  Glean  Daoile,  in  Inis  Eoghain,*  or  Inishowen,  and  it  seems 
likely  that  he  was  a  native  of  that  part  of  Ireland.  Both-Chonais,  mentioned 
in  our  Annals  in  the  middle  of  the  ninth  century  and  at  a  still  later  period, 
is  rendered  into  English  by  "  Conas'  booth,"  "  tent,"  or  "  hut."  At  first, 
Dr.  O'Donovan  thought — although  the  former  name  was  obsolete — it  must 
have  been  Templemoyle,  in  the  parish  of  Culdaff,  and  barony  of  Inishowen.5 
But,  he  afterwards  discovered  better  evidence  6  for  correcting  his  opinion ; 
and  he  states,  it  is  obviously  the  old  grave  yard,  in  the  townland  of  Binnion,? 
parish  of  Clonmany,  barony  of  Inishowen,  and  County  of  Donegal.8  This 
saint  is  recorded  in  the  Martyrology  of  Donegal,9  at  the  same  date,  as 
Comhgall,  son  to  Eochaidh,  of  Both-Conais.  According  to  Rev.  John  Francis 
Shearman,  Cella  Comgalli,10  or  Kilcomgall,  now  Shankhill,"  in  the  County 
of  Dublin,  was  called  after  this  saint,12  who  was  the  patron,  and  perhaps  its 
founder. 

Article  V. — St.  Cummein,  Abbot  of  Drumsnat,  County  of  Mona- 
ghan.  From  what  has  been  already  stated  at  the  istof  this  month,  it  seems 
probable,  that  the  present  saint  may  be  identified  with  St.  Cuimmen,  son  of 
Cuanna  or  Cuanach.  The  published  Martyrology  of  Tallagh1  inserts  a 
festival  at  the  the  4th  of  September,  in  honour  of  Comen,  Abbot  of  Droma 
Sneachta.  That  copy  of  it  in  the  Book  of  Leinster  contains  a  nearly  similar 
insertion.2  This  place  is  probably  identical  with  Drumsnat,  in  Farney.3 
Fearnmhagh  was  the  ancient  name  of  this  district.  It  is  said  to  mean  "  the 
Alder  Plain  ;"  and,  it  was  the  old  Irish  denomination  for  the  barony  of  Farney, 
in  the  County  of  Monaghan.*  The  Martyrology  of  Donegal5  likewise 
registers  Cummein,  as  Abbot  of  Druim  Sneachta,  and  at  this  date. 


Article   VI. — St.   Senan.      No   account  remains,  whereby  we   may 
determine  the  time  in  which  this  saint  lived,  the  place  he  inhabited,  or  the 


Article  iv. — *  In  the  copy  contained  in  Four  Masters,"  vol.  ii.,  n.  (q),  p.  722. 

the  Book  of  Leinster,  at  this  date,  we  find  9  Edited  by  Drs.  Todd  and  Reeves,  pp. 

Com^elli  .1.  Ooch  ConAir\  236,  237. 

2  See  edition  of  Rev.  Dr.  Kelly,  p.  xxxiii.  I0  So   called  in  the  "Concessio,"  dated 

3  See  an  account  of  him  at  that  date,  in  1198. 

the  Third  Volume  of  this  work,  Ait.  iii.  "  Near  Bray. 

♦The  Rev.  Dr.   Todd  states  in  a  note,  "  See  "  Loca  Patriciana, "  part  x.,  p.  258. 

that  this  inserted  clause  and  identification  Article    v.—1  Edited     by    Rev.    Dr. 

are  added  by  a  second  hand  in  the  O'Clerys'  Kelly,  p.  xxxiii. 

Manuscript.  2  In   this  form,   Commein    4b    "Orvomm 

5  See    "Annals   of   the   Four   Masters,"  SneccAi. 

vol.  i.,  n.  (d),  p.  483.  3  See  the  notices  in  the  Eighth  Volume  of 

6  See  Colgan's  "  Trias  Thaumaturga,"  this  work,  concerning  St.  Molua,  at  the  4th 
Quinta  Appendix  ad  Acta  S.  Patricii,  cap.  day  of  August,  Art.  i.,  Life,  chap,  ii.,  and 
iv.,  p.  231.  nn.  15,  16,  ibid. 

7  Marked  on  the  "Ordnance  Survey  Town-  4  See  "  Dr.  O'Donovan 's  "Annals  of  the 
land  Maps  for   the   County  of  Donegal,"  Four  Masters,"  vol.  i.,  n.  (x).  p.  36. 
sheets  3,  10.  s  Edited  by  Drs.  Todd   and  Reeves,  pp. 

8  See  Dr.  O'Donovan's  "  Annals  of  the  236,  237. 

G 


98  LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS.      September  4. 


rank  to  which  he  attained.  This  is  unhappily  the  case  regarding  many  other 
Irish  saints.  A  festival  in  honour  of  Senan  appears  in  the  published 
Martyrology  of  Tallagh,1  at  the  4th  of  September.  Colgan  omits  the  name 
of  this  holy  man,  by  passing  over  the  same  date,2  where  he  enumerates  those 
saints  bearing  the  same  name  in  our  Irish  Calendars.  In  the  Martyrology 
of  Donegal,3  an  identical  diurnal  entry  is  to  be  found. 


Article  VII. — St.  Sarbile,  Virgin  of  Fochart,  County  of  Louth. 
As  Mary,  mentioned  in  the  Gospel,  loved  to  sit  at  the  feet  of  Jesus,  so  do 
holy  virgins  desire  that  calm  and  rest,  in  which  His  voice  is  best  heard 
speaking  to  their  hearts.  We  find  set  down  in  the  Martyrology  of  Tallagh,1 
at  the  4th  of  September,  that  veneration  was  given  to  Sarbile,  Virgin  of 
Fochairde,  or  Fochart,  in  the  old  district  of  Murtheimhne.2  This  is  now  a 
level  country  in  the  present  County  of  Louth.  It  extends  from  the  River 
Boyne  to  the  Mountains  of  Cuilgne,  or  Carlingford.3  The  Martyrology  of 
Donegal*  simply  records  the  name  Sarbile,  of  Fochard,  at  the  same  date. 
This  may  have  been  the  St.  Orbilia,  Virgin,  whose  Acts  Colgan  had  intended 
to  produce  at  the  present  day,  as  we  have  gathered  from  the  list  of  his 
unpublished  manuscripts.5 


Article  VIII. — St.  Peneux.  {Sixth  Century.]  In  the  sixth  century 
flourished  a  holy  abbot,  who  is  known  in  Bretagne,  as  St.  Peneux,1  His 
feast  is  assigned  to  June  4th,  and  to  September  4th. 

Article  IX.— St.  Aedhan  Amlonn,  possibly  at  Clontarf,  County 
of  Dublin.  The  name,  Aedhan  Amlonn,  is  the  simple  entry  found  in  the 
Martyrology  of  Donegal,1  at  the  4th  of  September.  The  Genealogic 
Sanctilogy 2  records  a  saint  of  this  name,  belonging  to  St.  Brigid's  race,  and 
he  is  said  to  have  been  the  son  of  Lugar,  son  to  Ernin,  son  of  Coel,  son  to 
Aid,  son  of  Sanius,  son  to  Arturus  Corb,  son  of  Cairbre  Niadh,  son  to  Cormac, 
son  of  ^Engus  Menn,  son  of  Eochadh  Finn,  son  to  Fethlimid  Reachtmair, 
King  of  Ireland.  This  saint  was  venerated  at  Cluain  Tarbh — now  possibly 
Clontarf,  County  of  Dublin— either  on  the  27th  of  August,3  or  on  the  4th  of 
September.* 


Article    vi. — 'Edited    by    Rev.    Dr.  "Annals  of  The  Four  Musters,"  vol.  i.,  n. 

Kelly,  p.   xxxiii.     It  is  also  in  that  copy  (u),  p.  10. 

contained   in  the   Book  of   Leinster,  thus,  4  Edited  by  Drs.  Todd  and  Reeves,  pp. 

Senam.  236,  237. 

3  See  "Acta   Sanctorum  Hiberniae,"  viii.  s  See     "  Catalogus    Actuum    Sanctorum 

Martii.      Vita  S.  Senani,  Appendix,  cap.  i.,  quae    MS.    habentur,   ordine    Mensium    et 

p.  541,  {recU)  537.  Dierum." 

3  Edited  by  Drs.  Todd  and    Reeves,  pp.  Article  viil— '  His  Acts  are  to  be  found 

236,  237.     So  he  is  simply  named  Senan,  in  Lobineau's  "  Vies  des  Saints  de  la  Bre- 

in  the  Irish  Ordnance  Survey  MS.  copy  of  tagne,"  tome  i.,  pp.  248  to  250. 

this  Calendar,  p.  75.  Article  IX.— x  Edited  by  Drs.  Todd  and 

Article  vn. — '   Edited    by    Rev.    Dr.  Reeves,  pp.  236,  237. 

Kelly,  p.  xxxiii.  a  Chap.  xiv. 

a  In  the  copy  of  theTallaght  Martyrology,  3  See  notices  of  St.  Aedhan  or  Aidan,  at 

found  in   the   Book   of  Leinster,   we   read  that  day,  in  the  Eighth  Volume  of  this  work, 

Sainbile  Uin.  £och<yirvoe  muin.  Art.  iii. 

3  Dundalk,  Louth,  Druimiskin,  Faughard  *  See    Colgan's    "Trias   Thaumaturga." 

and  Monasterboice  are  mentioned  as  having  Appendix  Quarta  ad  Acta  S.  Brigidae,  cap.  3, 

been  in  this  place.     See  Dr.  O'Donovan's  p.  613. 


September  4.]      LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS.  99 


Article  X.— St.  Failbhe.  In  the  published  Martyrology  of  Tallagh,1 
at  the  4th  of  September,  there  is  a  Feast  for  Failbe  Mac  Ronain,  of  Cluain 
Airbelaig.2  We  have  already  seen,  that  in  the  Martyrology  of  Donegal, 3  this 
saint's  feast  occurs  on  the  1st  day  of  this  month  j  and  again  at  the  4th,  there 
is  a  festival  for  Failbhe.  Some  mistake  or  misplacement  appears  to  have 
occurred  ;  yet,  perhaps,  it  may  be,  that  this  same  saint  had  two  different 
festivals — one  occurring  on  the  1st,  and  the  other  having  been  held  on  the 
4th  of  September. 


Article  XI. — Reputed  Feast  of  St.  Erentrudis,  or  Erentrude, 
Abbess  of  Salzburg.  In  the  Martyrology  of  Greven,  and  also  in  one 
belonging  to  the  Church  of  St.  Martin  in  Treves,  there  is  commemoration  of 
St.  Herentrude,  Virgin,  at  the  4th  of  September.  In  their  notice  of  this  entry, 
the  Bollandists  state,1  that  if  she  be  identical  with  St.  Erentrude,  or  Erendrude, 
Abbess,  and  whose  Translation  had  been  recorded  on  the  previous  day,  the 
reader  may  consult  her  Acts,  at  the  30th  of  June,  which  was  her  chief  festival. 
At  the  same  day,  an  account  of  her  will  be  found  in  this  work.2 


Article  XII.—  St.  Fiachrach.  In  that  copy  of  the  Martyrology  of 
Tallagh,  to  be  found  in  the  Book  of  Leinster,  there  is  the  simple  entry  of 
Fiachruch,1  at  this  date.  This  name  is  omitted,  however,  in  the  published 
copy.*  Moreover,  Fiachrach,  without  any  further  designation,  is  set  down  in 
the  Martyrology  of  Donegal,*  at  the  4th  of  September. 


Article  XIII. — Reputed  Commemoration  or  Canonization  of  St. 
Swibert,  or  Suitbert,  Bishop  and  Apostle  of  the  Frisons  and  of  the 
Boructuarians.  The  supposed  Canonization  of  St.  Swibert,  or  Suitbert, 
Bishop  of  Verden,  is  placed  by  Greven,  at  the  4th  of  September.1  However, 
it  is  called  the  commemoration — and  by  a  better  title — in  the  German 
Martyrology  of  Canisius.  Allusion  is  made  to  this  reputed  Feast,  by  the 
Bollandists,  at  this  date.2  The  Life  of  St.  Swibert,  or  Suitbert,  has  been 
already  given,  at  the  1st  of  March, 3  the  day  for  his  chief  Festival. 


Article  XIV. — Reputed  Feast  of  St.  Veran,  Confessor,  at  Rheims, 
France.  \ Sixth  Century].  Already  have  we  mentioned  Veran  as  one  of 
the  holy  brothers,  that  accompanied  St.  Gibrian1  from  Ireland,  when  he  went 


Article  x. — '  Edited  by  Rev.  Dr.  Kelly,  taken  place,  in  the  year  803  ;  Pope  Leo  III. 

p.  xxxiii.  being  Pontiff,  and  in  the  presence  of  Charle- 

2  Also  in  that  copy  contained  in  the  Book  magne,    according   to   Wion,    Dorgan   and 
of  Leinster  is  the  entry  of  polbe  niAc  Konin,  Menard.     This  relation,  however,  is  proved 

■  at  this  date.  to  be  apocryphal,  by  the  Bollandists,  as  may 

3  Edited  by   Drs.  Todd  and  Reeves,  pp.  be   seen  in  the  commentary  prefixed  to  the 
236»  237-  Life  of  St.  Luger,  first  Bishop  of  Minister, 

Article  xi.—  x  See   "Acta  Sanctorum  in  Westphalia,  at  the  26th  day  of  March, 

Septembris,"  tomus  ii.     Among  the  preter-  sect.  7,  8. 

mittcd  saints,  p.  3.  2  See     "Acta    Sanctorum    Septembris." 

2  See  the  Sixth  Volume,  Art.  i.  tomus  ii.    Die  Quarta  Septembris.    Among 

Article  xii.  —  «  Thus  :   pAchraicri  the  pretermitted  Feasts,  p.  2. 

2  Edited  by  Rev.  Dr.  Kelly.  3  See  the  Third  Volume  of  this  work,  Art.  ii. 

3  Edited  by  Drs.  Todd  and  Reeves,    pp.  Article  xiv. — l  See  his  Life,  at  the  8th 
236,  237.  of  May,  in  the  Fifth  Volume  of  this  work, 

Article  xiil—  «  This  is  stated  to  have  Art.  ii. 


ioo  LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS.       [September  5. 


to  preach  the  Gospel  in  France.  He  was  buried  at  a  village  called  Matusgum, 
and  there  his  relics  were  greatly  venerated.2  According  to  Camerarius,3  he 
had  a  Feast,  on  the  4th  of  September,  as  the  Bollandists  observe,  at  this  same 
day.*  However,  his  festival  is  placed,  at  the  3rd  of  December,  by  Ferrarius 
and  Saussay. 


Article  XV. — Reputed  Festival  of  St.  Anatolius,  Bishop  of 
Salins,  France.  According  to  Ferrarius,1  the  memory  of  St.  Anatolius  was 
observed  in  the  Diocese  of  Besangon,  in  France,  on  the  4th  of  September.2 
We  have  already  treated  about  him,  at  the  3rd  of  February,  the  day  for  his 
chief  Feast.3 


jftftf)  2Bap  of  September. 


ARTICLE    I.— ST.    ALTO,  FOUNDER  AND   ABBOT   OF    ALTMUNSTER.  IN 

BAVARIA. 

[EIGHTH  CENTURY.] 

LIKE  the  sun,  which  sends  forth  many  bright  and  burning  rays  to  light 
and  warm  the  land  and  water  of  his  most  distant  and  subjective 
planets,  so  as  there  to  spread  and  spend  their  force  ;  so  has  Ireland,  as  a 
centre  of  spiritual  effulgence  and  vitality,  despatched  her  missionaries  through 
the  early  Christian  ages,  to  kindle  and  inflame  the  cold  and  unregenerate 
souls  of  benighted  heathens  and  sinful  men,  in  countries  far  removed  from 
her  own  shores  ;  while  that  spirit  has  been  preserved  and  extended  in  after 
times,  and  even  to  our  own  day,  in  the  multitude  of  holy  men  and  women, 
who  have  parted  from  their  country  and  family  ties,  to  diffuse  glad  tidings  and 
blessings  in  other  climes,  where  their  bodies  now  repose,  and  whence  they 
shall  arise  glorified  on  the  Day  of  General  Judgment. 

Already,  at  the  9th  day  of  February,  a  Feast  of  St.  Alto,  Bishop  and 
Founder  of  Altmunster,  in  Bavaria,  has  been  commemorated  in  the  Second 
Volume  of  this  work,1  and  there  a  reference  for  fuller  particulars  regarding 
him  has  been  deferred  to  the  5th  day  of  September.  Again,  we  record  at  the 
5th  of  August,  some  notices  of  festivals,  referred  by  Thomas  Dempster2  to 
the  7th  of  February,  as  also  to  the  5th  of  August,  together  with  a  fabled 
account  of  writings  attributed  to  him.3  Nearly  all  the  later  accounts 
regarding  St.  Alto  have  been  taken  from  a  Life,  written  in  the  tenth  century 
by  an  anonymous  author.     The  Acts  of  St.  Alto,  said  to   have  existed  in 


2  A  remarkable  miracle,  as  already  related,  "Acta  Sanctorum  Septembris,"  tomus  ii. 
took  place  at  his  tomb,  and  it  is  likewise  Die  Quarta  Septembris.  Among  the  preter- 
vecorded  in  Flodoard's  "  Historia  Rhemen-  mitted  Saints,  p.  2. 

sis,"  lib.  iv.,  cap.  ix.  3  See  the  Second  Volume  of  this  work, 

3  See   at   this  date,   in   his  work,    "  De  Art.  i. 

Scotorum  Pietate,"  lib.  iii.  Article  i. — '  See  Article  xiii. 

4  See  "Acta  Sanctorum  Septembris,"  2  See  "Historia  Ecclesiastica  Gentis 
tomus  ii.  Die  Quarta  Septembris.  Among  Scotorum,"  tomus  i.,  lib.  i.,  num.  ii.,  pp.  n, 
the  pretermitted  Saints,  p.  3.                      .12. 

Article  xv. — ■  In  " Catalogus Generalis  3  See  Colgan's  "Acta  Sanctorum  Hiber- 

Sanctorum."  nia?,"  Februarii  ix.      De  S.  Altone  Abbate. 

2  The   Bollandists   notice    this  entry   in  n.  6,  p.  302. 


September  5.]     LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS 


Bavaria,*  especially  in  Lessons  of  his  office  as  Patron  of  Altmunster,  were  not 
accessible  to  Colgan,  who  has  compiled  from  other  authorities  illustrations 
of  his  life,  at  the  9th  of  February.5  This  holy  /nan  is  found  classed  among 
the  Benedictine  saints.6  His  Acts  are  written,  with  previous  observation,  in 
eleven  paragraphs, 7  and  illustrated  with  notes.8  It  is  there  stated,  that  he 
lived  about  the  year  770.  On  the  5th  of  September,  the  Annals  of  the 
Cistercian  Monks, 9  and  divers  other  chronicles,  commemorate  St.  Alto.  In 
the  "Antiquae  Lectiones,"  Henricus  Canisius  has  special  reference  to  St. 
Alto.10  The  Bollandists11  have  given  his  Acts,13  with  a  previous  commentary,1' 
at  the  9th  day  of  February,  reputed  to  have  been  his  principal  feast.  The 
Petits  Bollandistes  I4  notice  his  festival,  at  this  date,  as  a  Scot  venerated  in 
England ;  although  generally  honoured  in  Germany,  on  the  9th  of  February.15 

He  is  called  a  Scot,  by  all  the  German  Martyrologists  and  Chroniclers, 
and,  therefore,  reputed  to  have  been  an  Irishman  by  birth,  like  many  other 
saints  thus  designated,  at  the  period  when  he  flourished.  He  was  born  in 
Scotia,  a  little  before  or  possibly  soon  after  the  commencement  of  the  eighth 
century;  and,  as  the  English  Martyrology  states,  he  descended  from  a  noble 
stock  in  that  country.  The  anonymous  writer  of  his  Acts  states,  that  his 
name  Alto,  in  the  German  language,  has  been  derived  from  the  circumstance 
of  his  having  been  born  of  an  ancient  family  ;  so  that  his  original  Celtic  name 
— now  unknown  to  us — may  have  been  altogether  a  different  one.  However, 
from  earliest  youth,  he  was  accustomed  to  observe  the  Law  of  God,  and  to 
meditate  on  it,  both  by  day  and  night.  The  ancient  records  of  Bavaria 
relate,  that  like  the  ancient  Patriarch  Abraham,  a  voice  from  heaven  came 
to  admonish  him  that  he  should  leave  his  own  country,  and  seek  that. of  the 
Boii,16  over  which  Pepin,  the  King  of  the  Franks,  is.  said  to  have  ruled. x? 
This  celebrated  man,  having  established  a  supremacy  over  Germany,  began 
his  reign,  a.d.  750,  and  having  died  on  the  23rd  of  September,  a.d.  768,18 
he  was  succeeded  by  his  still  more  celebrated  son,  Charles,  better  known  as 
Charlemagne. 

For  the  scene  of  his  future  exercises,  on  arriving  in  Bavaria,10  St.  Alto 
sought  a   wood,20   near  the    present    city  of   Augsburg.21      There,  without 


4  The  anonymous  writer  of  St.  Alto's  Life  *3  In   two  sections,  and  in  eleven  para  - 

lived  in  the  tenth  century.     See  Mabillon's  graphs. 

"Annales  Ordinis  S.  Benedicti,"  tomus  ii.,  I4  See  "Les   Vies  des  Saints,"  tome  x., 

lib.  xxi.,  num.  Ixxvii.,  p.  122.  Jour  v?  de  Septembre,  p.  488. 

s  See     "Acta     Sanctorum    Hibemiae,"  l5  At  this  date,  the  Petits  Bollandistes  have 

Februarii  ix.     De  S.  Altone  Abbate  Alto-  noted  :  "En  Baviere,  Saint  Alton,  AbbeV' — 

Monasterii  in  Bavaria,  pp.  301,  302.  Ibid,  tome  ii.,  Jour  ix,  de  Fevrier,  p.  404. 

6  See  "Acta  Sanctorum  Ordinis  S.  Bene-  l6  "  Ita  cordi  mere  Numine  semper  Boii." 
dicti,"  seculum  iii.  Pars  ii.  Ab.  A.D.  700  — Mattheus  Rader's  "  Bavaria  Sancta,"  lib. 
to  800.     Tomus  iv.  ii.,  p.  115. 

7  See  pp.  217  to  220.  I?  However,  by  some  it  has  been  supposed 

8  They  are  headed,  Vita   Sancti   Altonis  that  Alto  arrived  in  Germany,  before  Pepin 
Abbatis    in    Bajoaria    Superiore,    Auctore  had  commenced  his  reign  there. 
Monacho  Altomonasteriensi  Anonymo,  sse-  ,8  For   the  particulars   of  his  reign,  see 
culo  ix.,  ex  num.  9  and   II.     Ex  tomo  2.  "  The  Modern  Part  of  an  Universal  History, 
Metrop.  Salisb.  et  Februario  Bollandiano.  from  the  earliest   Accounts  to  the  present 

9  See  this  work,  at  the  5th  of  September,  Time,"  vol.  xix.  The  History  of  France, 
p.  408.  chap,  lxviii.,  sect,  ii.,  pp.  274  to  286,  London, 

10  See  vol.  i.,  pp.  181  and  183.  1782,  8vo. 

11  See  "Acta  Sanctorum,"  tomus  ii.  I9  The  anonymous  writer  of  St.  Alto's  Life 
Februarii  ix.  De  S.  Altone  Abbate  in  states,  that  this  province  was  "  infra  Austra 
Bavaria  Superiore,  pp.  358  to  361.  lem  plagam  Germanise  positam." 

12  From  the  Life,  by  an  anonymous  writer,  20  "  Ubi  syluam  ingressus  pari  fere  in- 
who  lived  over  600  years  before  their  time.  teruallo  Augusta  Vindelicorum  et  Monachio 
It  is  in  eleven  paragraphs,  with  notes.  distantem,  propriorem  tamen  Augusts,  et  ad 


LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS.      [September  5. 


requiring  any  thing  from  others,  he  laboured  to  supply  the  necessaries  of 
life  with  his  own  hands.22  His  spirit  of  disinterestedness  and  piety  caused 
him  to  be  greatly  reverenced  by  the  inhabitants.  The  religious,  also,  felt  a 
great  interest  regarding  the  objects  he  had  in  view,  and  failed  not  often  to 
visit  and  assist  him.  Alto  had  embraced  an  eremitical  life,  and  lived  as  a 
pilgrim  near  a  fountain.^  This  he  is  said  to  have  miraculously  produced 
from  the  earth.2* 

It  is  stated ,2s  that  moved  with  the  fame  of  his  sanctity,  King  Pipin  gave 
him  a  great  part  of  that  forest,  in  which  he  dwelt.  According  to  Mabillon,26 
this  was  rather  the  gift  of  Charlemagne,  and  he  places  the  coming  of  our  saint 
to  Bavaria,  under  the  year  743.  Cutting  down  a  great  part  of  the  trees, 
Alto  founded  his  church  and  monastery,  some  time  about  the  middle  of  the 
eighth  century.2?  To  effect  these  works,  the  neighbouring  inhabitants,  who 
admired  the  sanctity  of  his  life,  generously  aided,  and  freely  bestowed  gifts.28 
Alto  soon  collected  around  him  a  number  of  religious,  and  he  became  their 
spiritual  director.  His  religious  ccenobium  had  the  honour  of  being 
consecrated,  and  his  fountain  was  blessed,2?  by  the  holy  and  illustrious 
Archbishop  St.  Boniface,*0  the  Apostle  of  Germany.*1  It  is  related,  that  he 
had  a  Divine  revelation  to  perform  this  religious  ceremony.  He  desired, 
moreover,  to  impose  an  obligation  on  St.  Alto,  that  women  should  be 
excluded  the  precincts  of  his  church  and  monastery.  To  this  our  saint 
objected,  and  offered  such  reasons  as  induced  St.  Boniface  to  yield  assent 
to  his  prayer ;  although  he  interdicted  women  from  all  approach  to  the 
holy  well.  This  religious  establishment  took  its  name,  Alt-munster,*2  from 
the  founder.  Ferrarius  has  made  this  saint  Abbot  of  Salzburg,33  but  this 
statement  does  not  appear  to  be  elsewhere  substantiated. 

The  holy  anchorite  lived  in  the  forest  of  Bavaria,  and  near  his  favourite 
fountain,  where  now  stands  the  monastery  of  Altmunster.  Contemporaneous 
or  nearly  such  with  St.  Alto  were  many  of  the  illustrious  Irish  missionaries, 
that  spread  the  Gospel  throughout  Germany,  and  among  those  are  enumerated, 
St.  Boniface^  St.  Virgil,3S  St.  Rupert^6  St.  Erentrude,37  St.  Trudbert,38  St. 

sinistram  Monachium  petcnti,  sitam." — Mat-  740  and  760.     See   "  Annales  Boicorum," 

thaeus  Rader's  "Bavaria   Sancla,"  lib.  ii.,  pars  i.,  lib.  v.,  num.  10. 

p.  115.  a8  The  old  writer  of  his  Acts  states,  "ex 

21  Formerly  known  as  Augusta  Vindeli-  oblatione  fidelium  quotidie  ad  eum  confluen- 
corum.  It  is  now  the  Capital  of  the  Bava-  tium  substantia  rerum  victualium  feliciter 
rian  circle  of  the  Upper  Danube.  For  a  excrevisset,  &c."— "  Acta  Sanctorum  Ordinis 
historical  and  descriptive  account  of  this  S.  Benedicti,"  tomus  iv.,  pars  ii.,  p.  218. 
city,  the  reader  is  referred  to  the  '*  Penny  29  According  to  the  English  Marty  tology 
Cyclopaedia  "  of  Charles   Knight,  vol.  iii.,  and  Rader. 

pp.  86,  87.  30  See  his  Life,  at  the  5th  of  June,  in  the 

22  See  '*  Acta  Sanctorum  Ordinis   Sancti  Sixth  Volume  of  this  work,  Art.  i. 
Benedicti,"  tomus  iv.,  pars  ii.     Vita  Sancti  3I  "  Basilicam  dedicaturus  Bonifacius,  earn 
Altonis,  num.  1,  p.  218.  more  solito  feminis  interdictam  volebat :   at 

23  According  to  Wiguleus  Hundius,  in  repugnanti  Altoni,  assensit  ea  conditione, 
"  Metropolis  Salisburgensis,''  p.  185.  ut  ad  fontem  quemdam  basilicas  proximum 

24  In  Rader's  "  Bavaria  Sancta,"  tomus  i.,  nulli  mulieri  accedere  liceret."— Mabillon's 
there  is  a  picture  of  St.  Alto,  and  the  follow-  "  Annales  Ordinis  S.  Benedicti,"  tomus  ii., 
ing  distich  announces  the  manner,  in  which  lib.  xxi.,  num.  lxxvii.,  p.  122. 

the  miracle  had  been  wrought : —  3*  Rendered  Alto's  Monastery. 

»  Cui  pulsata  pedo  sitienti  praebuit  vndam  nf  ^Ju^K!?.  GeneraHS  Sanct0rum'" 

Etfluxit  largo  flumine  dura  silex."  at  the  9th  of  February. 

s  34  Apostle  of  Germany,  and  whose  feast  is 

2s  By  Rader.  held  on  the  5th  of  June. 

26  See  "Annales  Ordinis  S.  Benedicti,"  3S  Bishop  of  Saltzburgh,  venerated  at  the 
tomus  ii.,  lib.  xxi.,  num.  lxxvii.,  p.  122.  27th  of  November. 

27  According    to    Andreas  Brunner,    this  36  Venerated  at  the  27th  of  March, 
foundation  was  effected  between  the  years  37  Venerated  at  the  30th  of  June. 


Septkmber  5.]       LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS.  103 


Vitalis,39  St.  Cuniald,40  St.  Gizilar,<n  St.  Marianus  and  St.  Anianus,*2  St. 
Erard,«  St.  Albert,"  St.  Martinus  and  St.  Declan.*5  It  is  probable,  that  with 
several  of  the  foregoing,  St.  Alto  had  been  linked  in  bonds  of  Christian 
brotherhood/6  At  Altmunster  he  resided,  and  he  became  illustrious  for  the 
miracles  there  wrought.*?  Many  of  these  were  committed  to  writing  at  an 
early  period,  but  they  had  been  taken  away  furtively,  so  that  the  anonymous 
writer  of  his  Acts  in  the  tenth  century  remarks,  his  readers  should  not 
wonder  if  so  few  of  the  saint's  miracles  were  unrecorded  in  his  own  tract. 
According  to  the  English  Martyrology,  Alto  is  thought  to  have  died,  about 
the  year  of  Christ,  760.  In  Altmunster,  and  in  Frisingen,  St.  Alto  is 
honoured  with  a  public  office,  on  the  9th  of  February.  This  is  supposed  to 
have  been  the  day  of  his  dying  upon  earth/8  to  be  born  in  heaven/s  One 
of  the  chief  benefactors  of  St.  Alto's  foundation  is  said  to  have  been  Etico, 
Count  of  the  Licatii,50  a  tribe  of  the  Vindelici,  dwelling  on  the  River  Licias 
or  Licus,51  from  which  their  name  has  been  derived.52  There  he  is  said  to 
have  placed  a  community  of  religious  men.  He  flourished  about  one 
hundred  years  after  the  time  of  St.  Alto,  and  he  was  brother  to  Judith,  the 
wife  of  Louis  the  Pious,  King  of  France. 

During  the  lapse  of  time,  the  rapine  of  various  dynasts  brought  ruin  on 
the  foundation  of  St.  Alto,  which  was  nearly  destroyed,  until  Guelph,s3  Duke 
of  Bavaria,  restored  it  once  more,5*  and  brought  a  colony  of  Benedictine 
religious  to  settle  there.55  Again,  the  buildings  fell  into  decay,  when  in  the 
year  1487,  George,  Duke  of  Bavaria,  rebuilt  the  establishment,  and  introduced 
a  community  of  nuns,  who  observed  the  strict  rule  of  St.  Brigid.56  The 
anonymous  list  of  Irish  Saints,  published  by  O'Sullevan  Beare  records  Alpho, 
at  the  5th  of  September.  Also  in  the  "  Menologium  Scoticum  "  of  Thomas 
Dempster,  this  festival  is  entered.5?     It  has  been  conjectured,  that  this  must 

38  His  feast  occurs  on  the  27th  of  April.  s3  Also  called  Welf,  or  Welpho,  from  the 

39  Venerated  on  the  20th  or  24th  of  Octo-  Teutonic  word  Welf,  rendered  into  Latin  by 
ber.  the  word  "  Catulus,"  and  pronounced  by  the 

40  Venerated  at  Saltzburgh,  on  the  24th  of  Belgians  Welp,  or  Wulp.     Various  opinions 
September.  have  been  held  regarding  the  origin  of  that 

41  Venerated  at  Saltzburgh,  on  the  24th  of  name.     In  later  ages,  the  Guelphs  sustained 
September.  the  rights  of  the   Apostolic   See   in  Italy, 

42  Venerated  on  the  24th  of  November.  against  the  powerful  faction   of  the  Gibel 

43  Venerated  on  the  8th  of  January.  lines.     Weingarten  has  written  a  work,  "  De 

44  Venerated  on  the  8th  of  January.  Guelfis  Principibus. " 

4s  Venerated  on  the  1st  of  December.  54  A    curious    tradition   is  given   by   the 

46  See  Colgan's  "Acta  Sanctorum  Hiber-  anonymous  writer  of  our  Saint's  Acts  regard- 

nise,"  Februarii  ix.     De  S.  Altone  Abbate  ing  the  apparition  of  Alto   to   enforce  the 

Alto-Monasterii  in  Bavaria,"  and  nn.  3,  4,  necessity  for  this  restoration. 

5,  pp.  301,  302.  5S  Mabillon  states  :  **  Direptum  a  quodam 

4?  This  account,  Rader  obtained  from  the  Alamannise  seu  Sueviae  comite  monasterium, 

monastery  itself.      See  "  Bavaria   Sancta,"  seculo  decimo  instauratum  est,  traditumque 

lib.  ii.,  p.  115.  aliquanto  post  tempore  Altorfiensibus  sancti- 

48  It  is  noted  in  the  dyptics  of  Altmunster,  monialibus     Benedictinis,    quae    coenobium 
according  to  Rader.  suum.    Alto-monasteriensibus  monachis  ces- 

49  See    Bishop     Challoner's    "  Brittania  serunt     Altorfio     deinde      in      paraecialem 
Sancta,"  part  ii.,  pp.  1 19,  120.  ecclesiam    commutato,  Altorfienses  in    no- 

s°  Pliny  calls  them  Licates,  and  enumerates  vum  Weingartense  Monasterium  translati  : 

them  among  the  Alpine  tribes  subdued  by  ac  demum    saeculo    quinto-decimo  Altonis 

Augustus.   See  "HistoriaNaturalis,"lib.  iii.,  monasterium  Brigittanis  concessum  est." — 

cap.  24.  "Annates  Ordinis  S.  Benedicti,"  tomus  ii., 

s1  Now  the  River  Lech.    Strabo  calls  their  lib.  xxi.,  num.  lxxvii.,  p.  122. 
town   Damasia,   and  he   mentions  them  as         56  At  the  time  when  Rader  wrote,  that 

being  the  most  audacious  of  the  Videlicean  community  was  in  a  flourishing  state.     See 

tribes.     Lib.  iv.  "Bavaria  Sancta,"  lib.  ii.,  p.  115. 

s2  See  Dr.  William  Smith's  "  Dictionary  of        57  See    Bishop    Forbes'    "Kalendars    of 

Greek  and  Roman  Geography,"  vol.  ii.,p.  182.  Scottish  Saints,"  p.  210. 


io4 


LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS.      [September  5. 


have  been  a  festival  to  commemorate  some  translation  of  his  relics.*8  The 
English  Martyrology  and  Henry  Fitzsimons,  at  this  same  date,  enter  a  feast 
for  St.  Altho.59    The  Bollandists  also  notice  this  festival,60  in  their  great  work. 

Article  II. — St.  Faithleann,  possibly  of  Innisfallen,  County  of 
Kerry.  At  the  5th  of  September,  the  name  of  St.  Faithleann  occurs  in  the 
Irish  Calendars.1  The  name  Faithlenn  Deochoin,  or  Deacon,  without  further 
designation,  appears  in  the  published  Martyrology  of  Tallagh,2  at  5th  of 
September.3  From  this  we  can  only  infer,  that  he  flourished,  at  an  early 
period.     It  has  been  suggested,*  that  he  may  be  Faithlenn,  Deacon,  son  to 


[nnisfallen  Oratory,  Lower  Lake  of  Killarney. 
Aedh  Domhain,  of  Munster,  and  sprung  from  the  race  of  Core,  son  to 
Lughaidh,  son  of  Oilill  Flannbeg,  who  was  son  of  Fiacha  Muilleathan,  son  to 
Eoghan  Mor,  son  of  Oilill  Olum.  Yet,  it  would  seem,  the  later  calendarists 
had  some  doubt  regarding  Faithleen  having  been  correctly  identified  as 
Deacon,  son  of  Aedh  Damhain.  Inis-Faithlenn,s  now  known  as  Innisfallen, 
on  the  Lower  Lake  of  Killarney,  is  thought  to  have  been  named  from  him.6 
There  are  still  the  remains  of  an  ancient  oratory  1  to  be  seen  on  the  margin 


58  See  Colgan's  "Acta  Sanctorum  Hiber- 
nise,"  Februarii  ix.  De  S.  Altone  Abbate 
Alto-Monasterii  in  Bavaria,  n.  8,  p.  302. 

59  See  O'Sullevan  Beare's  "  Historic  Catho- 
licse  Ibemiae  Compendium,"  tomus  i., lib.  iv., 
cap.  xi.,  xii.,  pp.  50,  52. 

°°  See  "  Acta  Sanctorum,"  tomus  ii.,  Sep- 
tembris  v.  Among  the  pretermitted  feasts, 
p.  486. 

Article  ii.-— 1  At  this  date,  his  feast  is  set 
down  in  a  MS.  Calendar  of  Professor  Eugene 
O'Curry. 

3  Edited  by  Rev.  Dr.  Kelly,  p.  xxxiii. 


3  In  that  copy  contained  in  the  Book  of 
Leinster  is  found  £41  ch lean  'Oechoin. 

4  By  the  O'Clerys. 

5  Pronounced  Inish-Fah-len. 

6  The  reader  is  referred  to  what  has  been 
already  written  regarding  it,  at  the  7th  of 
April,  in  the  Fourth  Volume  of  this  work, 
Art.  i.,  where  the  Acts  of  St.  Finan,  Patron 
and  Abbot  of  Kinnety,  King's  County,  are 
written,  chap.  ii. 

7  With  the  Acts  of  St.  Finan,  there  is  an 
illustration  of  the  ancient  oratory  of  Innis- 
fallen given.     From  a  different  point  of  view, 


September  5.]     LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS.  105 


of  that  beautiful  and  fertile  island.8  In  the  beginning  of  the  present  century, 
the  ruins  of  an  abbey,  situated  at  the  north-eastern  extremity  of  Innisfallen, 
were  much  more  extensive.  The  church,  which  consisted  of  a  single  aisle, 
was  seventy  feet  in  length,  by  twenty  wide.  The  architecture  of  the  cloister, 
and  what  seemed  to  have  been  the  apartments  of  the  monks,  were  rude, 
without  sculptured  ornaments,  lofty  arches  or  spacious  windows.  The 
cloister  was  only  thirty-eight  feet  square,  and  though  its  walls  were  very  much 
dilapidated,  the  limits  of  its  covered  walk  and  the  apertures  to  the  interior 
area  might  be  distinctly  traced. 9  By  a  monk  of  this  abbey,  the  Annals  of 
Innisfallen  are  said  to  have  been  written,  about  the  year  1216.  However, 
there  seems  to  be  good  reason  for  supposing,  they  had  been  commenced,  at 
least  two  centuries  before  that  period ;  and  a  tradition  has  always  existed  in 
the  South  of  Ireland,  that  a  learned  man,  named  Maelsuthain  O'Cearbhaill,10 
had  originally  composed  those  Annals.11  The  Four  Masters  assign  his  death 
to  a.d.  1009. I2  The  foundation  of  a  religious  house  at  Innisfallen  is  usually 
attributed  to  St.  Finan  Lobhar,^  in  the  latter  part  of  the  sixth  century.  The 
present  saint  is  mentioned  in  the  Martyrology  of  Donegal  **  as  simply 
Faithlenn,  at  the  5th  day  of  September. 


Article  III. — St.  Eolang,  said  to  have  been  of  Aghaboe,  Queen's 
County,  yet  probably  of  Aghabollogue,  County  of  Cork.  This  holy 
man  must  have  lived  during  an  early  century  of  Christianity  in  the  Irish 
Church,  since  his  name  has  been  entered  in  the  Calendar  of  Oengus,  where 
he  is  designated  a  "fair  pillar "  and  a  "victory  of  piety."1  The  published 
Martyrology  of  Tallagh2  mentions,  and  also  the  copy  in  the  Book  of  Leinster,3 
that,  at  the  5th  of  September,  veneration  was  given  to  Eolang,  of  Achaid-bo. 
This  is  the  celebrated  Aghaboe,  a  parish  in  the  barony  of  Clarmallagh,  and 
in  the  southern  part  of  the  Queen's  County.  In  the  Martyrology  of  Donegal ,« 
at  the  same  date,  he  is  recorded  as  Eolang,   of  Achadh-bo-Cainnigh,  in 


and  taken  from  a  photograph,  Mr.   Gregor  the  Manuscript  Materials  of  Ancient  Irish 

Grey  has  drawn  the  present  illustration  on  History,"  Lect.  iv.,  p.  79, 

the  wood,  also  engraved  by  him.  "  At  this  year  is  entered  :  "  Maelsuthain 

8  Isaac  Weld  thus  writes:  "This  little  Ua  Cearbhaill  [one]  of  the  family  of  Inis- 
building  has,  within  a  few  years,  been  fitted  Faithleann,  chief  doctor  of  the  western  world 
up  as  a  place  of  entertainment,,  under  the  in  his  time,  and  lord  of  Eoghanacht  of  Loch- 
pompous  appellation  of  the  banqueting-  Lein,  died  after  a  good  life."— Dr.  O'Dono- 
house.  The  walls  at  the  inside  have  been  van's  "  Annals  of  the  Four  Masters,"  vol.  ii., 
smoothly    plastered    and     whitened ;    two  p.  761. 

modern  bow- windows  have  been  opened  to  13  See  his  Life,  already  given  at  the  1 6th 

the  north  and  south,  and  the  floor  has  been  of  March,  in  the  Third  Volume  of  this  work, 

boarded.  One  cannot  but  deplore  the  frivolity  Art   j      There,  likewise,  may  be  found  two 

of  that   taste  which   has  thus  injudiciously  diflferent  views  of  the  ruined  oratory  on  Innis- 

metamorphosed  it.     The  changes  which  are  fanen.     See  chap  i 

effected  by  time  command  our  reverence  and  M  ^^  ,     Drs    Todd  and   ReeveSf  pp. 

dispose  the  soul  to  contemplation  ;  but  those  g       _          J 

discordant  alterations  of  the  works  of  ancient  article  III.—1  See  "  Transactions  of  the 

days  untune  the  mind    and  interrupt   that  R      ,    Irish    Academy,"   Irish   Manuscript 

course  of  thought  which  the  remains  of  anti-  Se/ies   yoL  •           t  L     Qn  the  Calendar  of 

quity  are  calculated  to  inspire.  — "  Illustra-  Q            b    Whitley  Stokes,  LL.D..  p.  cxxxvi. 

tions  of  the  Scenery  of  Killarney  and  the  ThebSchoiiast  m  the  Leabhar  Breac  adds, 

Surrounding  Country,    sect,  ii.,  pp.  128,  129.  that  he  belonged  to  Achad  Bo,  of  Cainnech, 

London,  1812,  8vo  in  Ossory.     See  ibid.,  p.  cxliii. 

4leltwa?d02S  "Chronological  -  '  Edited  by  the  Rev.  Dr.  Kelly,  p.  xxxiii- 

Account    of   nearly   Four    Hundred     Irish  3  Thus  inserted,  eoUn5  AcAvobo. 

Writers,"  p.  lxx.  4  Edited  by  Drs.  Todd  and   Reeves,  pp. 

11  See  Professor  O'Curry's  "  Lectures   on  236,  237. 


io6  LIVES  OF   THE  IRISH  SAINTS.       [September  5. 


Osraighe.  The  O'Clerys  state,  that  he  was  descended  from  the  race  of 
Conaire,  son  to  Moghlamha,  Monarch  of  Erin,  according  to  the  poem 
beginning,  "The  Saint-History  of  the  Saints  of  Inis  Fail."  After  the  entry 
of  this  holy  man's  name  in  the  last-mentioned  calendar,  a  space  is  left,  as  if 
to  supply  a  notice  of  his  ecclesiastical  rank,  when  that  might  have  been 
better  ascertained.  However,  such  identification  of  his  locality  seems  to  be 
more  than  doubtful,  since  Mr.  William  M.  Hennessy  states  :s  "  There  is  a 
Tober  Eolang,  near  Aghabollogue,6  County  of  Cork,  where  Eolang' s  name 
is  venerated  at  the  5th  of  September."  In  the  table  appended  to  the 
Martyrology  of  Donegal, 7  this  saint's  name  is  Latinised  Eulogius.  Among 
the  abbots  or  religious  of  Aghaboe,  as  entered  in  the  Irish  Annals,  the  name 
of  Eolang  does  not  occur. 


Article  IV. — St.  Brecc-buaid  or  Bricin,  said  to  have  been  ofTuaim- 
Dreacain,  now  Toomregan,  County  of  Cavan.  In  the  Calendar  of  St. 
^ngus,1  there  is  a  commemoration  of  Brecc-buaid,  who  was  called  forth  from 
Ireland.  It  occurs  at  this  date.  A  comment  is  found  affixed,2  which  very 
fairly  gives  us  to  understand,  that  the  scholiast  had  no  precise  knowledge 
regarding  the  saint  there  recorded.  It  may  be  observed  here — once  for  ail- 
that  the  O'Clerys  are  too  apt,  in  following  the  authority  of  this  scribe,  to 
suppose  that  he  is  always  reliable,  and  frequently  they  assume,  that  his 
conjectures  in  notes  on  the  Calendar  of  ^Engus  may  be  resolved  into  state- 
ments to  be  accepted.  Accordingly,  in  the  Martyrology  of  Donegal,3  we  find 
set  down  at  the  5th  of  September,  a  festival  in  honour  of  Bricin.     A  space  is 

left  there  for  an  insertion ,  the  compiler  of  the  Calendar  having  been 

uncertain  whether  Bricin  should  be  classed  as  a  bishop  or  as  a  priest/ 
It  is  remarkable,  that  in  the  Scottish  Kalendar  of  Dru,mmond,  he  is 
noticed  as  a  Confessor,  and  belonging  to  Ireland. s  According  to  the 
calendarist,  Bricin  is  said  to  have  been  of  Tuaim  Dreacain,  in  Breifne  of 
Connaught.  But,  immediately  afterwards,  he  adds,  it  is  in  Breifne  Ui 
Raghallaigh.6  The  place  of  this  saint  has  been  anglicised  as  Toomregan. 
In  the  County  of  Cavan,  there  is  a  parish  so  called,?  and  a  part  of  which 


s  In  a  MS.  note  to  his  copy  of  the  Mar-  2  The  Irish  is  thus  rendered  into  English 

tyrology  of  Donegal,  lent  to  the  writer.  by  Dr.  Whitley  Stokes  :  "  Briccine  of  Tuaim 

0  A  parish  in  the  Barony  of  East  Mus-  Drecoin,  in  Brefne  of  Connaught,  I  reckon, 

kerry,  in  the  West  Riding  of  Cork.     It  is  Or  'with  Breccbuaid,'  i.e.,  various  victory, 

described  on  the  "  Ordnance  Survey  Town-  i  c,  men  and  women  giving  him  victory, 

land  Maps  for  the  County  of  Cork,"  sheets  namely,  in  undergoing  Martyrdom  together 

49,  60,  61,  71,  72.  with  him,  for  thai  is  a  victory  to  him,  since 

^  Edited  by  Rev.  Drs.  Todd  and  Reeves,  he   it  is   that   preached   unto  them    God's 

pp.  410,411.  word." — Ibid.,  p.  cxliii. 

Article  iv.— '  In  that  copy  found  in  the  3  Edited  by  Rev.  Drs.  Todd  and  Reeves, 

Leabhar  Breac  we  find  :—  pp.  136,  137- 

*  Note  by  Rev.  Dr.  Todd. 

La  br*ecbu4it>  ■oopiume  5  See     Bishop    Forbes'    "  Kalendars    of 

UorxogpAX)  ahero  Scottish  Saints,"  p.  23. 

eoUng  caro  cam  Ai$e  °  A   note   by   Dr.    Reeves   states   at    Ui 

dchATo  bo  buaiT>  ler\i.  Raghalliagh,   "or  East  Breifne,  as    distin- 
guished from  bneipne  111  Uuai^c,  or  West 

Thus  iranslated  by  Whitley  Stokes,   LL.D.  :  Mreifne." 

"With  Breccbuaid,  who   was  called  forth  7  It   lies    within   the    barony  of    Lower 

from  Ireland,   I  reckon  Eolang,  holy,   fair  Loughouter,  containing  2,256a.  I r.  22p.,  and 

pillar  of  Achad  Bo,  a  victory  of  piety." —  the  barony  of  Tullyhaw,  containing  5,221a. 

"Transactions  of  the  Royal  Irish  Academy,"  or.  12/).     See  "  Ordnance  Survey  Townland 

Irish  Manuscript  Series,  vol.  i.,  part  i.     On  Maps  for  the  County  of  Cavan,"  sheets  9, 

the  Calendar  of  OZngu?,  p.  cxxxvi.  10,  14. 


September  5.]      LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS.  107 


extends  within  the  adjoining  County  of  Fermanagh.8  Another  conjectural 
emendation  for  his  locality,  and  reference  to  the  designation  Brecc-Buaid — 
rendered  (  various  reward,'9  and  applied  to  him — is  given  by  the  scholiast  on 
the  Calendar  of  Oengus.  So  that  Briccin  seems  to  have  been  his  real  name. 
According  to  the  O'Clerys,  this  saint  belonged  to  the  race  of  Tadhg,  son  to 
Cian,  son  of  Oilill  Olum.  We  cannot  rely,  however,  on  the  accuracy  of  this 
statement ;  nor  can  we  at  all  find  materials,  to  disclose  any  reliable  facts  in 
relation  to  him.  Neither  in  the  Martyrology  of  Tallagh,  published  by  the 
Rev.  Dr.  Matthew  Kelly,  nor  in  that  contained  in  the  Book  of  Leinster,  is 
there  any  entry  of  Brecc-buaid  or  Bricin,  at  this  date.  If  we  are  to  accept 
the  statement,  that  Brecc-buaid  was  called  forth  from  Ireland  ;  perhaps  he 
was  one  of  the  many  missionaries  who  left  our  country  to  spread  the  Gospel 
in  more  distant  lands.  The  names  of  numerous  Irish  saints  are  endeared  to 
grateful  Catholic  memories  ;  but,  the  record  of  a  still  greater  number  of 
worthies  is  now  wholly  forgotten. 


Article  V. — St.  Dubhscuile.  At  the  5th  of  September,  veneration  was 
given,  according  to  the  published  Martyrology  of  Tallagh,1  to  Duibsuile. 
That  copy  in  the  Book  of  Leinster  has  the  name  written  Duibscuili.2  The 
Martyrology  of  Donegal, 3  at  the  same  date,  simply  registers  the  name 
Dubhscuile. 


Article  VI. — St.  Elacha.  A  saint,  named  Elacha,  is  registered  in  the 
published  Martyrology  of  Tallagh,1  at  this  date.  In  that  copy  contained  in 
the  Book  of  Leinster,  the  name  is  written  Elacho.2 


Article  VII. — St.  Eolog,  Anchoret.  Even  where  certain  names  are 
found  unrecognised,  the  merits  or  genius  of  worthy  persons  who  have  perished 
on  earth,  are  still  most  likely  to  be  registered  in  heaven.  A  festival  in 
honour  of  Eolog,  an  Anchoret,  is  found  entered  in  the  published  Martyrology 
of  Tallagh,1  at  this  date,  as  distinct  from  Eolang  of  Achaidh-bo.  The  same 
notice  occurs  in  the  copy  of  that  calendar  in  the  Book  of  Leinster.3  The 
Kalendar  of  Drurnmond3  also  enters  a  festival,  at  the  5th  of  June  for  a 
Confessor  Eulaig — probably  identical  with  the  present  holy  man. 


Article  VIII. — St.  Indeacht,  Deacon.  In  the  Church  of  God,  there 
have  been  pious  ministers  and  noble  saints,  who  have  even  wrought  wonderful 
miracles ;  yet,  these  have  never  been  called  to  the  trust  of  an   episcopal 


8  This  portion  of  it   is  in  the  barony   of  Article  v.—1  Edited  by  Rev.  Dr,  Kelly, 
Knockninny,  and  it  contains  3,200a.  27.30/.  p.  xxxiii- 

See  "  Ordnance  Survey  Townland  Maps  for  2  Thus,  Otnbfctnli. 

the  County  Fermanagh,"  sheets,  38,  41.  3  Edited  by  Drs.  Todd  and  Reeves,  pp. 

9  The  note   in    Irish   is   thus  translated  :  236.  237. 

"  *.<?.,  folk  of  every  age  he  brought  to  Christ,  Article  vl— *  Edited  by  the  Rev.   Dr. 

or  he  won  a  victory  from  divers  champions,  Kelly,  p.  xxxiii. 

i.e. ,  Briccin  of  Disert,  Briccin  in  Ui-Drona,  or  2  Thus,  et&c  ho. 

Briccin  of   Tuaim-Drecain,    in    Brefne    of  Article   vii.-'    Edited    by   Rev.    Dr. 

Connaught." — "Transactions  of  the  Royal  Kelly,  p.  xxxiii. 

Irish  Academy,"  Irish    Manuscript   Series,  2  Thus,  elog  -Anchor*. 

vol.  i.,  part  i.     On  the  Calendar  of  CEngus.  3  See  Bishop  Forbes'  "  Kalendars  of  Scot- 


By  Whitley  Stokes,  LL.D.,  p.  cxliii-  tish  Saints,"  p.  23. 


io8  LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS.        [September 


station,  nor  have  they  even  attained  the  grade  of  sacerdotal  rank.  We  find, 
in  the  Martyrology  of  Donegal,1  the  name  of  Indeacht,  Deacon,  recorded  at 
the  5th  of  September.     More  regarding  him  is  not  known. 

Article  IX. — Reputed  Feast  of  St.  Ultan.  In  the  Townland  and 
Parish  of  Killanny,1  County  of  Louth,  the  patron  saint  is  known  as  Ultan, 
whose  feast  falls  on  the  5th  of  September.  By  the  inhabitants  of  the  place2 
it  is  called  Ultan's  Day.3  There  is  also  a  welH  named  after  him.  Most 
probably,  the  saint  here  venerated  is  not  distinct  from  St.  Ultan  of  Ardbraccan, 
about  whom  we  have  treated  on  the  day  preceding.* 


*fjrtb  2>ap  of  September. 


ARTICLE  I.— ST.  BEGA  OR  BEES,  VIRGIN,  OF  COPELAND,  ENGLAND. 

[SEVENTH    CENTURY.} 

CHAPTER      I. 

INTRODUCTION— WRITERS  OF  ST.  BEGA's  ACTS— HER  BIRTH  IN  IRELAND  AND  REPUTED 
PARENTAGE— HER  VIRTUES  DURING  THE  PERIOD  OF  YOUTH— SHE  DECLINES  A 
PROPOSED  MARRIAGE— ABANDONS  HOME  AND  FRIENDS  TO  LIVE  A  RELIGIOUS  LIFE 
IN  ANGLIA — SETTLES  ON  THE  WESTERN  SHORE  OF  CUMBERLAND— DESCRIPTION  OF 
ST.  BEES — THE  MIRACLES  OF  ST.  BEGA  AND  HER  MANNER  OF  LIFE  WHILE  THERE — 
SHE  RECEIVES  THE  HABIT  AND  VEIL  FROM  ST.  AIDAN-SHE  FOUNDS  A  CONVENT  AT 
HERIETSEU,  OR  HERUTEU,  AND  GATHERS  A  RELIGIOUS  COMMUNITY  AROUND  HER. 

IT  is  much  to  be  regretted,  that  obscurities  and  uncertainties  have  involved 
the  few  early  records,  regarding  St.  Bega  or  Bees,  in  the  Manuscript 
Lives  and  Acts  of  this  holy  woman,  which  are  still  extant.1  In  his  Ecclesias- 
tical History,  the  Venerable  Bede  is  supposed  to  have  called  her  by  the 
name  of  Heiu.2  Again,  the  various  forms  of  name  Bega,  Beda,  Vega,  Heyna, 
Heiu,  and  Hieu  are  supposed  by  some  3  to  stand  for  this  holy  virgin  ;  while 


Article  viii. — l  Edited  by  Drs.  Todd  S.    Begse,  Virginis,  in   Provincia  Northum- 

and  Reeves,  pp.  236,  237.  broruni,  M.S.  Cott.  Faust.  B.  iv.  ff.  122-131, 

Article  ix. — 1  The  townland  and  a  por-  veil.,    small    folio,     dbl.     cols.     xii.    cent, 

tion  of  the  palish  are  noted  on  the  "Ord-  MiraculaS.  Begae,  Virginis. — Ibid.,  ff.  131  to 

nance   Survey    Townland    Maps    for    the  138^. 

County  of  Louth,"  sheet  10.      The  greater  a  See    "  Historia    Ecclesiastica       Gentis 

part  of   this  parish  is  within  the  Barony  of  Anglorum,"  lib.  iv.,  cap.  xxiii. 

Farney,    County  of  Monaghan,   and   it    is  3  Among  these  maybe  mentioned  R.  P. 

shown  on  the  M  Ordnance  Survey  Townland  Michaelis  Alfordus  (alias  Griffith,  an  English 

Maps  for  the  County  of  Monaghan,"  sheets  Jesuit,  writing  under  that  assumed  name), 

31,  32,  34.  M  Fides    Regia    Brilannica,     siv6    Annales 

1  See   Thomas   O'Conor's  Letter,    dated  Ecclesia;  Britannicae,"  in  Annalibus  Anglo- 

Louth,   Feb.    12th,    1836,  in  the  County  of  Saxonicis,  tomus  ii.,  p.  294.    lie  argues,  that 

Louth  Antiquarian    Letters    of  the    Irish  to  the  Virgin  Heyna — by  Rede  called  Heiu, 

Ordnance  Survey,  vol.  i.,  p.  253.  and  by  others  more  commonly  Bega — are 

3  In  Irish  written  L&  I  UlcAin.  attributed  coincidences  of  historic  incidents, 

4  In  Irish  it  is  written  Cobar\  Ulcam.  even  although  different  festival  days  be 
s  In  the  present  volume,  Art.  i.  assigned  them  in  the  English  Martyrology. 
Article   l— •  Thus  do    we   find   them  The  Bollandist  editor  of  St.    Bega's  Acts 

described  by  Sir  Thomas  Duffus  Hardy  :  Vita  adopts  a  like  opinion. 


September  6.1      LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS. 


09 


others  hold  the  opinion,  that  those  forms  refer  to  more  than  a  single  individual.'* 
To  these  denominations,  also,  Bishop  Forbes  s  adds  the  names  Begha, 
Begagh  and  Bez. 

St.  Bega  is  commemorated  in  the  Aberdeen  Breviary,6  in  the  Anglican 
Martyrology  of  John  Wilson, 7  and  by  Thomas  Dempster,  in  his  Scottish 
Menology.8  At  the  6th  of  September,  the  Bollandists  have  published  the 
Acts  of  St.  Bega,  Abbess,^  taken  from  the  Proper  Lessons  IO  of  the  Breviary 
of  Aberdeen,11  in  Scotland.  To  these  they  have  prefixed  a  previous  com- 
mentary,12 and  added  notes. *3  She  is  also  commemorated  by  Dean  Cressy,14 
by  Mabillon/s  and  by  Bishop  Challoner.16  Some  brief  notices  of  her  may  be 
found  in  the  learned  and  valuable  work  of  the  Rev.  Alban  Butler.1?  In  the 
First  Volume  of  Lives  of  the  English  Saints,  a  Life  of  St.  Bega  is  to  be 
found.18  At  the  6th  of  September,  in  the  Petits  Bollandistes,1?  there  is  a 
commemoration  of  St.  Beges,  Bees,  Vdgue  or  V£e,  an  Irish  virgin.  The  Acts 
of  St.  Bega,  in  English  and  Latin,  have  been  published  by  G.  C.  Tomlinson, 
F.S.A.,  at  Carlisle,  in  1842. 2°  This  is  a  very  elegantly  compiled  work,  and 
of  small  compass.  The  English  Life,21  a  free  version  of  the  Latin  Acts  " 
which  follow,  is  annotated,  with  an  Appendix  closing  the  volume.  The 
ancient  writer  appears  to  have  lived  in  the  twelfth  or  thirteenth  century,  and 
although  too  far  removed  in  point  of  time  from  the  age  of  St.  Bega  to  have 
had  a  very  accurate  account  of  biographical  incidents  regarding  her,a3  still 
the  narrative  he  gives  of  miracles  nearer  his  own  era  is  made  all  the  more 


4  Among  these  is  Castellanus,  who  in  his 
Universal  Martyrology  has  a  commemoration 
at  the  6th  of  September  for  St.  Bega,  an 
Irish  Virgin,  and  Patroness  of  the  Kingdom 
of  Norway,  near  Egremond,  in  the  County 
of  Cumberland,  England ;  while,  at  the 
31st  of  October,  he  notices  St.  Bega,  Virgin, 
in  the  County  of  Northumberland,  and  in  a 
marginal  note,  he  observes,  that  she  is  to  be 
distinguished  from  the  St.  Bega  of  Egre- 
mond. 

5  See  "  Kalendars  of  Scottish  Saints,"  p. 
278. 

6  The  lessons  referring  to  our  saint  in  this 
Breviary  are  evidently  taken  from  the  Vita 
S.  Begse,  contained  in  the  Cottonian  Manu- 
script, Faust.  B.  iv. 

7  Published  a.d.  1608. 

8  There  he  absurdly  introduces  a  pure 
fiction  of  his  own,  and  writes,  "  Bega  virginis 
magnorum  operum,  quae  Norvegiam  labo- 
ribus  suis  Christo  lucrata  dicitur,  unde 
Norvegia,  quasi  Norbegia." — Bishop  Forbes' 
"Kalendars  of  Scottish  Saints,"  p.  210. 

9  See  "  Acta  Sanctorum,"  tomus  ii.,  Sep- 
tembris  vi.  De  Sancta  Bega  Abbatissa  in 
Cumbria,  Anglise  Provincia,  pp.  694  to  700. 

10  The  I.,  11.,  in.,  vii.,  viii.,  ix. 

11  Printed  in  Edinburgh,  A.D.  1509.  In 
it,  at  the  31st  of  October,  an  Office  of  Nine 
Lessons,  for  St.  Bega,  Virgin,  and  St.  Quin- 
tin,  Martyr,  is  proposed  for  recitation.  The 
three  first,  and  three  last,  refer  to  St.  Bega  ; 
the  iv.,  V.  and  VI.  relate  to  St.  Quintin.  To 
this  office  is  attached  a  prayer  :  "  Deus,  qui 
cunctarum  virginum  castitatis  es  custos, 
beatce  virginis  tuce  Beghre  precibus  aures  pro 


nobis  supplicantis  tuas  conferre  dignare  et 
tibi  fideliter  servientibus  omnem  extingue 
libidinis  flammam.     Per  Dominum,  &c. 

12  In  2  sections,  and  24  paragraphs. 

13  The  editor  is  Father  Constantine  Suys- 
ken,  SJ. 

14  See  "  The  Church-History  of  Brittany," 
part  ii.,  book  xv.,  chap  xxi.,  p.  373. 

js  See  "Annales  Ordinis  S.  Benedicti," 
tomus  i.,  lib.  xiv.,  sect,  xxxix.,  pp.  435,  436. 

16  See  "  Memorials  of  Ancient  British 
Piety,"  pp.  125,  126. 

*?  See  Lives  of  the  Fathers,  Martyrs,  and 
other  principal  Saints,"  vol.  ix.,  September  6. 

18  Written  by  Father  Faber,  in  1844,  and 
before  his  conversion  to  the  Catholic  faith. 

19  See  "  Vies  des  Saints, "  tome  x.,  Jour  vie 
de  Septembre,  p.  529. 

20  It  is  intituled,  "  The  Life  and  Miracles 
of  Sancta  Bega,  Patroness  of  the  Priory  of 
St.  Bees,  in  the  County  of  Cumberland." 
Written  by  a  Monkish  Historian.  To  which 
are  appended  a  List  of  the  St.  Bees'  Priors, 
and  some  Explanatory  Notes  :  by  G.  C. 
Tomlinson,  F.S.A.,  &c.,pp.  i.  toxii.,and  I 
to  80,  small  8vo. 

21  It  is  quoted  afterwards  as  Tomlinson's 
"  Life  and  Miracles  of  Sancta  Bega." 

22  This  has  been  taken  from  the  Cottonian 
Manuscript,  Faust.  B.  iv.,  beginning  folio 
122  and  ending  folio  139.  In  the  margin  of 
folio  124,  there  is  a  rude  sketch  of  a  female 
bust,  which  is  presumed  to  be  intended  for 
a  representation  of  St.  Bega.  This  MS. 
life  is  afterwards  quoted  as  "  Vita  S.  Begoe." 

23  By  some  it  has  been  thought  that  the 
Legend  of  St.  Bega  has  been  composed  from 


LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS.       [September  6. 


interesting,  because  of  the  historic  lights  it  affords  regarding  social  manners 
and  customs  now  little  known.  Among  those  who  have  lately  written 
about  St.  Bega  or  St.  Bees  may  be  enumerated  Bishop  Challoner,2*  Le 
Comte  de  Montalembert,25  Rev.  S.  Baring-Gould,36  and  the  Rt.  Rev.  Patrick 
F.  Moran,2?  D.D.,  Bishop  of  Ossory.28 

This  holy  virgin,  of  a  noble  parentage,5^  was  born  in  Ireland. 3°  According 
to  the  Legend  of  her  life,  St.  Bega's  father  was  a  powerful  king  in  Ireland.31 
He  excelled  the  kings  his  predecessors  in  riches  and  glory.  He  served 
Christ,  and  therefore  ruled  the  more  happily. 32  His  daughter  Bega  was 
early  instructed  in  Mysteries  of  the  Christian  Faith,  and  discreetly  she  lived 
with  a  wisdom  beyond  her  years.  As  she  grew  up,  the  more  she  increased  in 
holiness.  She  is  said  to  have  flourished  about  the  middle  of  the  seventh 
century.  From  girlhood,  Bega  was  remarkable  for  circumspection,  being 
pure  in  thought,  word  and  action.  Notwithstanding  her  high  station,  she 
was  humble,  and  imbued  with  a  love  for  industry.  She  spent  much  time  in 
study  of  the  sacred  writings,  and  when  this  exercise  was  remitted,  her  hands 
were  exercised  with  the  spindle  and  scissors,  especially  in  weaving  and 
fashioning  beautiful  textile  fabrics  and  ornaments  for  the  Church.  With 
skilled  and  wonderful  art,  she  interwove  gems  and  gold  through  the  sacred 
vestments.  Levity  and  childish  sports  she  disdained  ;  a  hatred  of  vice  and 
a  love  of  virtue  she  sedulously  cultivated ;  contemning  the  world  and  its  false 
pleasures,  altogether  she  was  devoted  to  pious  meditation  and  religious 
practices.  According  to  change  of  time  and  place,  while  living  in  a  royal 
palace,  sometimes  she  was  richly  clothed,  as  her  parents  would  have  it, 
although  in  true  poverty  of  spirit,  she  wished  for  retirement  from  public  gaze, 
where  she  could  best  commune  with  Christ.  But,  above  all  the  daughters  of 
that  region  in  which  she  lived,  Bega  was  beautiful  in  face  and  figure  :  so  that 
she  was  greatly  admired  by  the  sons  of  princes  and  chiefs — foreign  as  well  as 
native  born — who  desired  to  engage  her  in  marriage,  and  who  sent  her 
bracelets,  ear-rings,  rings,  robes  woven  with  gold,  ornaments  and  precious 
gifts.  The  poorer  and  middling  class  of  people  were  likewise  charmed 
with  her  courtesy  and  affability,  especially  as  her  charities  were  chiefly 
extended  to  them. 

While  Bega  advanced  in  years,  she  meditated  much  on  the  law  of  the 
Lord,  and  felt  a  most  earnest  resolve  to  lead  a  life  of  celibacy.  She  bound 
herself  by  vow,  that  she  would  not  contract  the  bonds  of  marriage  with  any 
but  her  Heavenly  Bridegroom.  While  determining  thus,  a  man  with  comely 
face  and  a  venerable  habit  appeared  standing  before  her,  and  he  seemed  to 
know  all  her   secret  inclinations.       He  approved  her  design  and   highly 


portions  of  the  Lives  of  Various  Saints,  who  mencement  of  the  seventh  century. 

do  not  seem  to  be  very  dissimilar  in  name.  31  According  to  the  "  Annals  of  the  Four 

24  See  "  Britannia  Sancta,"  part  ii.,  p.  Masters,"  the  Monarch  of  Ireland,  Suibhne 
120.  Meann,  began  to  reign  a.d.  6ii,  and  after  a 

25  See  "  Les  Moines  d'Occident,"  tome  v.,  term  of  thirteen  years,  he  was  succeeded  in 
liv.  xvii.,chap.  i.,  sect,  ii.,  pp.  262  to  267.  the  sovereignty  by  Domhnall,  son  of  Aedh, 

26  See  "Lives  of  the  Saints,"  vol.  ix.,  son  of  Ainmire,  a.d.  624,  and  he  died  A.D. 
September  6,  pp.  92  to  94.  639,  after  a  reign  of  sixteen  years.     See  Dr. 

27  At  present  Cardinal  Archbishop  of  O'Donovan's  edition,  vol.  i.,  pp.  236  to  257. 
Sydney,  Australia.  "  This  eulogy  should  favourably  apply  to 

28  See  "  Irish  Saints  in  Great  Britain,"  King  Domhnall,  who  is  said  to  have  received 
chap,  v.,  pp.  159  to  162.  the  Body  of  Christ  every  Sunday,  and  who, 

29  According  to  the  English  Martyrology.  after  a  year  passed  in  mortal  sickness,  died 

30  No  clue  to  ascertain  the  exact  year  of  St.  "  after  the  victory  of  penance."  However, 
Bees'  birth  remains  ;  but,  it  seems  to  have  there  are  no  Irish  records  left,  that  make 
taken  place  a  little  before  or  at  the  com-  him  the  father  of  Bega. 


September  6.]      LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS. 


commended  her  vow,  admonishing  her  to  clothe  herself  in  a  garment 
reaching  down  to  her  ancles.  To  confirm  and  strengthen  her  vow  of  celibacy, 
he  discoursed  with  her  on  many  subjects,  and  he  gave  her  a  bracelet,33  having 
a  sign  of  the  holy  cross  clearly  stamped  on  its  surface.  He  then  added  : 
M  Receive  this  mark  of  favour,  sent  to  thee  by  the  Lord  God,  since  thou 
acknowledgest  thyself  to  be  ordained  to  His  service,  and  that  He  has  become 
thy  bridegroom.  Place  it,  therefore,  as  a  token  upon  thy  heart,  and  upon 
thine  arm,  that  thou  mayest  admit  no  suitor  but  Him."  Saying  these  words 
he  disappeare  1  j  but  whether  that  person  was  an  angel,  or  whether  he  was 
some  saint,  is  held  to  be  uncertain.  Rendering  manifold  thanks,  the  virgin 
did  as  she  had  been  taught,  and  almost  ever  afterwards  bore  that  bracelet.34 

Not  consulting  her  own  inclinations,  her  parents  had  resolved  on  giving 
her  in  marriage.  A  romantic  story  is  told  regarding  a  son  of  the  King  of 
Norvvay,35  and  an  illustrious  youth,  who  had  heard  of  her  beauty  and 
accomplishments.  Having  taken  counsel  with  the  nobles  and  friends  of  his 
country,  it  was  resolved,  that  messengers  should  be  sent  to  her  father's  court 
to  ascertain  the  correctness  of  such  reports,  and  if  so,  to  interest  themselves 
in  obtaining  the  king's  and  his  daughter's  consent  for  a  marriage,  which 
should  cement  an  union  of  hearts,  with  an  alliance  between  their  respective 
nations. s6  Accordingly,  they  proceeded  to  Ireland,  and  soon  found  that  fame 
had  not  exaggerated  the  personal  attractions  and  virtues  of  Bega.37  Her 
father  and  his  chieftains,  on  hearing  the  proposals  made,  judged  favourably 
of  them,  and  sending  back  suitable  royal  presents,  he  invited  the  young 
prince  to  visit  Ireland  in  person.  Having  reported  the  successful  commence- 
ment of  their  embassy,  the  royal  suitor  had  vessels  and  mariners  soon  ready 
for  the  voyage.  After  a  prosperous  sail,  they  reached  their  destined  port. 
The  visitors  were  hospitably  received  by  the  king  and  his  council,  and  the 
people  had  public  rejoicings  to  welcome  them.  Soon  after  their  arrival,  a 
banquet  had  been  prepared,  in  advance  of  the  negotiation  relative  to  the 
anticipated  approaching  nuptials.  In  accordance  with  the  customs  of  that 
age,  the  drinking  cups  passed  round  among  the  guests,  and  in  a  state  of 
ebriety,  when  the  night  was  much  spent,  they  all  retired  to  rest.38 

Meantime,  the  holy  virgin  was  greatly  disquieted  and  irresolute,  as  to  how 
she  might  escape  from  the  projected  marriage,  and  difficulties  beset  her  on 
every  side.  She  knew  not  how  to  resist  the  wishes  or  command  of  her 
father,  nor  how  to  escape  the  intended  nuptials.     Still  placing  her  trust  in 


33  A  somewhat  similar  incident  is  related  time  Harold  Harrfagar  united  them  under 
of  St.  Germanus,  when  he  met  the  youthful  his  sway.  He  was  born  about  a.d.  853  or 
St.  Genevieve,  passing  by  Nanterre,  on  his  854,  and  he  lived  to  a.d.  931.  There  are  said 
journey  to  Britain.  Foreseeing  what  she  to  have  been  no  fixed  points  of  history  in  the 
would  one  day  become,  he  blessed  her,  and  North  before  his  time.  See  "The  Heims 
presented  a  piece  of  brass  money,  on  which  kringla  ;  or  Chronicle  of  the  Kings  of  Nor- 
he  impressed  a  figure  of  the  cross.  He  ad-  way,"  translated  from  the  Icelandic  of  Snorro 
monished  her  to  wear  it  continually,  as  a  Sturleson,  with  a  preliminary  Dissertation, 
memento  of  her  religious  engagement.  by  Samuel  Laing,  vol.  i.,  Preliminary  Dis- 
"  Sainte  Genevieve  Patrone  de  Paris  se  sertation,  chap,  ii.,  p.  74.  London,  1844.  8vo. 
faisoit  gloire  d'avoir  eu  notre  Saint  (scil.  S.  36  No  such  incident  is  to  be  found  in  our 
Germain)  pour    maitre." — "  Histoire  Lite-  Irish  Annals. 

raire  de  la  France,"  tome  ii.,  p.  260.  3?  In  a.d.  620,  about  the   period  when 

34  Having  given  this  account  contained  in  St.  Bees  had  been  sought  in  marriage  by  a 
the  text,  the  writer  of  her  Latin  acts  states  :  Norwegian  prince,  Solvegia  is  said  to  have 
"  Sed  tamen  quod  per  armillam  illam  crebra  reigned,    and    to   have  been  succeeded  by 
miracula  facta  sint,  et  adhuc  fiunt,  satis  est  Eyskin  Hardrade,  A.D.  630. 
compertum."— "  Vita  S.  Begse,"  p.  48.  38  This   whole   account  savours  much  of 

35  Previous  to  a.d.  875,  several  petty  that  romance,  with  which  several  of  the 
sovereignties  were  in  Norway,  and  at  that  saints'  acts  abound 


ii2  LIVES  OF  7  HE  IRISH  SAINTS.      [September  6. 


the  Lord,  she  poured  forth  her  soul  in  fervent  prayer  to  the  Son  of  God  and 
to  the  Virgin,  that  she  would  deign  to  preserve  her  chastity,  through  which 
so  many  great  saints  had  triumphed,  and  by  which  His  own  graces  had  been 
magnified.  Therefore  to  His  blessed  keeping  she  commended  her  virginity, 
and  sought  His  direction  for  her  future  guidance.  In  the  silence  of  night, 
and  when  all  were  asleep  in  her  parental  mansion,  St.  Bega  had  a  heavenly 
admonition,  which  urged  her  to  seek  in  exile  the  destination  to  which  she 
had  been  called.  She  heard  a  voice  from  heaven,  and  it  directed  her  to 
leave  her  father's  house,  to  go  from  kingdom  to  kingdom,  and  from  Ireland 
to  Britain,  where  her  days  were  to  end,  when  she  should  be  taken  into  the 
fellowship  of  angels.  It  was  added :  "  Arise,  therefore,  and  take  the 
bracelet  by  which  thou  art  pledged  to  me,  and  descending  to  the  sea,  thou 
shalt  find  a  ship  ready  prepared,  and  which  shall  transport  thee  into  Britain. "39 

She  obeyed  the  Divine  monition,  and  resolved  to  remove  clandestinely 
from  her  parents  and  their  home.  At  that  moment,  not  alone  the  inmates 
of  the  castle  were  asleep,  but  even  the  outer  guards  who  were  appointed  to 
keep  watch,  and  "  the  key  of  David,  at  the  touch  of  the  bracelet,  opened  all 
the  doors  to  the  beautiful  virgin  going  forth."  Directing  her  course  to  the 
seashore,  and  coming  to  a  port,  she  found  a  ship  destined  for  her  departure.*0 

St.  Bega  or  Beia  thus  left  her  worldly  friends  and  native  country,  for  the 
sake  of  her  Heavenly  Spouse.  She  passed  over  to  Britain,*1  with  favouring 
winds  and  a  prosperous  voyage,  which  she  obtained  through  prayer.*2  She 
had  heard,  that  the  faith  of  Christ  was  being  propagated  in  the  province  of 
Northumbria,  owing  to  the  zealous  ministrations  of  its  Apostle,  the  holy 
Bishop  Aiden.*3  She  resolved  on  leading  an  anchoretical  life,  and  for  this 
purpose,  she  sought  the  shores  of  Anglia,  and  landed  in  Cumbria,**  in  the 
province  called  Copeland,4^  and  settled  on  the  coast  in  the  western  division 
of  Cumberland.*6  Having  disembarked,  she  explored  the  maritime  district, 
which  she  found  covered  with  dense  woods,  and  very  suitable  for  a  solitary 
habitation.  Desirous  of  devoting  herself  to  God  alone,  she  constructed  a 
cell,  or  perhaps  appropriated  to  herself  one  of  the  caverns  placed  at  a  spot 
sufficiently  woody,  and  near  the  seashore.  There  she  passed  many  years  in 
strict  seclusion,*?  conversing  only  with  the  Lord.  There  freed  from  all 
worldly  cares  and  ambitious  desires,  she  dwelt  in  peace,  drawn  to  Him 
in  the  odour   of   His   ointments,  and  altogether  absorbed  in  His   love.*8 

39  See  Tomlinson's  "  Life  and  Miracles  of  43  See  his  Acts,  in  the  Eighth  Volume  of 

Sancta  Bega,"  pp.  6  to  io.  this  Work,  at  the  31st  August,  Art.  i. 

*°  See  her  Acts,  in  the  Aberdeen  Breviary,  44  <<  Nomen  ab  incolis  traxit,  qui  veri  et 

lect-  *•  Germani   Britanni  fuerunt  et  se  sua  lingua 

41  See   Bishop    Challoner's   "  Britannnia  Kutnbri  et  Kambri  indigitarunt"— William 

Sancta,"  part  ii.,  p.  120.  Camden's    "  Britannia,**    p.    325.      Editio 

**  "  When  Bega  sought  of  yore  the  Cum-  Amstelodami,  ANNO  clD  Idclix.  fol. 

brian  coast,  *s  See  "  Vita  S.  Begre,"  p.  53.     William 

Tempestuous  winds  her  holy  errand  Camden  writes:    "  Cope land   et   Coupland 

crossed  :  dicitur,  eo  quod  acuminatis  montibus,  quos 

She  knelt  in  prayer — the  waves  their  Kopa  Britanni  vocant,  caput  suum  exerit, 

wrath  appease  ;  vel,  ut  aliis  placet   Copdand  quasi   Copper- 

And,  from  her  vow  well  weighed  in  land  ob  opulenta  neris  vena." — "Britannia," 

Heaven's  decrees,  p.  325. 

Rose,  when  she  touched  the  strand,  46  See  Rt<  Rev#  patrick  F.  Moran's  "Early 

the  Chantry  of  St.  Bees."  Irish  Missions,"  No.  i.,  p.  17. 

—  "Poetical    Works   of    William    Words-  47  The    Aberdeen    Breviary  adds:    "In 

worth,"  edited  by  William  Knight,  LL.D.,  jejuniis  et  vigiliis  et  orationibus  continuis 

vol.  vii.     Stanzas  suggested  in  a  steamboat  corpus  suum  castigando,"  lect.  ii. 

off  St.  Bees'  Heads,  on  the  coast  of  Cumber-  *s  gee  Tomlinson's  "  Life  and  Miracles  of 

land,  p.  343.  St.  Bega,"  p.  12. 


September  6.]      LIVES  01*  THK  IRISH  SAINTS. 


113 


The  monastery  was  situated  in  a  narrow  dell,  with  low  and  marshy  lands 
towards  the  east ;  while  the  west  is  exposed  to  storms  from  the  Irish  Channel. 
The  site  was  about  four  miles  from  the  present  Whitehaven. 

From  her  the  place  was  called  St.  Bega's  or  Bees/9  This  is  now  a  parish, 
comprising  the  town  of  Whitehaven,  and  the  townships  of  St.  Bees,  Ennerdale, 
Eskdale,  Wasdale-Head,  Hensingham,  Kinneyside,  Lowside  Quarter,  Nether 
Wasdale,  Preston  Quarter,  Rottington,  Sandwith  and  Weddiker.  The 
parish  now  extends  for  about  ten  miles  along  the  coast,  which  in  some  places 
is  rocky  and  precipitous.50  The  parish  church  is  said  to  have  been  built  on 
the  site  of  that  conventual  church,  belonging  to  the  Monastery  of  St.  Bega, 
or  Begogh,  an  Irish  female.  The  latter  was  founded  about  the  year  650.5' 
The  present  church  is  cruciform,  and  has  a  strong  tower  of  early  Norman 
architecture  ;  the  rest  of  the  edifice  is  in   the  early  English  style.*2     It  is 


Copeland  Priory,  England. 

built  of  red  free-stone,  and  it  consists  of  a  nave,  transept,  and  chancel  only, 
without  side-aisles.  The  nave  is  used  as  the  Protestant  parish  church,  and 
the  transept  as  a  place  of  sepulture  j  the  east  end  is  unroofed  and  in  ruins.53 
The  great  west  door  seems  a  part  of  the  founder's  building :  it  is  ornamented 
with  grotesque  heads  and  chevron  mouldings. 54  The  east  end  of  the  chancel, 
with  three  long   narrow   windows,   enriched    with  double   mouldings  and 


4*  See  Rt.  Rev.  Patrick  F.  Moran's  "  Early 
Irish  Missions,"  No.  i.,  p.  17. 

50  "  A  lighthouse  erected  in  1717,  and 
subsequently  destroyed  by  fire,  was  rebuilt 
in  1822,  on  a  promontory  called  St.  Bees' 
Head." — Samuel  Lewis'  "Topographical 
Dictionary  of  England,"  vol.  i.,  p.  199. 

51  See  Bishop  Tanner's  "  Notitia  Mon- 
astica,"  with  additions  by  Rev.  James 
Naswith,  M.A. ,  Cumberland,  ii.  St.  Bees'. 
Cambridge,  1787,  fol. 

s*  There  is  a   beautiful  copper- plate  en- 


graving of  the  Priory  of  St.  Bees,  Cumber- 
land, N.W.  view,  presenting  an  ancient 
door-way,  of  a  markedly  Irish- Romanesque 
character  in  the  "  Monasticon  Anglicanum," 
published  originally  in  Latin  by  Sir  William 
Dugdale,  Kt.  New  edition  by  John  Calev, 
Esq.,  F.R.S.  ;  Henry  Ellis,  LL.B. ;  and  the 
Rev.  Bulkeley  Bandinel,  M .  A.,  vol.  iii. ,  p.  5 74. 

53  See  ibid.,  p.  576. 

54  The  accompanying  illustration  of  this 
church  has  been  drawn  on  the  wool  And 
engraved  by  Gregor  Grey. 


ii4  LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS.      [September  6. 


pilasters,  is  apparently  of  the  thirteenth  century.  Considerable  remains  of 
monastic  buildings  are  to  be  seen  on  the  south  side. 

There  St.  Bega  lived,  and  became  illustrious  on  account  of  the  many 
miracles  she  wrought.  Said  to  have  been  skilled  in  the  use  of  herbs  and 
simples,  wonderful  cures  were  effected  by  her  in  favour  of  those  who  sought 
that  place  of  retreat.  The  holy  virgin  thus  wished  to  soothe  and  comfort  the 
afflicted.  Moreover,  tradition  has  it,  that  the  sea-mews  brought  food  from 
the  ocean,  and  even  the  wolves  abounding  in  that  region  crouched  at  her 
sainted  feet  and  ceased  to  roar,  becoming  also  purveyors  of  sustenance  to 
the  pious  and  solitary  virgin.55  About  the  period  of  St.  Bega's  arrival,  the 
inhabitants  who  lived  on  the  islands  near  Cumberland,  held  frequent  inter- 
course with  Ireland.56  Many  of  them  were  originally  Irish,  while  others  took 
wives  from  our  Island.5?  When  she  had  lived  there  for  a  considerable  time 
in  justice  and  holiness,  the  shores»of  that  region  were  infested  by  pirates,  who 
committed  great  depredations  on  the  inhabitants.  Feeling  how  lonely  and 
unprotected  she  was,  and  how  dissolute  were  the  morals  of  such  sea-rovers, 
Bega  resolved  to  withdraw  from  their  power,  to  preserve  her  honour  and 
virtue  from  their  assaults.  Moreover,  she  was  guided  by  a  Divine  monition 
to  seek  elsewhere  a  place  for  settlement.  In  leaving,  however,  she  forgot  to 
bring  with  her  the  bracelet,  which  remained  there  as  a  sacred  relic,  and 
which  in  after  time  was  held  in  great  popular  estimation. 

At  this  time,  the  illustrious  Christian  king,  St.  Oswald,58  ruled  over  the 
Kingdom  of  Northumbria.  He  was  delighted  to  second  all  the  efforts  of  St. 
Aidan  in  the  promotion  of  religion  throughout  his  dominions.  To  the  latter, 
Bega  directed  her  course,  so  that  she  might  reveal  to  him  the  secrets  of  her 
heart,  as  also  to  seek  his  advice  and  direction  for  her  future  guidance.  He 
enjoined  her  to  doff  the  dress  she  had  heretofore  worn,  and  to  assume  the 
religious  habit.  With  this  advice  she  complied.  She  therefore  received  the 
habit  and  veil  from  St.  Aidan.  She  was  the  first  nun  in  Northumbria, according 
to  the  testimony  of  Venerable  Bede,59  and  she  established  the  first  nunnery  in 
Northumbria.  It  was  consecrated  by  St.  Aidan,  and  it  is  said  to  have  been 
called  Heriteseia,60  which  has  been  interpreted  Hartlepool,61  and  in  her  Latin 
life  "  Insula  Cervi."62  This  place  was  found  to  be  in  every  respect  suitable 
for  a  monastic  institute,  and  it  was  asked  from  the  religious  King  Oswald, 
through  Bishop  Aidan.  Soon  was  she  joined  by  a  number  of  pious  virgins, 
who  desired  to  consecrate  themselves  to  Christ  under  her  direction.  Even 
many  left  the  conjugal  state  to  embrace  a  life  of  seclusion,  and  several 


55  See  Tomlinson's  "  Life  and  Miracles  of  city.  It  is  situated  on  a  bold  and  nearly 
Saint  Bega, "p.  12,  insulated     promontory,    which    forms    the 

56  See  Rev.  Alban  Butler's  "  Lives  of  the  north  horn  of  a  fine  bay.  At  present,  its 
Fathers,  Martyrs,  and  other  Principal  import  and  export  trade  is  very  considerable. 
Saints,"  vol.  ix.,  September  vi.,  note.  Sec   "Gazetteer   of  the    World,"   vol.    vi., 

57  Similar  remarks  are  applicable  to  this  pp,  821,822. 

English  locality,  even  at  the  present  day,  62  The  Aberdeen   Breviary  calls  it :   "in 

s8  He  is  honoured  with  a  festival,  on   the  insula   quadam   deserta,"   which    the    Bol- 

5th  of  August.     See  his  Acts,  in  the  Eighth  landist  editor  states  to  have  been  the  place 

Volume  of  this  work,  at  that  date,  Art.  ii.  where  the  Monastery   of   Heorthensis  had 

59  Called  by  him  Heru,  and  the  nunnery  been  founded  ;  although  he  wonders,  why 
which  she  built  is  designated  Heruteu.  See  it  had  been  established  on  a  desert  island, 
"Historia  Ecclesiastica  Gentis  Anglorum,"  and  adds,  "an  forte  prima  S.  Begae  cella, 
lib.  iv.,  cap.  xxiii.  quam    num.     13    Commentarii     Camdenus 

60  See  Tomlinson's  "  Life  and  Miracles  of  collocat  in  promontoriolo  oceani,  cum 
Sancta  Bega,"  p.  14.  Heorthensi   confunditur,   et   quia   in   mare 

61  Now  a  sea-port  and  parish  in  the  procurrebat,  insula  appellatur  ?  " — I-ect.  iii., 
Palatine  of  Durham,  18  miles  E.S.E.  of  that  and  n.  (d). 


September  6.]      LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS. 


penitents  were  known  to  have  visited  her,  and  to  have  remained  in   her 
community  .63 

Over  all  these  Bega  presided  with  a  mother's  care  and  tenderness,  and 
she  acted  the  part  of  a  servant  rather  than  of  a  mistress  ;  by  example  rather 
than  by  precept,  she  enforced  discipline  and  study.  She  ministered  as  a 
cook  in  the  kitchen,  and  prepared  food,  which  she  served  to  the  workmen. 
She  taught  her  disciples  to  avoid  idleness,  and  with  them  engaged  in  washing, 
making  and  mending  the  church  vestments,  and  in  supplying  altar  decora- 
tions. With  such  offices  were  combined  fasts  and  vigils,  the  singing  of 
psalms,  hymns  and  canticles,  the  assiduous  reading  of  the  Sacred  Scriptures 
and  other  books  of  devotion.  Thus,  she  united  the  busy  works  of  Martha 
with  the  contemplative  life  of  Mary;  she  charmed  all  with  her  humility  ;  and 
she  was  an  object  of  love  and  admiration  to  the  Almighty  and  to  her  fellow- 
creatures.  It  pleased  not  only  King  Oswald,  but  also  his  successor,  Oswin,6* 
to  bestow  gifts  and  possessions  on  St.  Bega's  Monastery. 


CHAPTER     II. 

ST.  HRRU  DEEMED  TO  BE  IDENTICAL  WITH  ST.  BEES— SHE  RESIGNS  HERETU  TO  THE 
GOVERNMENT  OF  ST.  HILDA  —  AFTERWARDS  HERU  RETIRES  TO  CALCARIA— 
FRIENDSHIP  BETWEEN  ST.  HILDA  AND  ST.  BEGHU— VISION  REGARDING  ST.  HILDA'S 
DEATH — DEATH  OF  ST.  BEES  AND  TRANSLATION  OF  HER  RELICS — SUBSEQUENT 
MIRACLES — FESTIVALS  AND  COMMEMORATIONS  OF  THE  HOLY  VIRGIN — CON- 
CLUSION. 

It  is  stated,  that  Heru,1  having  founded  the  Monastery  of  Heruteu,3  wished 
to  relinquish  its  government,  and  to  seek  elsewhere  a  place  for  her  pious  exer- 
cises. Heiu  is  also  a  name  given  to  her,  yet  whether  she  is  to  be  confounded 
with  St.  Begu  or  Bees  has  yet  to  be  clearly  determined. 3  The  celebrated 
St.  Hilda,*  having  resolved  on  a  religious  life,  spent  some  time  in  the  province 
of  the  East  Angles.  Thence  she  was  called  by  Bishop  Aidan,  to  found  a 
monastery  on  the  north  side  of  the  River  Wire,  and  there  she  led  a  monastic 
life  with  very  few  companions.  So  charmed  was  St.  Bees  with  her  virtues 
and  capacity  for  government,  that  she  visited  St.  Aidan,  and  procured  from 
him  the  favour  of  retiring  from  her  own  charge,  and  of  devoting  herself  in 
subjection  to  the  tranquillity  of  a  contemplative  life.5  Hilda  was  then  set 
over  the  monastery  of  Hereteu,  while  Heru  left  for  the  city  of  Calcaria,6 

63  "  Sic  sponsa  Christi  quae  in  amore  founded  by  Heru,  identical  with  St.  Bees, 
sponsi  languebat,  hujusmodi  fulciri  floribus  See  his  "Church  History  of  Brittany," 
stipari  malis  ardenter  satagebat." — Vita  S.  part  ii.,  book  xv.,  chap,  xxi.,  p.  373. 
Begse,  p.  55.  However,  Leland  makes  them  different,  in 

64  He  was  king  of  Deira,  the  brother  of  his  M  De  Rebus  Britannicis  Collectanea," 
St.  Oswald,  and  he  began  to  reign  a.d.  642.  tomus  hi.,  p.  39.  Both  Leland  and  Camden 
He  was  slain  in  651,  by  Oswio,  the  seventh  think  Heortu  to  have  been  Hartlepool. 
Bietwalda.  After  a  reign  of  twenty-eight  3  See  Le  Comte  de  Montalembert,  M  Les 
vears,  the  latter  died  a.d.  670.  See  Lingard's  Moines  d'Occident,"  tome  v.,  liv.  xvii., 
"  History  of  England,"  vol.  i.,  chap,    ii.,  chap,  i.,  sect,  ii.,  pp.  264,  265. 

pp.  93  to  103.  4  Her   festival    occurs   on    the    18th    of 

Chapter  ii. — ■  St.  Bees,  it  is  thought,  November.     See  an  account  of  her,  at  that 

has  been   alluded   to   under  this   name  by  date,    in    the    Eleventh    Volume    of    this 

Venerable  Bede,  and  on  his  authority  follows  work.     Other  festivals  have  been  assigned 

a  similar  statement  in  the  Manuscript  Latin  her,  at  the  5th  of  March,  and  at  the  25th  of 

Life    of   that   holy   virgin.      According   to  August. 

Alford  and  Suysken,  she  was  also  known  as  5  See  the  Aberdeen  Breviary,  lect.  vii. 

Heyne.  6  See   Mabillon's   "  Annales  Ordinis    S. 

2  Sometimes    written    Heorthu.       Dean  Benedicti,"  tomus  i.,  lib.  xiv.,  sect,  xxxix., 

Cressy    thinks    this    place    to    have    been  p.  435. 


1 6  LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS.      [September  6. 


called  by  the  Angles  Kalcacestir,?  and  there  fixed  her  dwelling.8  There,  for 
many  years,  she  passed  a  life  of  great  perfection^  and  her  house  was  under 
the  government  of  the  Abbess  Hilda.  According  to  some  writers,  she 
retired  to  Tadcaster  ;10  yet,  it  is  not  certain,  that  such  had  been  the  place 
denoted  in  her  Acts.  Others  state,  that  Newton  Kyme"  and  Aberford" — 
both  in  Yorkshire — are  the  places  to  which  reference  has  been  made.  Again, 
it  has  been  stated,1*  that  St.  Bees  visited  Beal,1*  alias  Beag  Hall,  a  parish  in 
the  township  of  Killington,  near  Pontefract,xs  in  the  West  Riding  of 
Yorkshire.16 

Meanwhile,  St.  Hilda  had  been  invited  to  found  a  noble  monastery,  at  a 
place  then  known  as  Streneshalch,  now  called  Whitby.  Between  the  Abbess 
Hilda  and  Beghu  a  firm  friendship  and  intimacy  existed ;  for  although  they 
severally  lived  a  distance  from  each  other,  this  did  not  prevent  a  frequent 
exchange  of  visits,  which  were  mostly  employed  in  consultations  and 
conversations  relating  to  the  sanctification  of  their  own  and  the  souls  of 
others.  However,  a  mortal  distemper  had  seized  on  the  Abbess,  and  she 
bore  with  great  resignation  and  patience  this  malady.  Towards  the  close  of 
her  life,  a  St.  Bega  had  visited  a  convent  of  nuns  at  some  distance  from  her 
own.1?  According  to  Venerable  Bede,  this  place  of  habitation  was  called 
Hacanos,  now  Hackness'8 — about  thirteen  miles  distant  from  Whitby — and 
it  seems  to  have  been  founded  by  St.  Hilda,  the  very  year  of  her  death,  which 
happened  A.D.  680.  While  Begu1?  slept  in  the  dormitory  of  those  sisters, 
suddenly  she  heard  the  well-known  sound  of  a  bell  in  the  air,  and  which 
used  to  awake  and  call  to  prayers,  when  any  of  them  had  been  taken  out  of 
the  world.  On  awaking,  she  saw  the  top  of  the  house  to  open,  and  a  strong 
light  to  pour  in  from  above.  Then  looking  intently  on  that  light,  she  beheld 
there  the  soul  of  St.  Hilda,  attended  and  conducted  to  Heaven  by  angels. 
After  awaking,  finding  all  the  sisters  lying  around  her,  Begu  perceived,  that 
what  she  experienced  had  been  either  a  dream  or  a  vision.  In  a  great  fright, 
she  arose  and  awoke  Frigyth,  a  virgin  who  then  presided  in  the  nunnery,  and 


I  By  some  of  the  Saxons  styled  Hel-  bridge,  on  the  south  side  of  the  river  Aire, 
cacester.  See   Samuel  Lewis'  "Topographical   Dic- 

8  See  Venerable  Bede's  "  Historia  Ecclesi-  tionary  of  England,"  vol.  i.,  p.  182 

astica  Gentis  Anglorum,"  lib.  iv.,  cap.  xxiii.  '5  This  considerable  town  appears  to  have 

9  Although  Bede  only  states  "ibique  risen  from  the  ruins  of  Legeolium,  a  Roman 
mansionem  sibi  instituit,"  yet,  it  is  reason-  station  in  the  neighbourhood,  now  called 
able  to  suppose,  that  St.  Bega  had  there  a  Castleford.  By  the  Saxons  it  was  known  as 
cell  or  small  nunnery,  in  which  in  solitude,  Kirkby,  and  after  the  Conquest,  it  was 
or,  with  some  nuns,  she  spent  the  rest  of  denominated  Pontefrete  by  the  Normans, 
her  life.  See  ibid.,  vol.  iii.,  pp.  587  to  589. 

10  Now  a  market-town  and  parish  in  the  ,6  See  Tomlinson's  "  Life  and  Miracles  of 
West  Riding  of  Yorkshire.  It  formed  the  Sancta  Bega,"  pp.  17,  18  and  notes. 
Roman  station  Calcaria,  and  so  called,  '7  According  to  Rev.  Alban  Butler,  the 
because  the  soil  abounded  in  calx,  or  lime-  Bega,  whom  Venerable  Bede  places  at 
stone.  Roman  coins  have  been  here  found,  Hacanos  upon  the  death  of  St.  Hilda,  and 
at  different  times.  The  town  is  situated  on  who  then  had  served  God  in  the  monastic 
the  navigable  river  Wharfe.  See  Samuel  state  for  more  than  thirty  years,  seems  to 
Lewis'  "Topographical  Dictionary  of  Eng-  have  been  different  from  St.  Bees,  as  St. 
land,"  vol.  iv.,  pp.  294,  295.  Aiden  died   one  hundred  years  before  her. 

II  A  parish,  in  the  West  Riding  of  York-  See  "Lives  of  the  Fathers,  Martyrs  and  other 
shire,    about    two    miles    from    Tadcaster,  Principal  Saints,"  vol.  ix.,  September  vi. 
towards  the  west.     See  ibid.,  vol.  iii.,  p.  41 1.  l8  Now  a  parish,  in  the  Liberty  of  Whitby - 

"  A  parish,  in  the  West  Riding  of  York-  Strand,  in  the  North  Riding  of  Yorkshire, 

shire.     The   town   is  built   near   the   small  The   village   is   romantically  situated  in   a 

river  Cock.     See  ibid.,  vol.  i.,  p.  4.  valley,  through  which  the  Uerwent  flows. 

13  By  Strype,  in  his  Life  of  Archbishop  See  Samuel   Lewis'  "  Topographical   Die- 

Grindall.  tionary  of  England,"  vol.  ii.,  p.  364, 

1*  It  is  four  miles  eastwards  from  Ferry-  »9  According  to  some  statements,  Frigyth. 


September  6.]       LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS.  117 


who  represented  the  Abbess.  With  many  sighs  and  tears  she  announced, 
that  the  Abbess  Hilda,  the  mother  of  them  all,  had  departed  this  life,  and 
that  in  her  sight,  with  a  great  light  and  with  angels  accompanying,  she  had 
ascended  to  eternal  bliss.  Having  heard  such  statement,  Frigyth  awoke  the 
other  sisters,  and  called  them  to  the  church,  where  she  admonished  them  to 
pray  and  sing  psalms  for  Hilda's  happy  repose.  This  they  did  during  the 
remainder  of  that  night.  When  morning  came,  the  brothers  arrived  from 
Whitby  with  a  message  announcing  her  death.  The  nuns  then  related  the 
vision,  which  had  already  assured  it  to  them,  and  also  at  that  very  hour 
which  the  messengers  had  reported.  Thus,  adds  Venerable  Bcde,  while 
some  witnessed  her  departure  out  of  this  world,  others  became  acquainted 
with  her  admittance  into  the  spiritual  and  eternal  life.20 

According  to  the  Legend  of  her  Life,  and  to  local  tradition,  St.  Bega21 
remained  in  that  monastery  of  Acconos,22  in  which  she  had  such  a  vision. 
We  are  told,  the  day  of  her  death  happened  on  that  before  the  November 
Kalends.23  There,  too,  it  is  said,  she  was  interred.  However,  some  suppose 
St.  Bega  had  not  been  buried  at  Hackness,  but  rather  at  Calcaria,  and  that 
probably  her  remains  had  been  removed  to  Heorthu  for  interment.24  But 
the  ravages  of  the  Danes25  effaced  all  recollection  of  the  exact  place  of  her 
sepulture.  Four  hundred  and  sixty  years  had  elapsed  after  her  decease, 
before  it  had  been  resolved  to  seek  that  spot  in  the  cemetery  of  Hackness, 
so  that  her  remains  might  be  transferred  to  Whitby.26  At  length,  in  the 
twelfth  century,  having  unearthed  a  sarcophagus,  the  workmen  found 
engraved  on  its  lid  :  "  Hoc  est  sepulchrum  Begu."  Having  removed  that 
covering,  they  found  within  the  tomb  the  dust  of  her  sacred  body,  with  the 
veil  upon  her  skull  almost  whole.  A  most  agreeable  odour  proceeded  from 
the  remains.  Then  a  procession  was  formed,  and  with  hymns  and  canticles, 
they  were  borne  to  Whitby,  and  reverently  placed  in  a  suitable  position.2? 
It  is  possible,  that  this  Translation  of  St.  Bega's  relics  may  have  taken  place, 
on  the  6th  day  of  September.  The  holy  Irish  virgin  is  thought  by  many  to 
have  died  at  Calcaria,  about  the  year  680. 28  Father  Suysken  places  it 
after  that  year.20     If,  however,  she  had  been   identical  with  that  virgin, 3° 

20  See  "  Historia  Ecclesiastica  Gentis  translatum  est  in  monasterio  de  Witbe  in 
Anglorum,"  lib.  iv.,  cap.  xxiii.  magno  habetur  pretio,  languidis  in  praesens 

21  As  already  remarked,  it  seems  not  so       sanitatem  prsebens,"  lect.  viii. 

probable,  that  she  had  been  identical  with  *7  The  writer   of  St.   Bega's    Life    then 

the  Irish  St.  Bega,  the  first  nun  in  North-  declares,  that  as  he  had  not  sufficient  know- 

umberland.  ledge  of  the  miracles  wrought  and  particulars 

22  Mabillon,  who  calls  her  ' '  Heru,  alias  of  that  tranlation,  he  should  leave  the  task 
Bega,"  states  "  obiit  apud  Hacanos  monas-  of  writing  to  those  who  were  witnesses  and 
terium  virginum,  tertio  apud  Scardoburgo  who  were  present.  But,  the  miracles  per- 
millaria." — "  Annales  Ordinis  S.  Benedicti,"  formed  at  Kirkebibeghoc  (St.  Bees),  in 
tomus  i.,  lib.  xiv.,  sect,  xxxix.,  pp.  435,  436.  Coupland,  where  first  she  led  a  solitary  life, 

23  See  the  Aberdeen  Breviary,  lect.  viii.  and  where  her  memory  was  held  in  great 
The  Bollandist  editor  is  at  a  loss  to  know  veneration  by  the  people,  he  would  attempt 
whence  the  compiler  of  those  Lessons  had  to  record  for  the  instruction  of  posterity, 
his  authority  for  such  statement.  However,  and  regarding  which  he  had  a  more  accurate 
it  agrees  with  what  is  related  in  the  Latin  knowledge.  See  "Vita  S.  Begse,"  pp.  59, 
Manuscript  "  Vita  S.  Bega?."  60. 

34  Seethe  Bollandists'  "  Acta  Sanctorum,"  28  See  Rev.  Alban  Butler's  "  Lives  of  the 

tomus  ii.,  Septembris  vi.     De  Sancta  Bega  Fathers,  Martyrs  and  other  Principal  Saints," 

Abbatissa,  Commentarius  Praevius,  sect.  ii. ,  vol.  ix.,  September  vi. 

num.  18,  19,  20,  21,  22,  23,  pp.  697,  698.  3»  Or  after   the   middle    of  the    seventh 

<S  See  at  a.d.  869,  R.  P.  Michaelis  Alfordi,  century.    See  "  Acta  Sanctorum,"  tomus  ii., 

"Fides    Regise   Britannica,    sive    Annales  Septembris  vi.    De  Sancta  Bega  Abbatissa, 

Ecclesiae  Britannicse,"  tomus  iii.  Commentarius  Praevius,  sect,  i.,  num.24, 

26  The  Aberdeen  Breviary  states,  "quod  p.  698. 

divinitus  revelatum  nunc  digno  cum  honore  3o  Called  Frigyth  by  Venerable  Bede. 


n8  LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS.      [September  6. 


who  had  a  revelation  regarding  the  death  of  St.  Hilda,  St.  Bega  must  have 
survived  beyond  the  year  680.31  She  is  said  likewise,  to  have  died,  at  St. 
Bees,  and  to  have  been  buried  in  the  Church  of  her  own  founding  ;3*  yet 
this  statement  is  at  variance  with  all  her  ancient  Acts. 

The  religious  establishment,  formed  by  Bega  at  St.  Bees,  was  subse- 
quently destroyed  by  the  Danes.33  From  remote  times,  and  long  popular 
among  them, 34  the  north-western  inhabitants  of  England,  used  frequently 
resort  to  St.  Bees  as  pilgrims.  Many  miracles  were  wrought  through  the 
Saint's  intercession.  After  her  death,  as  the  Legend  of  her  Life  declares, 
that  bracelet,  which  had  been  left  at  the  place  where  she  lived  in  solitude  at 
Copeland,  was  preserved  as  a  precious  relic.  This  was  held  to  be  a 
guarantee  for  the  peace  preservation  of  that  place.  It  was  customary  to 
swear  on  it  in  trial  cases,  and  those  who  foreswore  themselves,  were  believed 
to  incur  the  heaviest  penalty  of  perjury  and  come  to  a  speedy  death.  It  is 
related  about  a  certain  Galwaither,  or  native  of  Galloway,^  how  his  mother 
warned  him,  setting  out  on  a  predatory  expedition  towards  Copeland,  that  he 
should  not  commit  any  theft  or  depredation  on  the  land  of  St.  Bees.  This 
admonition  he  contemptuously  rejected,36  and  joined  by  other  freebooters, 
he  took  a  horse  from  her  territory,  on  which  he  was  mounted,  when  certain 
young  men,  called  together  by  the  blowing  of  horns,  pursued  the  robbers. 
The  culprit  in  question  was  shot  by  an  arrow,  when  he  fell  immediately  from 
his  horse  and  expired.  This  account  soon  spread  throughout  Galwathia,  and 
thenceforward  the  people  of  that  country  feared  to  commit  any  offence 
against  St.  Bees'  sanctuary,  or  to  break  the  peace  of  her  church.  After 
the  Norman  conquest,  William  de  Meschines,3?  Lord  of  Coupland,38 
gave  St.  Bees  to  the  monks  of  St.  Mary,  in  York.39  There,  too, 
the  founder  built  a  monastery  for  these  religious  men. 4°  But,  after- 
wards, certain  envious  persons  persuaded  him,  that  the  monks  had 
extended  their  possessions,  and  had  unjustly  encroached  on  his  lands. 
This  caused  a  dispute  to  arise,  regarding  the  lawful  bounds  of  their 
monastery.  The  monks  were  summoned  to  defend  their  cause,  which  they 
did  by  producing  their  title  deeds.  After  much  dispute,  a  day  was  named 
for  a  final  decision.  The  monks  betook  themselves  to  prayer,  meantime, 
and  on  the  day  appointed,  a  vast  number  of  people  assembled  to  learn  what 
should  be  the  result.     Then  was  witnessed  a  most  extraordinary  spectacle. 

»  This  is  the  date  assigned  for  the  de-  36  See  Le  Comte  de  Montalembert,  "  Les 

parture  of  St.  Hilda.  Moines  d'Occident,"    tome    v.,    liv.    xvii., 

32  See     Bishop     Challoner's    "Britannia       chap,  i.,  sect,  ii.,  pp.  266,  267. 

Sa"3C?'"?,ar{1ii,'f  12°:     „Wf.t.     M  37  According  to  the  Legend  of  St.  Bees' 

33  bee  Bishop    Tanners   *  Notitia  Mon-       Life,   Ranuiph,  surnamed   Meschines,  gave 
astica     Cumberland,  11.  St.  Bees  lhe   town    of    Rirkebi-oth.rwise    written 

<f,  •  ^Ccimte5.  de  Monta!embert  s  Kirkby  Begog,  now  St.  Bees -with  all  its 
•'Moines  d  Occident      tome  v.,   hv.  xvii.,       appurtenances  and  other  things  to" God  and 

SV^'  TeVlM  5.     5'  f  .1      ™  mi     a  the  Blessed  Virgin>  free'y  and  Hberally  to 

35  The  Latin  writers  of  the  Middle  Ages       tne  monks, 

called  it  Gallwallia  and  Gallovidia,  from  the  ,8 •-    .   __ „   .  n    .     -  /,      ,     .      . 

Irish,  who  formerly  occupied  it,  and  who  .    3   He  is  called  Earl  of  Cumberland,  and 

styled  themselves  Gael,   in  their  own  Ian-  ^    ,      i'"  u    ,  T  °,f  "u^7  k   Kl"g-  °i 

guagc.     In  the  tenth  century,  the   Britons  ^"fi                    '??  *  dau-hfteur' who  !n*medr 

called  it  Galwydel,  and  in  the  Gaelic  it  was  ^  il  !an\'  son  of  Duncan'  of  the  r°yal  lme  of 

Gallgaedhel.     Of  late,  a  most  learned  and  ^coUand- 

interesting  work,  the  "  History  of  the  Lands  39  See     Bishop    Challenor's   "Britannia 

and  their  Owners  in  Galloway,"  has  been  Sancta,"  part  ii.,  p.  120. 

written  by  P.  H.  McKerlie,  F.S.A.  Scot.,  in  <°  They  were  constituted  as  a  Benedictine 

five  8vo  volumes,  Edinburgh,  1870  to  1879.  prior  and  six  monks.     See  Bishop  Tanner's 

It  is  profusely  illustrated  with  woodcuts  of  "Notitia    Monastica,"  Cumberland,   ii.  St. 

notable  localities  and  objects.  Bees. 


September  6. J       LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS.  119 


A  deep  snow*1  fell  and  covered  all  the  ground  adjacent  to  the  bounds, 
attached  by  the  monks  to  the  church  of  St.  Bega,  and  for  which  they  were 
contending,  while  within  them  not  a  single  flake  was  visible.*2  This  was  a 
matter  of  great  rejoicing  among  the  multitude  who  had  assembled. 

Another  remarkable  miracle  is  related  concerning  certain  horses 
belonging  to  a  knight,  named  Godard.*3  They  had  trespassed  on  a  field 
belonging  to  the  monks,  in  which  barley  had  been  sown  and  reaped.  But 
when  the  keepers  of  the  horses  were  appealed  to  by  one  of  the  brotherhood 
to  drive  them  out  of  the  field,  and  to  make  good  the  damage  done,  he  was 
derided  by  the  foolish  boys.  Then  said  he,  looking  towards  the  Church  of 
the  Holy  Patroness  of  St.  Bees  :  "  Oh,  St.  Bega,  do  justice  to  thy  servants, 
suffering  under  injuries,  and  avenge  us  on  those  animals."  Then  a  wonder- 
ful miracle  was  wrought;  for  the  hoofs  separated  from  the  horses'  feet. 
Among  them  was  a  steed,  on  which  Godard,  who  was  Castellan  of  Egre- 
mont,  had  set  a  special  value.  Moved  by  this  incident,  he  gave  the  meadow, 
from  which  the  horses  broke  loose,  to  the  monastery  of  St.  Bega,  and  he 
confirmed  that  grant  in  perpetuity  by  charter.4* 

A  nobleman  of  England,  named  Walter  de  Spec,**  instigated  by  the 
advice  and  importunity  of  Roger,  his  son  and  heir,  went  to  law  with  the 
monks  of  St.  Mary,  York,  respecting  certain  lands,  which  had  been  claimed 
in  right  of  their  monastery.  He  was  one  of  the  chief  barons  of  the  King  ; 
and  on  that  account,  the  judges  appointed  to  try  the  case  were  his  unjust 
partisans.*6  Still  was  it  necessary  to  swear  witnesses  on  the  trial.  How- 
ever, the  monks  had  a  concession  from  the  Supreme  Pontiff,  that  in  any 
question  touching  their  rights,  the  adversary  should  be  obliged  to  swear  on 
any  of  St.  Bega's  relics,  which  the  monks  of  her  church  were  inclined  to 
prefer.  Wherefore,  her  bracelet  was  produced,  and  Walter  perjured 
himself,  in  the  judgment  of  impartial  and  learned  persons,  through  the 
allegations  he  made.  To  him  was  then  awarded  that  possession,  which  of 
right  belonged  to  the  church.  However,  only  a  short  time  elapsed  after  the 
trial,  when  rejoicing  at  the  result,  and  returning  home  with  their  friends, 
his  son  Roger,  who  had  instigated  Walter  to  commit  perjury,  fell  with  a 
restive  horse  on  the  earth,  when  both  horse  and  rider  were  killed.  Grieving 
for  the  loss  of  his  son,  William  deemed  it  a  punishment  that  had  been 
inflicted  for  his  crime.  In  atonement  and  becoming  penitent,  Walter 
restored   that  land  unjustly  taken  from  the  monastery,  in  perpetual  alms. 

41  Alluding  to  St.  Bega,  William  Camden  vol.  iii.  Cartae  ad  St.  Begae  Coenobium  in 
writes  :  "  Cujus  sanctitate  miiacula  adscri-  Agro  Cumbrensi,  Ceilam  Sanctae  Mariae 
buntur  de  tauro  cicurato,  copiosissima  nive,  Eboraci,  spectantes,  num.  iii.  iv. ,  v.,  vi., 
quae  Solstitiali  die,  ilia  precante,  valles  et  pp.  577.  578. 

montium     summitates   alte     intexerat."  —  44  The  account  thus  concludes  :  4*  Ungula: 

u  Britannia,"  p.  325.  vero  ordeo  plenae  ad  ecclesiam   sanctae   vir- 

42  The  old  chronicler  concludes  the  account  ginis  sunt  deportatae,  et  ad  judicium  et  testi- 
in  these  words  :  "  Stupent  igitur  qui  con-  monium  miraculi  hujus  diebus  multis  ibidem 
venerant  ad  tarn  stupendum  miraculum  ;  reservatae.  Ut  licet  omnes  fere  patriot* 
laudes  efferunt  in  ccelum  ;  omniumque  illud  signum  insigne  praedicent  et  clamant, 
judicio  et  favore  remanserunt  termini  terri-  specialiter  tamen  illud  protestantur  pratum 
torii  ecclesioe  sanctae  Begae  usque  in  presens,  ecclesiae  collatum  quod  monachi  in  present i 
sicut  eos  designaverat  descriptum  celeste  possident,  et  carta  inde  facta  quam  habent," 
prodigium." — "  Vita  et  Miracula  S.  Begae,"  — "Vita  S.  Begae,"  p.  67. 

p.  65.  4s  He  fought  under  William  le  Gros,  Earl 

43  This  Godardus  is  witness  to  the  founda-  of  Albemarl  and  Holderness,  in  the  battle  of 
tion  of  St.  Bees'  Priory,  as  also  to  other  the  Standard,  a.d.  1 138.  Some  accounts 
early  grants.  He  appears  to  have  given  give  him  the  command.  See  Young's 
Whittingham  and  Bothale  parish  churches,  "  History  of  Whitby,"  p.  95. 

and  their  respective  tithes,  to  the  Priory  of  4<5  The  old    chronicler    has    it    "  judices 

St.  Bees.     See  "  Monasticum  Anglicanum,"       parti  impire  propitios,  et  injusta  proclives." 


LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS.      [September  6. 


This  he  confirmed  by  a  charter,  Thenceforward,  he  endeavoured  to  make 
satisfaction  for  his  past  transgressions.  Having  lost  his  son  and  heir,  he 
now  resolved  to  dispose  of  his  possessions  for  the  service  of  Almighty  God. 
He  founded  two  splendid  monasteries  for  monks  of  the  Cistercian  Order — 
one  at  Rievaulx,4?  in  the  North  Riding  of  the  County  of  York,  and  another 
at  Wardeu,*8  in  the  County  of  Bedford.  He  founded  a  third  for  Canons  at 
Kirkham,49  a  small  extra-parochial  township,  near  Malton,  in  the  East 
Riding  of  Yorkshire.     The  rest  of  his  days  were  spent  in  doing  good. 

A  custom  had  existed  from  time  immemorial,  between  those  who 
governed  the  territory  of  Copeland  and  the  people  there,  that  oxen  should 
be  taxed  by  the  lords  ;5°  but,  in  many  cases,  men  were  sued  and  adjudged 
to  pay  more  than  they  ought,  and  when  long  contested,  it  was  at  length 
settled,  that  the  case  should  be  tried  by  the  oaths  of  certain  persons.  A  man 
of  respectability,  named  Adam,  the  son  of  Ailsus,  was  deemed  to  be  an 
impartial  lover  and  a  follower  of  truth.  By  agreement  on  the  side  of 
plaintiffs  and  defendants,  he  was  appointed  umpire,  to  state  upon  oath,  what 
had  been  the  custom  from  olden  times,  to  regulate  cases  between  the  lords 
and  their  tenants.  The  bracelet  ot  St.  Bees  was  procured,  and  touching  it, 
Adam  foreswore,  that  the  lords  had  only  demanded  what  was  just,  while  the 
people  should  render  it  by  ancient  custom.  By  such  perjury,  he  conferred 
a  great  gain  on  the  nobles,  while  he  inflicted  a  great  injury  on  the  poorer 
people.  However,  he  was  visibly  punished  soon  afterwards,  having  lost  his 
senses,  and  becoming  a  furious  maniac  for  nine  whole  years.  Although 
unwilling  and  resisting,  his  friends  brought  him  by  force  the  tenth  year  to 
the  Church  of  the  Virgin.  There  they  watched  and  prayed  to  St.  Bees  for 
a  considerable  time.  Meanwhile,  the  maniac  fell  into  a  placid  trance. 
Awakening  from  sleep,  his  senses  were  restored,  and  having  come  to  himself 
he  shed  tears  in  abundance,  giving  thanks  to  God  and  St.  Bega  for  his 
restoration.  For  the  rest  of  his  life  he  was  freed  from  that  sad  condition, 
and  continually  repented  of  his  perjury,  frequently  confessing  to  the  people, 
how  he  had  so  grievously  sinned. s1 

A  precious  covering  for  the  bracelet  had  been  presented  by  a  pious 
woman.  At  a  time  when  the  relic  was  exposed  in  public,  a  perverse  man 
sought  his  opportunity,  and  stole  the  precious  cloth,  which  he  thought  to 
have  concealed  in  his  boot.  This  caused  great  excitement,  as  when  sought 
for,  the  cover  could  not  be  found.  However,  the  leg  of  that  thief,  who  had 
stolen  it,  contracted  to  such  a  degree,  that  it  became  completely  paralysed. 
This  obliged  him  to  reveal  his  crime  before  all,  and  restore  the  coverlet  to 
its  proper  place.  He  was  then  carried  to  the  Church  of  St.  Bega,  and  with 
lighted  torches,  the  whole  night  was  there  spent  by  himself  and  friends  in 
prayer  to  the  holy  virgin.  She  was  ever  merciful  to  the  prayers  of  the 
penitent,  and  that  man's  lirnb  was  restored  to  its  former  soundness.  The 
people  who  knew  of  it  gave  praise  to  God,  who  had  glorified  his  saint  by 
such  a  manifest  sign. 


47  This  Abbey  was  founded  A.  i>.  113 1.  Latin  is   interpreted  Persoliitio  Bourn,    in 

48  Otherwise  called  De  Sartis  Abbey.  It  English,  a  Tribute  of  Oxen.  William,  Ear] 
was  founded  A.D.  1135.  It  was  furnished  of  Albemarle,  appears  to  have  claimed  this 
with  monks  from  the  then  recently  estab-  tribute  in  the  district  of  Copeland,  and  out 
lished  Abbey  at  Rievaulx.  of  the  returns,  he   gave  six   cattle   to   the 

49  This  Priory  for  Augustine  Friars  was  monks  of  St.  Bees. 

founded  A.D.   1121.     It  was  situated  in  a  »'  The    chronicler    adds:    "nee    tamen 

vale,  on  the  east  bank  of  the  Derwent.  ejus  confessio,  licet  publica,   plebem  potuit 

50  In  the  Anglo-Saxon  language,  this  absolveie  ab  imposit^  pensionis  gravi 
custom    was  known  as  Neutgeld,   which  in  jugo.'' 


September  6.]      LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS.  12 


At  Workington,53  a  town  in  Copeland,  near  the  Derwent,  three  men  were 
returning  home  from  a  booth  on  a  certain  Sunday.  They  had  their  daily 
potation,  and  a  quarrel  arose  among  them.  From  angry  words  they  came 
to  blows,  and  those  three,  setting  on  a  fourth  person,  dragged  him  to  a  little 
house,  designated  a  torrel,53  where  holding  him  down  with  their  hands  about 
his  throat,  they  strangled  or  smothered  him.  This  villainy  being  soon 
discovered,  the  villagers  flocked  from  all  parts,  but  taking  away  the  dead 
body,  they  found  no  wounds  upon  it.  According  to  their  custom  there, 
they  sounded  horns  to  raise  the  alarm,  and  all  collected  to  seize  the 
culprits.  These  were  captured,  bound  and  led  by  officials,  appointed  for 
such  occasions,  to  the  Castle  of  Egremont,  in  which  they  were  committed  to 
prison.  Their  dungeon  was  dark  and  filthy;  they  were  bound  with  fetters, 
and  in  daily  expectation  of  being  condemned  to  death,  when  overpowered 
by  the  misery  of  their  situation,  humbling  their  souls  before  the  Lord,  and 
with  falling  tears,  they  often  invoked  St.  Bega  to  effect  their  liberation. 
When  they  had  thus  prayed  daily,  and  with  great  contrition  of  soul,  a  vener- 
able and  beautiful  female  apparition  addressed  them  in  these  words : 
"  Looking,  I  saw  your  affliction,  and  I  heard  your  groans  in  the  darkness 
and  shadow  of  death,  and  I  have  come  to  free  you."  They  replied  :  "  Who 
art  thou,  lady,  who  cometh  to  visit  us  unworthy  sinners  ?  "  She  replied : 
u  I  am  the  servant  of  Christ,  Bega,  whom  you  have  diligently  called  upon 
in  the  day  of  your  trouble ;  I  will  wholly  release  you  and  free  your  lives  from 
the  hands  of  those  who  complain  against  you.  Arise,  go  forth  and  come 
after  me  in  safety  ;  I  will  bring  you  to  my  asylum."  Giving  thanks,  and 
finding  their  chains  loosed,  they  followed  her  without  molestation  from  the 
keepers,  and  came  to  the  domain  of  St.  Bega.  When  they  approached  her 
Church,  their  fetters  snapped  asunder,  and  the  vision  of  the  walking  saint 
vanished.  Being  thus  free,  with  hurried  steps  they  entered  that  sacred 
edifice,  and  poured  forth  their  souls  in  praise  and  thanksgiving.  There,  too, 
in  testimony  of  their  liberation,  they  left  their  fetters,  as  a  memorial  and 
offering  to  God  and  to  St.  Bega. 

A  certain  wicked  man,  named  John,  having  vainly  endeavoured  to  seduce 
Beatrice,  the  wife  of  William,  surnamed  the  Hare,  at  length  took  occasion 
with  a  confederate  to  carry  her  off  by  force  on  a  festival  day,  held  on  the 
Sabbath  before  Pentecost. 54  Returning  home  with  her  mother,  and  after 
the  usual  devotions  were  over,  the  ruffians  seized  on  Beatrice,  bore  her  on  a 

52  This  is  now  a  sea-port  town,  and  the  tuted  to  honour  St.  Bega,  as  the  writer  of 
head  of  a  parish  in  the  West  Division  of  her  Life  and  Miracles  states  :  "  homines  illius 
Cumberland.  The  monks  of  St.  Bees,  by  terrse  ob  quaedam  insignia  sanctitatis  sanctse 
charter  of  Ranulf  Meschines,  possessed  a  yirginis  tunc  illic  inventa,  et  signa  ibidem 
mill  at  this  place.  The  town  is  situated  on  perpetrata  solent  solempnizare  ;  et  ecclesiam 
the  south  bank  of  the  Derwent,  and  near  its  illius  visitando  orationum  et  oblationum 
influx  to  the  sea.  After  her  escape  from  the  hostiis  honorare."  There  can  hardly  be  a 
field  of  Langside,  Maiy  Queen  of  Scots  doubt,  that  Whitsuntide,  and  probably 
landed  here  in  1568,  and  sought  an  asylum  in  Christmas  and  Easter,  were  formerly  seasons 
Workington  Hall.  The  Curwens  hospitably  when  the  faithful  frequented  the  church  of 
entertained  her,  and  the  room  in  which  she  St.  Bees  in  great  numbers.  It  seems,  that 
slept  is  still  known  as  the  Queen's  Chamber.  among  the  Anglicans,  communicants  still 
Afterwards,  Queen  Elizabeth  gave  directions  resort  to  the  church  of  St.  Bees,  at  the 
for  her  removal  to  Carlisle  Castle.  festival  of  Easter,  and  they  come  from  con- 

53  This  term  applies  to  "  a  kiln."  In  the  siderable  distances,  when  their  Eucharist  is 
"  Leges  Burgaium  Scoticorum,"  there  is  administered  so  early  as  eight  o'clock  in  the 
allusion  to  it  as  "  ane  kill  ghair  comes  are  morning.  Then  the  village  presents  an 
dryed."  That  torrel,  the  scene  of  this  unwonted  appearance  from  the  influx  of 
homicide,  was  undoubtedly  connected  with  visitors.  See  G.  C.  Tomlinson's  "  Life  and 
(lie  monks'  mill  at  Workington.  Miracles    of    Sancta    Bega,"    p.    73,    and 

54  This  was  evidently  some  festival  insti-  appendix,  note,  p.  80. 


122  LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS.      [September  6. 


horse  ready  prepared,  outraged,  and  carried  her  away.  She  could  not  resist 
by  struggling,  but  calling  upon  the  protection  of  God  and  St.  Bega,  she  pro- 
hibited the  ruffians  from  doing  her  violence.  Meanwhile  the  mother  of 
Beatrice  quickly  raised  the  alarm  with  loud  cries  and  lamentations.  The 
brothers  of  the  ill-used  woman  heard  of  this  transaction,  and  quickly 
arming  themselves,  set  out  in  pursuit  of  the  fugitives.  The  accomplice  was 
soon  seized,  and  the  woman's  brothers  cut  off  his  head.  The  chief  mis- 
creant, flying  for  his  life,  concealed  himself  in  a  thick  wood.  But,  he  could 
not  escape  the  wrath  of  the  Almighty.  An  evil  spirit  seized  upon  him,  and 
ceased  not  to  worry  him,  even  to  the  close  of  his  miserable  existence.  He 
wandered  about  a  vagabond  and  an  outlaw  through  various  parts  ;  his  clothes 
hung  about  him  in  rags,  and  his  flesh  was  torn  off  piecemeal  among  the 
thickets  and  briars.  A  pitiable  spectacle  he  became ;  at  length  he  died,  and 
his  body  was  interred  at  Holm  Cultram,"  in  Cumberland. 

Another  miracle  is  recorded,  regarding  a  native  of  Chartres,  in  France, 
and  who,  having  had  a  vision  to  encourage  him,  brought  two  sons  to  Eng- 
land. One  of  them  was  a  paralytic  and  dumb  from  his  birth  ;  while  the 
other  was  afflicted  with  a  fistula.56  In  a  sort  of  small  cart,  which  the  father 
drew  after  him,  both  boys  were  placed,  and  brought  through  the  land  to 
divers  saints'  shrines.  Having  reached  Tynemouth,  in  the  north  of 
England,  the  poor  man  was  excessively  wearied.  In  despair,  he  was  about 
to  return  and  seek  his  own  country,  when  a  beautiful  person  appeared  in  a 
night-vision,  and  directed  him  to  visit  the  Church  of  St.  Bega,  in  Copeland. 
Accordingly  he  went  thither,  and  passed  the  night  in  her  church.  When 
the  morning  brightened  into  day,  the  elder  son,  palsied  and  dumb,  felt  a 
glorified  virgin  touch  him  j  when  suddenly,  and  with  renewed  strength,  he 
stood  upright,  and  for  the  first  time  his  tongue  was  loosed,  to  give  utterance 
to  a  few  words  in  his  native  Gallic  tongue,  and  even  he  spoke  in  English,  to 
him  a  foreign  language.  He  then  went  to  the  altar,  returning  thanks  with 
all  who  were  present  to  God  and  to  St.  Bega.  In  the  next  place,  vigils  and 
prayers  for  the  younger  son  were  continued.  After  some  time,  the  fistula 
disappeared,  the  boy  being  restored  to  perfect  health  and  vigour.  Again 
were  the  praises  of  God  and  His  holy  servant  Bega  proclaimed.  After  some 
days  had  elapsed,  that  pious  father,  with  his  two  sons,  returned  to  France, 
leaving  the  little  car  which  had  brought  them  to  St.  Bees  in  the  place,  and 
as  a  testimony  of  that  remarkable  miracle.57 

St.  Bega  is  thought  to  have  founded  a  nunnery  in  the  territory  of  Coup- 
land,  near  Carlisle.  There,  also,  she  is  said  to  have  erected  a  small  church. s8 
This  appears  to  have  been  no  other  than  St.  Bees,  her  chiefest  foundation, 
and  it  lay  within  the  kingdom  of  Strathclyde.^  Moreover,  in  the  "  Monasticon 
Anglicanum,"  compiled  by  Roger  Dodsworth  and  Sir  William  Dugdale, 
St.  Bega  is  stated  to  have  founded  four  monasteries.60  However,  there  seems 
to  be  no  certainty  that  she  founded  more  than  three,  viz. :  those  of  Copeland, 
Heorthu,  and  Hartlepool.61     During  an  incursion  from  Scotland  in  1315, 

55  A  Cistercian  abbey  had  been  founded  57  See  Tomlinson's  "  Life  and  Miracles  of 

here  by  Henry,  son  to  David,  king  of  Scot-  Sancta  Bega,"  pp.  40  to  43. 

land,   a.d.    1 150,   according  to    Dugdale's  5»  See     Bishop    Challenor's    "Britannia 

"Monasticon  Anglicanum,"  vol.  v.,  p.  593.  Sancta,"  part  ii.,  p.  120. 

New  edition.      However,  from  an  old  MS.,  59  According    to     Bishop     Forbes,    this 

Leland  has  "  Alanus,  films  Waldeff  primus  foundation     took     place     in     656.       See 

fuit    fundator." — "  De    Rebus    Britannicis  "Kalendars  of  Scottish  Saints,"  p.  278. 

Collectanea,"  vol.  i.,  p.  38.  6o  See  tomus  i.,  p.  395. 

s6  This  miracle  is  alluded  to,  in  the  Ninth  6l  See  "  Les  Fetits  Hollandistes,  "  Vies  des 

Lesson  of  the  Saint's  Office,  as  contained  in  Saints,"   vol.    x.,    Jour  vie   Saptembre,   p. 

the  Aberdeen  Breviary.  529. 


September  6.]      LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS.  123 


the  church  and  possessions  of  St.  Bees  sustained  considerable  injury.62  This 
account  has  been  left  in  Manuscript,^  by  an  unknown  monk  of  St.  Mary's 
Monastery,  at  York. 

At  the  6th  of  September,  St.  Bega  is  venerated,  according  to  the 
11  Martyrologium  Anglicanum"  of  John  Wilson, 6*  Ferrarius,6s  Arthurus,66  and 
Wion.6?  In  the  anonymous  Calendar  of  Irish  Saints,68  St.  Bega  is  mentioned 
at  the  same  day.  She  is  likewise  commemorated  in  the  Circle  of  -the 
Seasons,  at  this  date/9  If  we  are  to  credit  Dempster's  statement^0  St.  Bega 
was  venerated  in  Scotland,  on  this  day,  and  at  a  place  called  Kilbeg.  Also 
is  she  commemorated  by  David  Camerarius,?1  at  the  8th  September.  In 
Scotland,  she  was  honoured  at  Kilbucho,?2  and  at  Kilbagie.73  There  is  a 
glebe  likewise  at  Kilbegie  ;?4  and  probably  Kilbagie,75  in  Clackmannan  is 
named  after  her.  Throughout  England  and  Scotland,  also,  a  feast  has  been 
assigned  to  St.  Bees,  on  the  31st  of  October.?6  This  is  the  date  given  for 
her  chief  festival,  in  the  Breviary  of  Aberdeen,  and  also  by  Greven,  in  his 
additions  to  Usuard.  Under  the  name  of  St.  Bees,  it  is  said  that  she  was 
likewise  honoured  on  the  22nd  of  November.77  Again,  Gabriel  Bucelin?8 
has  referred  her  feast  to  the  28th  of  December.  Besides  the  Natalis  for  her 
death — generally  supposed  to  have  been  the  31st  of  October — the  foregoing 
festivals  must  have  reference  to  the  translation  of  her  relics,  or  to  some 
special  commemoration  intended  to  increase  popular  devotion  for  her.  Yet, 
perhaps  it  is  more  probable,  especially  in  latter  times,  that  some  errors  of 
date  may  have  crept  into  the  kalendars,  or  some  confusion  of  correct  identi- 
fication has  probably  occurred. 

Assuming  a  gifted  Irish  pilgrim's  visit  to  the  Shrine  of  St.  Bees,  and 
enquiries  there  made,  to  be  incidents  of  real  life,?9  it  would  appear,  that  the 
natives  of  Cumberland,  in  the  present  century,  know  little  regarding  this 
stranger  virgin,  who  had  once  been  held  by  their  ancestors  in  distinguished 
honour.80  It  was  otherwise  in  those  middle  ages,  when  the  chronicler  of  her 
fame  and  miracles  could  only  relate  what  was  most  clear,  coming  from  the 
evidence  of  many  Cumbrians,  and  what  most  deserved  belief.     There  could 


62  Anno  Di.   1315.     Robertus  Brus  obsi-  73  See   Statistical  Account  of  Scotland," 

debat   Carleolum.      Quo   tempore  Jacobus  vol.  viii.,  p.  605,  and  vol  xiv.,  p.  623. 

Duglas  multa  mala  fecit  apud  Egremont,  et  74  See    "  Origines   Parochiales    Scotia," 

spoliavit  eccl.      S.   Begae,    ac   maneria  de  part  ii.,  p.  822. 

Cletter    et   Stainebume    prions     S.    Begoe  75  See  "New  Statistical  Account  of  Scot- 

combusserunt."  —  Leland,     "  De      Rebus  land  "  vol   viii    pp  3    128 

Bri!Tfnifi^?nlleHtane^n°meAiMP;K4,       >  76See    Rt-   "Rev-    'Patri'ck    F-     Koran's 

K<Z^^L™       ^    AbbatlbuSCt  "In*  Saints  in  Great  Britain,"  chap  v., 


6<t  Edition  of  1608. 


p.  160. 


*->  In  «  Catalogus  Generalis  Sanctorum. "  Jl  {^  t0  S5.f?ngli?  AMartyrol°gy 

66  In  Sacro  Gynoeceo.  of  John  Wllson'     Edltlon  of  l64°- 

67  In  "  Lignum  Vita,"  lib.  iii.  Appendix.  1%  In  the  "  Menologium  Benedictinum." 

68  Published  by  O'Sullivan  Beare,  in  79  See  the  verses  headed  "  Saint  Bees," 
"  Historise  Catholics  Ibernice  Com-  m  the  admirably  edited  Poems  of  Thomas 
pendium,"  tomus  i.,  lib  iv.,  cap.  xi.,  p.  ci.  D'Arcy  M'Gee,  with  copious  notes.     Also 

°'  See  p.  250.  an   Introduction  and  Biographical  Sketch, 

70  See    Bishop    Forbes'    "Kalendars    of  bv    Ml's-    J.    Sadlier,  —  "Historical    and 

Scottish    Saints,"    Menologium    Scoticum,  Legendary   Poems,"   pp.    360,   361,     New 

p.  210.  York,  1869,  8vo. 

7'  See     ibid.    Scottish     Entries     in    the  8o  He  says  :— 
Kalendar  of  David  Camerarius,  p.  240. 

7*  See  Chalmers'  "  Caledonia,"  vol.  ii.,  p.  "  I  stood  within  the  fontless  porch, 

958;    "Statistical   Account   of  Scotland,"  I  paced  the  empty  nave, 

vol.  iv.,  p.  344  ;  and  "  Origines  Parochiales  The  very  verger  of  the  church 

Scotiae, '  part  1..  p.  177.  A  false  tradition  gave."— Ibid. 


i24  LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS.       [September  6. 


be  no  end  to  his  narrative,  states  the  compiler  of  her  Acts,  were  all  such 
signs  of  her  sanctity  and  miracles  to  be  written,  regarding  the  Virgin  Bega, 
who  now  reigns  in  endless  glory,  and  with  Him,  who  is  infinite  and  eternal. 


ARTICLE  II.— ST.  MAGNUS,  MAGOBALDUS,  MAGNOALD,  OR 
MAGNOBALDUS,  APOSTLE  OF  SUABIA. 

[SIXTH   AND    SEVENTH    CENTURIES.} 

CHAPTER     I. 

INTRODUCTION — WRITERS  OF  THE  ACTS  OF  ST.  MAGNOALDUS  OR  MAGNUS— IRELAND 
THE  COUNTRY  OF  HIS  BIRTH — PERIOD  OF  HIS  NATIVITY— HE  BECOMES  A  DISCIPLE 
OF  ST.  COLUMBAN — SAINTS  MAGNOALD  AND  GALL  REMAIN  IN  SWITZERLAND — 
ADMONITION  TO  MAGNOALD  OF  ST.  COLUMBAN  AND  PROPHECY  BEFORE  SETTING 
OUT  FOR  ITALY. 

While  abundant  light  has  been  thrown  on  the  incidents  of  modern 
history,  as  also  on  the  life  and  actions  of  celebrated  characters  who  have 
lived  in  our  own  times,  owing  to  the  issue  of  printed  works,  and  the  recorded 
memoranda  or  correspondence  of  contemporaneous  writers ;  far  different  are 
the  old  manuscript  memorials  of  doubtful  authenticity,  or  whose  authors  and 
sources  for  information  are  not  sufficiently  accredited,  when  we  seek  to  establish 
facts  relating  to  many  of  our  old-world  saints.  Such,  it  must  be  admitted, 
is  often  the  case,  with  regard  to  acts,  conveying  to  us  the  most  remote 
traditions,  in  reference  to  the  present  holy  man.  The  only  ancient  authority 
for  his  life  is,  unfortunately,  not  altogether  trustworthy.  This  is  a  memoir, 
which  it  is  stated  had  been  written  by  his  companion  and  disciple  Theodore,1 
and  who  laid  it  under  the  abbot's  head,  when  he  had  been  buried.  Then 
the  account  runs,  that  when  the  body  was  disinterred,  and  on  the  stone 
coffin  being  opened,  in  the  ninth  century,  the  book  had  been  taken  out,  and 
when  greatly  decayed  by  age,  it  was  delivered  to  Ermenric,  of  Elwangen,2  to 
re-edit.  However,  it  is  supposed — at  least  in  great  part — to  have  been  a 
forgery  of  the  tenth  or  twelfth  century.3  This  Life  is  made  up  of  long 
extracts  from  Jonas,  the  monk  of  Bobbio,  who  wrote  the  Acts  of  St. 
Columban,  and  from  Walafridus  Strabo,*  who  wrote  the  Acts  of  St.  Gall. 
Events  related  of  others  are  transferred  to  Magnoald.s  Where  the  composer 
of  this  Life  had  genuine  lives  to  manipulate,  and  convert  to  a  memoir  of  St. 
Magnoald,  his  book  is  interesting  ;  but,  when  he  brings  the  abbot  to  that 
ground  where  his  abbey  had  been  founded,  and  for  which  the  lives  of  St. 
Columban  and  St.  Gall  furnished  no  data,  frequently  he  lapses  into  foolish 


Article  ii. — Chapter  i. — '  Called  by  cujusdam  impostoris." 

Latin    writers,  Theodorus  Campedonensis,  *  Pere  Charles  le  Cointe  holds  the  writer 

from  the  place  where  he  passed  a  part  of  his  to  have  been  a  synchronus  of  St.  Magnus, 

life  as  an  abbot.     He   was  a  monk  of  St.  and     to    have     thus    flourished    prior    to 

Gall  and  of  St.  Magnus.     It  is  stated,  that  Walafridus  Strabo.     See  "Annates  Eccle- 

by  command  of  Bishop  Tozzo,  he  wrote  the  siastici     Francorum,"    tomus    ii.,    at    A.D. 

lifeof  his  master,  St.  Magnus.     He  flourished  614. 

A.D.   680.    See   Rev.    Dr.  William   Cave's  s  Thus,  the  incidents  told  of  St.  Cagnoald, 

"  Scriptorum      Ecclesiasticorum      Historia  Bishop  of  Laon,  who  flourished  in  the  seventh 

Literaria,"  volumen  i.  Sseculum   Monothe-  century,  are  related  verbatim  of  Magnoald, 

leticum,  p.  595.  the  writer  only  changing  the  letter  C  into 

2  He  died  a.d.  866.  M.     See   Benkert's    "  Athanasia,"  vol.    xi. 

3  Thus  Basnage  states  :  "  Nee  Theodori  Kritische  Priifung  d,  Lebensgesch  der  Heil. 
nee    Ermenrici   illud    est    opusculum,    sed  Magnus,  p.  414.     Wurzburg,  1832. 


September  6.]      LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS. 


25 


legend.6  This  scepticism  about  the  bona  fides  of  Theodore's  Acts  has  been 
drawn  in  a  great  measure  from  an  opinion  of  the  learned  Father  Mabillon, 
that  they  were  composed  by  some  impostor  i  under  such  a  shadowy  title. 
This,  however,  is  too  sweeping  a  charge,  and  it  seems  far  more  probable  that 
the  writer's  errors  are  owing  to  ignorance  rather  than  to  deliberate  forgery. 
The  Bollandists  have  very  fully  treated  about  St.  Magnoaldus,  or  Magnus, 
at  the  6th  of  September.8  There  is  a  previous  commentary,9  and  then 
follows  the  unauthentic  life  of  the  saint,10  attributed  to  the  monk  Theodore, 
of  Kempten,  as  taken  from  a  manuscript "  of  St.  Maximinus  of  Treves. 
Afterwards  succeeds  an  account  of  miracles,12  attributed  to  the  saint's  inter- 
cession.^ This  holy  abbot's  Acts  have  been  edited  by  Father  Constantine 
Suysken,  S.J.,  who  has  laboured  much  to  investigate  or  unravel  the  obscure 
and  often  contradictory  materials  that  are  left  for  enquiry.  In  the  first 
place  the  original  life,  as  stated,  if  written  by  Theodorus,14  and  buried  with 
the  saint,  was  almost  defaced  and  scarcely  legible,  when  discovered  in  the 
ninth  century,  and  at  present  it  is  not  known  to  exist.  Again,  by  four 
persons,  that  copy  is  said  to  have  been  given  to  a  certain  Ermenric,1^  a 
monk  and  levite  of  Elewanga,  to  revise  and  restore.  Neither  is  that 
particular  manuscript  to  be  found,  and  we  know  not  if  the  task  committed  to 
him  had  been  reliably  executed.  But,  in  the  third  place,  that  same  work 
appears  to  have  fallen  into  other  hands  ;l6  while  in  the  process  of  emendation, 
the  Acts  of  St.  Magnus  have  become  vitiated,  in  point  of  historic  accuracy — 
whether  through  ignorance  or  fraud  remains  to  be  solved.     When  and  where 


6  See  Rev.  S.  Baring-Gould's  "  Lives  of 
the  Saints,"  vol.  ix.,  September  6,  p.  94. 

7  He  adds :  "  Qui  Magnum  appellat 
Magnoaldum,  ut  Chagnoaldi  sancti  Colum- 
bani  discipuli  facta  personato  suo  M agnoaldo 
affingat.  Non  immoror  fabulis  illius  impos- 
toris  observandis,  quas  in  actis  sanctorum 
nostrorum  manifeste  detexi.  Nihil  itaque 
certi  sive  de  Magno,  sive  de  Theodoro  nobis 
succurrit,  nisi  quod  eos  non  Columbani,  sed 
Galli  discipulos,  non  Scotto-Hibernos,  sed 
Alamanos  fuisse  constat  ex  Walafiido 
Strabone,  qui  eos  Willimari  presbyteri 
clericos  extitisse  ait,  antequam  in  sancti 
Galli  disciplinam  cooptarentur." — "  Annales 
Ordinis  S.  Benedicti,"  tomus  i.,  lib.  xiii., 
sect,  xxxiii.,  p.  393. 

8  See  "Acta  Sanctorum,"  tomus  ii.,  Sep- 
tembris  vi.  De  Sancto  Magno  Monasterii 
Faucensis,  Abbate  Primo  Fussse  in  Sueria, 
pp.  700  to  78 x. 

9  In  thirteen  sections,  and  one  hundred 
and  seventy-five  paragraphs. 

10  In  eight  chapters,  and  seventy-eight 
paragraphs,  with  accompanying  notes. 

11  Collated  with  the  editions  of  Henricus 
Canisius  and  of  Melchior  Goldast,  together 
with  six  other  manuscripts- 

12  Miracula  auctore  P.  Ludovico  Babens- 
tuber  Benedictino  Ettalensi. 

13  These  miracles  are  contained  in  seven 
chapters,  and  in  one  hundred  and  fifty-six 
paragraphs,  with  illustrative  notes. 

M  Said  to  have  been  a  monk  or  eremite  of 
Campidonum  or  Kempten.  This  Theodore 
is  represented  as  the  companion,  or  rather 


disciple,  of  St.  Magnus  in  his  apostolic 
labours,  to  have  been  witness  of  nearly  all 
the  miracles  he  relates,  and  to  have  been  a 
friend,  at  the  hour  of  his  death. 

15  By  some,  he  is  also  named  Ermenold, 
who  lived  in  the  time  of  the  Blessed  Raban 
Maur,  whose  life  may  be  found  in  the 
second  volume  of  this  work,  at  the  4th  of 
February,  Art.  iv.  Ermenric  became  the 
seventh  Abbot  of  the  monastery  of  Elewan- 
gen,  in  the  diocese  of  Augustana,  a.d.  845, 
according  to  Mabillon.  In  his  epistles  to 
Gundramnus  and  Ruodolfus,  he  speaks  very 
modestly  of  his  abilities.  "  An  vero  S. 
Magni  Vitam,  qualis  typis  edita  est  exara- 
verit,  certo  pronunciare  non  licet."  "Acta 
Sanctorum  Ordinis  S.  Benedicti,"  ssec.  ii. 

16  The  third  revisor  or  interpolator,  in 
reference  to  Ermenric,  states,  that  the  latter, 
compelled  by  obedience,  and  not  willing  to 
contemn  the  order  of  a  pontiff,  undertook 
the  patch-work,  according  to  the  best  of  his 
ability,  although  little  learned  to  amend  and 
insert  what  should  be  proper.  However,  he 
accomplished  the  task,  through  Divine 
assistance,  renewing  the  writing  and  correct- 
ing what  he  found  in  a  confused  state,  and 
making  the  text  clearer  by  means  of  chapters. 
To  his  emendations  or  possibly  corruptions 
of  the  original  text,  Father  Suysken  justly 
objects,  and  naturally  preferred  he  had 
assumed  only  the  role  of  amanuensis,  and  not 
that  of  interpolator.  The  Bollandist  editor 
adds:  "utinam,  inquam,  ipsa  Theodori 
verba,  confusa  utcumque  gestorum  serie, 
integre  fideliterque  posteritate  tradidisset." 


26 


LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS.      [September  6. 


the  errors  have  crept  in  cannot  well  be  determined  j1?  but,  a  suspicion  remains, 
that  many  of  the  mis-statements  occurring  are  attributed  to  a  compiler  of  the 
eleventh  century,'8  who  appears  to  have  had  access  to  the  Acts  of  St. 
Magnus,  said  to  have  been  written  by  the  monk,  Theodore,  and  restored  by 
Ermenric.  Under  such  specious  mask,  not  a  few  have  been  deceived,  who 
imagined  that  the  Acts  still  preserved  must  have  had  their  origin  on  a 
respectable  and  trustworthy  ancient  authority. J9  Of  the  later  interpolated 
Acts,  various  manuscript  copies  have  reached  our  time,  and  some  of  these 
have  been  already  printed.  In  the  Bollandist  Library  there  were  various 
copies.  Among  these  were  four  distinct  ones,20  taken  from  a  Manuscript 
Vita  S.  Magni,  belonging  to  the  Library  of  St.  Maximinius  of  Treves.  This 
latter  the  Bollandist  editor  selected  as  a  text  for  publication.21  Besides 
these,  the  Jesuit  Father  Gamans  had  formerly  sent  a  double  copy ;  one 
taken  from  the  library  of  Saints  Udalric22  and  Afra,23  Augsburg,  and  the 
other  from  a  monastery  at  Ratisbon.2*  Among  all  of  these  might  be  found 
some  differences  of  statement.  a$ 

From  the  interpolated  Acts  of  St.  Magnus,  all  subsequent  published 
accounts  are  chiefly  drawn.  Those  Acts  have  been  printed  by  Henricus 
Canisius,26  and  by  Melchior  de  Haiminsfeld  Goldast,2?  while  Surius 28  has 


1  Mabillon  supposed,  that  the  Acts  of  St. 
Magnus,  as  manipulated  by  Ermenric,  had 
been  temerariously  enlarged  by  a  later  writer. 
Father  Suysken  has  a  suspicion  of  another 
interpolation  in  the  original  of  Ermenric, 
from  a  reading  found  in  one  manuscript 
copy,  regarding  a  miracle  related  in  sub- 
stance, but  in  different  words,  from  those 
found  in  other  codices.  And  that  the  evident 
introduction  of  passages,  from  Walafrid 
Strabo's  Life  of  St.  Gall,  into  that  of  St. 
Magnus,  should  not  be  attributed  to  Ermen- 
ric, seems  sufficiently  established. 

18  There  exists  a  copy  ot  the  interpolated 
Acts  of  St.  Magnus,  and  written  by  an  anony- 
mous monk  of  Ratisbon.  It  bears  the 
following  title  :  "  Ex  pergam.  antiquiss. 
codice  MS.  Augustae  ad  SS.  Udalr.  et 
Afram  ab  an.  700  conscripto,  in  4  Tit. 
Legendae  aliquot  SS.  lit.  z.  n.  36-"  In  his 
M  Vetara  Analecta,"  Mabillon  inserts  a  tract, 
written  by  a  certain  monk,  of  Ratisbon, 
whose  name  is  not  given,  and  in  reference  to 
his  own  temptations.  After  returning  from 
Fulda  to  Ratisbon,  alluding  to  his  labours  by 
candlelight,  the  monk  writes  :  "  Postquam 
vero  redii  Vitam  S.  Magni  scripsi,  compul- 
sus  fratrum  duorum  precihus  intimis  et  assi- 
duis,  Wilhelmi  scilicet  ex  congregatione 
nostra,  et  alterius  qui  ad  nos  discendi  causa 
ex  Monasterio  S.  Magni  \enit  Adalham  d ic- 
tus, qui  nunc  in  S.  Alfrre  ccenobio  abbas  est 
constitutus." — Pars  ii.  This  unknown  writer 
had  already  premised,  that  he  left  the  Monas- 
tery of  St.  Einmeram  at  Ratisbon,  A.D.  1062, 
so  that  he  must  have  written  the  Acts  of  St. 
Magnus,  after  the  middle  of  the  eleventh 
century.  This  is  further  established,  from 
certain  passages  to  be  found  in  a  Prologue, 
attached  to  those  Acts. 

*'  Whether  weight  or  consideration  might 
be  attributable  to  the  earliest  versions,  the 


additions  made  are  so  faulty  in  chronological 
accuracy,  in  several  places,  that  even  those 
Acts  are  rendered  self-contradictory. 

20  One  has  for  title  these  words  :  "  Vita  S. 
Magnoaldi,  qui  et  Magnus,  discipuli  S. 
Columbani  et  Galli."  The  second  has  this 
heading  :  "  Vita  Sancti  Magni  seu  Magno- 
aldi, ex  Monacho  Luxoviensi,  abbatis  monas- 
terii  Faucium,  in  dicecesi  Augustana,  a 
Theodoro  ejus  socio  primum  conscripta, 
deinde  ab  Hermenrico,  Elewangensi  mona- 
cho, recensita  et  aucta."  The  other  two 
properly  add  after  the  foregoing  announce- 
ment, "  denique  ab  anonymo  recentiore 
digesta  et  aucta." 

21  By  him  and  by  Mabillon  allusion  is 
made  to  the  Tract,  as  the  Acta  or  Vita 
Pseudo-Theodori,  a  title  by  which  it  shall 
be  subsequently  designated. 

22  Or  Waldric,  Bishop  of  Augsburg,  His 
festival  occurs  on  the  4th  of  July. 

23  Or  Afre,  Martyr  at  Augsburg.  His 
feast  is  held  on  the  5th  of  August. 

24  "  Ratisbon  is  one  of  the  oldest  cities  of 
central  Europe.  Some  of  its  buildings  date 
from  the  time  when  it  was  fortified  by  the 
Romans  and  called  Castra  Regince" — 
"  Picturesque  Europe,"  vol.  v.,  p.  274. 

25  See  Acta  Sanctorum,"  tomus  ii.,  Sep- 
tembris  vi.  De  Sancto  Magno,  &c,  Com- 
mentarius  Praevius,  sect,  i.,  pp.  700  to  702. 

26  In  "  Antiquae  Lectiones,"  tomus  v., 
Ingolstad,  a.d.  1604.  This  has  been  taken 
from  a  vellum  manuscript  belonging  to  the 
Monastery  of  St.  Magnus,  near  the  bridge  at 
Ratisbon.  In  the  year  1725,  this  work,  re- 
printed and  put  into  greater  order  by  James 
Basnage,  was  published  in  seven  folio 
volumes,  at  Amsterdam,  under  the  title, 
' '  Thesaurus  Monumentorum  Ecclesiasti- 
corum."  It  contains  prefaces  and  valuable 
notes  by  the  editor. 


September  6.]       LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS. 


127 


likewise  the  Life  of  St.  Magnus.  In  1621,  Martin,  Abbot  of  Fussen,  edited 
the  Acts  of  St.  Magnus  in  Latin.  Mathew  Rader29  wrote  a  Life  of  the 
saint,  from  the  same  compilation  in  "Bavaria  Pia."3°  Again,  Father 
Ludovicus  Babenstuber  composed  the  Acts  of  St.  Magnus,  in  Latin,  and  to 
these  he  has  added  the  particulars  of  many  miracles  wrought  through  the 
merits  of  the  holy  abbot.  Father  John  Colgan  had  intended  to  issue  the 
Acts  of  St.  Magnus  at  the  present  date,  as  we  find  from  the  posthumous 
list  of  his  Manuscripts.31  Notices  of  him  are  in  the  work  of  Father  Stephen 
White,  S.J.32  The  Benedictines  33  have  the  Acts  of  St.  Magnus,  in  sixteen 
paragraphs.  In  the  Annals  of  his  Order,  Mabillon  also  has  allusion  to  him. 34 
In  the  year  1729,  a  Life  of  St.  Magnus  appeared  in  German,  and  by  some 
anonymous  writer  belonging  to  the  Monastery  at  Fussen.  In  this  are 
inscribed  many  miracles,  ascribed  to  the  virtues  of  the  Patron.  Notices 
of  this  holy  abbot  are  to  be  found  in  Les  Petits  Bollandistes,35  under  the 
name  of  Magne  or  Mang,  and  by  R«v.  S.  Baring-Gould.3*5 

According  to  the  old  Acts,  attributed  to  Theodorus  Campodunensis — 
meaning  Kempten — St.  Magnoald,  or  Magnus,  was  born  in  Hibemia.37 
Such  account  has  been  followed  by  nearly  all  subsequent  writers  who  have 
treated  about  him.  We  may  here  observe  that  Magnoaldus  was  the  name  by 
which  he  is  first  introduced  to  our  notice — Magnus  was  a  title  afterwards  given 
him  to  designate  his  eminence  and  virtues.  That  statement  of  his  having 
been  a  native  of  Ireland,  however,  has  been  questioned  by  Father  Suysken, 
who  thinks  it  more  probable  that  he  was  born  in  Germany.  Not  believing 
St.  Magnus  to  have  been  a  disciple  of  St.  Columbanus,  as  Jonas,38  who 
wrote  a  life  of  him,  does  not  introduce  such  a  person  to  the  reader^  and 


2?  In  ' '  Almanicarum  Rerum  Scriptores," 
tomus  i.,  Francfort,  1606.  This  is  intro- 
duced with  the  following  epigraph,  which 
Father  Suysken  had  not  discovered  in  any 
other  copy  of  the  life:  "  S.  Theodori  ere- 
mitae  de  Vita  S.  Magni  Confessoris,  sodalis 
sui,  ab  Ermenrico  Elewangensi  monacho 
emendatus  et  distinctus."  After  chapter  the 
xiii.  is  another  heading,  which  indicates  a 
continuation  of  the  work:  "  Ermenrici 
Elewangensis  monachi  supplementum."  On 
comparing  this  with  the  edition  of  Canisius, 
whole  periods  and  even  chapters  are  wanting 
in  the  latter,  not  to  speak  of  many  minor 
differences. 

28  See  "De  Probatis  Sanctorum  Vitis," 
vol.  v.,  vi.  Septembris,  pp.  73  to  81.  The 
Life  is  comprised  in  thirty-three  paragraphs. 
In  the  third  edition  of  Surius,  the  Acts  of 
St.  Magnus,  as  published  by  Canisius,  are  to 
be  found. 

29  Born  in  Inichingen  in  the  Tyrol,  A. P. 
1 561.  At  the  age  of  twenty,  he  entered  the 
Jesuit  Order.  This  learned  man  died  at 
Munich,  on  the  22nd  of  December,  a.d. 
1634.  See  Michaud's  "  Biographie  Univer- 
selle,  Ancienne  et  Moderne,"  tome  xxxv., 
P- 59. 

30  The  well-known  work,  "Bavaria 
Sancta  "appeared  in  three  folio  volumes, 
1615-1624-1627.  "Bavaria  Pia "  was  a 
supplementary  volume  published  in  1628, 
and  enriched  by  Sadeler's  beautiful  en- 
gravings. 


31  See  "  Catalogus  Actuum  Sanctorum 
quae  MS.  habentur,  ordine  Mensium  et 
Dierum.'' 

32  See  "  Apologia  pro  Hibernia,"  cap.  iv., 
p.  44. 

33  See  "  Acta  Sanctorum  Ordinis  S.  Bene- 
dicti,"  tomus  ii.,  sec.  ii.,  pp.  505  to  510. 

34  See  "  Annales  Ordinis  S.  Benedicti," 
tomus  i.,  lib.  xi.,  sect,  xvii.,  p.  309  ;  lib.  xii., 
sect,  xxix.,  p.  355  ;  lib.  xiii.,  sect,  xxxiii.,  pp. 

392,  393- 

35  See  "Les  Vies  des  Saints,"  tome  x., 
vie  Jour  de  Septembre,  p.  528. 

&  See  "  Lives  of  the  Saints,"  vol.  ix.,  Sep- 
tember 6,  pp.  94,  95. 

3?  See  the  Bollandists'  "  Acta  Sanctorum," 
tomus  ii.,  Septembris  vi.  De  Sancto  Magno 
Monasterii  Faucensis  Abbate  Prime  Fuessse 
in  Suevia.  Vita  auctore,  ut  fertur,  Theodoro 
monacho  Campodunensi,  ab  Ermenrico 
Elewangensi  aucta,"  et  ab  alio  interpolata, 
cap.  i.,  p.  735. 

38  Jonas,  born  about  A.D.  599,  "  gente 
Hibernus,"  was  an  alumnus  of  St.  Colum- 
ban,  both  at  Luxeu  and  at  Bobbio.  Among 
other  works,  he  wrote  "  Vita  S.  Columbani." 
He  flourished  about  A.  D.  630,  and  he  was 
living  in  A.D.  665.  See  Dr.  William  Cave's 
"  Scriptorum  Ecclesiasticorum  Historia  Li- 
teraria,"  volumen  i.  Saeculum  Monothele- 
ticum,  p.  580. 

39  Father  Suysken,  referring  to  the  Pseudo- 
Theoderici  Vita  S.  Magni,  remarks,  that  the 
interpolator  has  plagiarized  that  portion  of 


LIVES    OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS.      jSeptembkr  6. 


that  Walafridus  Strabo  4°  is  the  mostreliable  authority  for  making  Magnoald 
and  Theodore  disciples  of  St.  Gall,  without  allusion  to  the  country  of  their 
birth  ;  such  are  thought  to  be  reasons  sufficient  for  doubting  Magnus  to  have 
been  born  in  Ireland.  In  addition,  Father  Suysken  remarks,  that  Notker 
Balbulus,41  in  his  Martyrology,  at  this  day,  only  regards  St.  Magnus  as  a 
disciple  of  St.  Gall.*2  The  foregoing  are  but  negative  and  very  inconclusive 
arguments,  nevertheless,  to  counteract  what  seems  to  have  been  an  ancient 
and  a  prevalent  tradition.  In  his  list  of  saints,  Convceus  calls  Magnus, 
Abbot  and  Brother  of  St.  Gallus.*3  If  so,  both  may  be  classed  as  nephews 
of  St.  Columban,44  according  to  the  old  Acts  of  our  saint,  attributed  to 
Theodore  and  his  continuators.  However  involved  and  confused  may  be 
the  earliest  records,  which  relate  for  us  the  Acts  of  St.  Magnus,  yet  there 
appears  to  be  a  very  general  consensus  that  his  birth  took  place  in  Ireland.45 
In  what  particular  district  is  not  known,  and  doubts  regarding  his  family  or 
early  life  may  well  be  entertained.  According  to  other  accounts,  he  was  of 
royal  birth,46  his  father  being  named  Severus,  and  his  mother  Theoclea.4? 


it,  referring  to  our  saint  having  been  a  dis- 
ciple of  St.  Columban,  from  Jonas,  by  his 
substituting  the  name  of  Magnoaldus  for 
Autiernus,  which  is  deemed  to  have  been  in 
the  original,  and  again  by  his  changing  the 
name  of  Chagnoaldus  for  Magnoaldus. 
Then  Father  Suysken  proceeds  to  show,  how 
the  Pseudo-Theoderic  Life  blunders  in 
chronology,  and  is  contradictory  to  fact,  in 
making  Magnoaldus  die  a.d.  655,  in  the 
seventy-fourth  year  of  his  age ;  as  in  such 
case,  if  it  be  alleged,  he  left  Ireland  with 
Columban,  who  went  to  France,  in  A.D.  568, 
according  to  Le  Cointe,  this  latter  date 
should  reach  back  to  thirteen  or  fourteen 
years  before  Magnoaldus  could  have  been 
born,  or  if  the  calculation  of  Mabillon  be 
adopted,  that  Columban  parted  for  Gaul, 
a.d.  590,  then  St.  Magnoald  must  have  been 
too  young  to  have  accompanied  him  in  a 
missionary  enterprise.  However,  if  we  allow 
for  very  probable  chronological  and  other 
mistakes,  occurring  in  the  Tract  to  which 
allusion  has  been  made,  to  suppose  that  St. 
Magnus  had  not  been  an  Irishman  and  a 
disciple  of  St.  Columban,  should  involve 
Father  Suysken  simply  in  a  paralogism. 

40  Walafridus  Strabo,  or  Strabus,  a  Ger- 
man by  birth,  and  a  disciple  of  Kaban 
Maur,  at  Fulda,  was  Dean  over  St.  Gall's, 
a.d.  842.  Me  wrote  many  learned  works, 
and  among  others,  "  Vita  et  Miracula  Sancti 
Galli  Abbatis,"  in  two  books.  lie  died 
a.d.  849.  See  Dr.  William  Cave's  "Scrip- 
torum  Ecclesiasticorum  Ilistoiia  Literaria," 
volamen  ii.     Sseculum  Photianum,  p.  31. 

41  St.  Notker,  surnamed  the  stammerer, 
was  born  about  a.d.  830,  at  Elgau,  in 
Thurgovia.  At  an  early  age  he  entered 
the  Monastery  of  St.  Gall,  where  he  made 
great  progress  in  sacred  and  profane  litera- 
ture. Several  elegant  treatises  in  prose  and 
verse  were  composed  by  him.  He  died  on 
the  16th  of  April — the  day  for  his  feast — A.D. 
912.  See  M.  Le  Dr.  Hoefer's  "  Nouvelle 
BiographieGenerale,"tome  xxxviii.,col.  300. 


42  This  is  his  notice  :  "  Nativitas  S.  Magni 
Confessoris,  discipuli  et  comitis  beati  Galli." 

«  The  feast  of  St.  Gallus  is  held  on  the 
16th  of  October.  See  his  Life  at  that  date, 
in  the  Tenth  Volume  of  this  work. 

44  The  Festival  of  St.  Columban  has  been 
assigned  to  the  21st  of  November.  His 
Life  is  given  at  that  date,  in  the  Eleventh 
Volume  of  this  work. 

45  Henricus,  Abbot  of  Fiissen,  has  left 
some  Manuscript  Notes  illustrative  of  monas- 
tic and  local  tradition.  "  Notandam.  quoad 
historicos  constare,  S.  Magnum  fuisse  Sco- 
tum  ex  provincia  Hybernise  oriundum  :  sed 
quo  sanguine,  nobili  vel  ignobili,  sit  ortus, 
Legenda  ejus  non  manifestat.  Attamen  ex 
traditione  jam  inolita  dicitur  progenitus  ex 
regio  Scotorum  genere,  cujus  paler  fuerit 
Severus,  mater  Theoclea.  Hoc  docuit  anno 
MDXV,  tempore  abbatis  Benedicti,  quidam 
orator  regis  Francioe,  nomine  Petrus  Cordier, 
episcopus  Parisiensis,  decretorum  doctor,  qui 
tunc  temporis  ambassiator  praefati  regis  apud 
imperatorum  Maximilianum  aliquo  tempore 
hie  in  Fuessen  propter  quzedam  negotia 
moram  trahebat,  et  erat  abbati  Benedicto 
valde  familiaris  et  homo  in  historiis  antiquis 
multum  versatus.  Hie  ergo  reliquit  in 
scriptis  abbati  Benedicto,  quod  S.  Magnus 
de  pnefatis  parentibus  ex  regio  Scotia? 
sanguine  sit  progenitus.  Quod  didicisse  se, 
ajebat,  in  ipsa  Hybernia,  quam  tanquam 
Francorum  ambastator  peragraverat." 

46  This  is  mentioned,  also,  in  the  German 
Life  of  St.  Magnus,  written  by  a  monk  of  the 
Monastery  of  Fussen,  and  in  confirmation  of 
it,  the  writer  refers  to  a  very  old  picture  he 
had  seen,  in  which  St.  Magnus  is  represented 
in  the  garb  of  a  young  prince  taking  leave  of 
his  parents — his  father  sitting  on  a  royal 
throne,  and  his  mother  as  a  queen  being  near 
him.  This  statement  is  in  chap,  i.,  sect.  2. 
Father  Ludovicus  Babenstuber  has  a  similar 
account,  in  his  Acts  of  the  Saint,  lib.  i., 
cap.  i. 

v  Whde  the  royal  descent  of  St.  Magnus 


September  6.]      LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS. 


129 


So  far  as  he  could  form  an  opinion  from  the  materials  available  for  the 
Life,  Father  Suysken  thinks  St.  Magnus  was  born  about  the  year  582.  If  he 
lived  not  previous  to  that  date,  it  does  not  seem  probable  he  accompanied 
St.  Columban,  when  the  latter  left  Ireland  for  France,  about  a.d.  590.  Nor 
do  we  find  any  record  to  give  us  an  account  of  his  early  training  and  acts. 
Even  his  original  name  may  have  been  Celtic,  and  different  from  Magnoaldus, 
or  Magnus,  which  he  bore  in  after  life.  He  became  the  disciple  of  St. 
Columbanus,  according  to  the  old  Acts,  but  it  must  be  allowed  there  are 
mistakes  and  obscurities  of  statement  to  be  corrected  or  explained,  in 
reference  to  matters  as  related/8  It  seems  probable  enough,  about  the  time 
when  the  holy  Abbot  of  Luxeu  had  resolved  on  leaving  France,  and  had 
taken  his  voyage  from  Nantes  for  Ireland,  a.d.  610,  or  soon  after  he  had 
been  driven  back  by  contrary  winds,  and  then  went  to  Clotaire  II. ,49  King  ot 
Neustria,  that  Magnoaldus  preferred  his  petition  to  St.  Gall,  to  be  received 
among  the  company  of  the  religious  subject  to  so  great  a  master  of  the 
spiritual  life.  For  his  probation  as  a  postulant,'0  Columban  sent  St.  Gall, 
with  another  young  man,  named  Sonarius  or  Soniarius,51  and  our  saint,52  into 
a  desert  place,  with  only  a  single  loaf  to  refresh  them.  At  the  end  of  the 
third  day,  not  a  morsel  of  it  remained,  and  then  St.  Gall  despatched  his 
companions  through  the  wilds  to  search  for  food.  This  was  found  most 
providentially  in  a  river  called  Ligno,  or  Lignona  53 — now  the  Loignon  or 
Lougnon — in  Burgundy,  There  they  found  a  great  many  fishes.  These 
were  brought  to  their  superior,  and  gratefully  partaking  of  this  most 
seasonable  food,  which  had  been  so  miraculously  provided,  they  again 
returned  thanks  to  God.  Then  repairing  to  St.  Columban,  our  saint  made 
his  vows  of  obedience,  and  heard  in  return  these  words  :  "  Magnus  te  faciat 


is  contended  for  by  various  writers,  their 
arguments  are  examined  by  Father  Suysken, 
who  supposes  it  probable,  that  oUr  saint  had 
been  confounded  with  a  St.  Magnus,  Prince 
of  the  Orkney  Islands,  who  is  mentioned  by 
the  Scottish  writers,  Hector  Boetius,  John 
Lesley,  and  Thomas  Dempster.  In  the 
Fourth  Volume  of  this  work,  we  have  in- 
serted his  Acts,  at  the  16th  of  April,  Art. 
ii. 

48  After  the  title  of  Vita  Auctore,  ut 
iertur,  Theodoro  Monacho  Campodunensi, 
ab  Ermenrico  Elewangensi  aucta,  et  ab  alia 
interpolata,  the  Acts  open  with  the  follow- 
ing sentence  :  "Tempore  illo,  cumbeatissi- 
mus  simul  cum  beato  Gallo  nepote  suo 
diversa  loca  perlustrarent,  et  ad  diffamandum 
verbum  Dei,  et  peregrinandi  causa  in  Hiber- 
niam  pervenirent,  quidam  frater,  nomine 
Magnoaldus  ex  proefata  patria  Hibernia  pro- 
creatus,  pulsare  ccepir  aures  beati  Galli, 
discipuli  sanctissimi  Columbani,  ita  allo- 
quens  "  :  &c.  This  passage,  however,  has 
been  thus  emended  by  the  anonymous  monk 
of  St.  Emmeiam.  Katisbon  :  "In  tempore 
illo  quo  beatus  Columbanus  sanctusque  Gal- 
lus  virtutibus  magnificis  pollentes,  in  Hiber- 
nia clarissiini  habebantur,  frater  quidam, 
nomine  Magnoaldus,  ex  eadem  Hibernia 
oriundus,  ad  beatum  Galium  accedans,  ita 
eum  alloquiter,"  &c. 

4'  He  was  born  in  583,  and  on  the  death 
of  his  father,  Childeric,  in  584,  he  was  under 

Vol.  IX.— No.  3. 


the  tutelage  of  his  mother,  Fredegonde,  who 
placed  him  under  the  protection  ofGontran, 
King  of  Burgundy.  In  613,  profiting  by 
the  dissensions  of  the  sons  of  Childebert, 
and  by  their  death,  he  next  overcame  Brune- 
haut  and  the  Austrasians,  in  614,  when  he 
became  King  of  Neustria  and  Austrasia.  He 
waged  war  against  the  Saxons,  who  invaded 
his  territories,  and  he  died  A.D.  628,  leaving 
his  throne  to  Dagobert  I. 

50  Father  Suysken  remarks,  that  the  phrase 
in  this  narrative,  "  utrum  propositum  animi 
arripias,  an  non,:'  isbonowed  from  a  passage 
in  Jonas  :  "  Pergentes  in  eremum  voluntatem 
Dei  probemus,  utrum  desideratum  iter  arri- 
pias, an  in  ccetu  Fratrum  permaneas." — Vita 
Sancti  Columbani." 

51  The  Bollandist  editor  remarks,  that 
treating  about  this  incident,  Jonas  in  his  Vita 
S.  Columbani  calls  him  Soniarius. 

52  Father  Suysken  supposes,  that  to  one 
Autiernus,  a  monk  of  Luxeu,  should  be 
attributed  what  is  here  related  of  Magnoaldus. 
Autiernus  had  asked  permission  from  St. 
Columban  to  visit  Ireland,  and  had  been 
brought  into  the  desert,  that  he  might  learn 
the  will  of  God  in  his  regard. 

53  The  Bollandist  editor  assumes,  that  the 
interpolator  of  our  saint's  Acts  had  absurdly 
placed  this  river  in  Ireland ;  whereas  the 
proper  inference  to  be  drawn  from  the  con- 
text is,  that  he  wrote  concerning  the  country 
near  Luxeu. 


130  LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS.      [September  6. 


Dominus  in  sapientia  et  astutia,  a  cujus  magno  nomine  Magnoaldus 
vocaris."54  Again  he  added  :  "  Cognita  tibi  sint  omnia  ministeria  monastica, 
a  quibus  cognomen  habes  Magnoaldus. "ss  Then  having  become  a  monk,  he 
was  entrusted  by  St.  Columban  with  care  of  the  monastic  cellar,  or  in  other 
words,  he  became  the  bursar  or  econome  of  the  entire  establishment  at 
Luxeu. 

Again,  the  accounts  of  St.  Magnoald  state,  that  while  acting  in  that 
capacity,  his  assistant,  having  brought  a  vessel,56  and  tapped  a  cask  of  beer  to 
serve  for  the  refectory,  Soniarius  heard  the  Master's  voice  calling  him.  In 
the  spirit  of  ready  obedience,  he  ran  with  the  bung  in  his  hand,  forgetting 
to  close  the  vent,  and  appeared  before  Columban,  Gall  and  Magnoald. 
Reminded  of  his  neglect,  Soniarius  ran  back  to  the  cellar,  thinking  that  no 
liquor  could  have  remained  in  the  flowing  cask.  However,  it  was  otherwise, 
and  a  miracle  caused  its  stoppage,  to  reward  the  cellarer's  and  assistant's  exact 
observance  of  monastic  discipline. 57  On  returning,  Soniarius  related  what 
happened  to  Magnoaldus,  and  the  latter  asking  a  priest,  named  Winigozus,*8 
to  accompany  him  to  the  cellar,  both  saw  the  wonder,  and  agreed  that  it 
should  be  reported  to  St.  Columban,  A  contest  of  humility  ensued  between 
Soniarius  and  Magnoald,  each  seeking  to  ascribe  the  miracle  to  the  other's 
merits.59  However,  it  was  ended  by  Columban  declaring,  that  he  had  seen 
the  angel  of  the  Lord  making  a  sign  over  the  vessel,  and  preceding  Magnoald, 
when  he  had  called  the  boy  Soniarius.60 

There  are  legendary  accounts  in  his  Acts,  of  how  St.  Magnoald  sought 
apples  in  the  wilderness,  for  the  refreshment  of  Saints  Colunibanus  and 
Gallus,  and  of  how  a  bear  allowed  him  to  take  a  share  of  what  had  been 
found.61  Again,  it  is  told,  that  while  the  community  had  been  in  want  of 
food,  by  an  order  from  the  holy  abbot,  Magnoaldus  procured  a  number  of 
birds,  which  allowed  themselves  to  be  taken   by  him   and  by  the    monks.62 

54  Thus   rendered    into    English:     "The  59  The  Bbllandist  editor  observes,  that  this 

Lord  make  you  great  in  wisdom  and  pru-  contest  is  not  to  be  found  in  the  account  o$ 

dence,  from  whose  great  name  you  shall  be  Jonas,   from  whom  he  supposes  it  to  have 

called  Magnoaldus."     The  Goldast  edition  been  borrowed,  nor  does  he  mention  Mag* 

of  the  Acts,  and  another  MS.  has  "voceris."  noald  in  connexion  with  the  narrative.     In 

ss  Thus  translated  :  "  To  thee  be  entrusted  Fleming's  "  Collectanea  Sacra  "  is  the  fol- 

all  the  monastic  services,  from   which   you  lowing:    "  Hujusmodi  olim  in    monasterio 

have  the  name  Magnoaldus."  Sancti-gallensi  exemplum  contigit  ;  cujus  rei 

56  It  is  called  a  Typrus  or  a  Tybrus,  by  testes  usque  in  nunc  diem  remanent  versus 
ancient  monastic  writers  ;  the  exact  form  or  aliqui  in  porta  capituli,  ubi  turn  loci  cella 
capacity  of  which  does  not  now  seem  to  be  vinaiia  fuerat,  appensi.  I'erfecta  obedientia 
we'll    understood.       Compare  the    account  sua  imperfecta  relinquit." 

given  in   the  text   with  what  is    related   in  6o  The   writer  of  our    Saint's  Acts  then 

Fleming's    "  Collectanea  Sacra.'.'      Vita  S.  continues  ;  "  O    magnum    divinss    potential 

Columbani,  Abbatis,  cap.  xv.,  p.  227.  donuin,  qui  adhuc  neophitO SUO  Servo  tantam 

57  Thus  is  the  event  related  :  "At  ille,  gratiam  conferre  dignatus  est,  ut  jam  Magnus 
viso  seraculo,  recordatus  negligentiae,  velo-  inter  fratres  voceris.  Ad  hate  conticuit  beat  us 
citer  ad  cellarium  rediit,  a>timans  nihil  in  Magnoaldus,  giatias  agens  Deo  in  corde  suo 
vase,  de  quocerevisiadecurrebat,remansisse.  de  tanta  miseiecordia  sua." 

Intuitu*  ergo  vidit,  supra  tiprum  cerevisiam  6l  It  has  been  observed  that  this  miracle, 

crevisse,  quatinus,    qualis  et  quanta  rotun-  related  in  the  Life  of  St.  Magnus,  iias  been 

ditas    infra    tipri   inerat    coronam,    talis   in  ascribed    to   Chagnoaldus,    and    a.-,   having 

ahum  crevisse  urna  videretur,  et  ne    mini-  occurred  near   Brtgantium  in  Rhsetia,  after 

mam    stillam  foras  cecidisse."  St.  Columban  had  been  expelled  from  Luxeu 

s8  Goldast's  version  and  that  of  another  in6lo.    Mabillon  states  :  '•  Incautus  lectores 

manuscript  read  Winiachus,  while  Canisius  fefellit   Pseudo-Theodorus  in   Vita  Magno* 

has  the  name  Winniacus.     In  Jonas' "  Vita  aldi,  cum  Chagnoaldi  facta  Magnoaldo  tri- 

S.  Columbani,"  he  mentions  a  "  Winnocus  buit." — "Annales    Ordinis    S.    Benedicti," 

presbyter,"   who    was    a    familiar    of    St.  tomus  i.,  lib.  xii.,  sect,  xxix.,  p.  355. 

Columban.     Perhaps  he  was  identical  with  62  In  the  "  Vita  S.  Columbani  "  of  Jonas, 

the  priest  mentioned  in  the  text.  he  relates  this  miracle  before  the  former  one, 


September  6.]      LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS. 


131 


This  supply  was  sufficient  for  three  days  ;  at  the  end  of  which  time,  those 
good  people  63  who  lived  in  the  adjoining  cities  brought  food  to  St. 
Columban's  Monastery,  through  the  ngency  of  Saints  Gall  and  Magnoald.6* 

At  one  time,  a  thought  possessed  the  mind  of  St.  Columban,65  that  he 
should  open  a  mission  among  the  Sclaves66  and  Veniti/7  jn  order  to 
withdraw  them  from  paganism  68  and  open  their  minds  to  a  knowledge  of 
the  true  and  living  God.  Wherefore  he  consulted  St.  Gallus  and  St. 
Magnoald.  The  former  said  to  the  latter  :  "Brother,  what  think  you  of  this 
journey  for  our  abbot?"  Magnoald  answered  :  "Master  Superior,  first  ask 
for  Divine  direction  ;  and  afterwards,  if  you  deem  it  proper  to  set  out,  let  us 
depart."  On  hearing  this,  Columban  ordered  a  fast  for  three  days,  imploring 
light  from  above  on  that  subject.  The  third  night,  an  angel  appeared  to  all 
three,  and  showed  them  a  small  tracing  of  the  world's  map,  saying :  "  You 
see,  that  the  whole  world  is  a  void ;  say  ye  to  Columban,  go  to  the  right  and 
left,  that  you  may  reap  the  fruit  of  vour  labours,  but  it  is  not  expedient  for 
you  to  go  thither."  Tin's  admonition  was  enough  for  the  holy  abbot,  that 
he  was  not  to  be  the  apostle  of  those  nations ;  and.  therefore,  he  resolved 
on  resting  where  he  was,  content  with  the  services  of  Magnoald  alone,  until 
the  way  was  opened  for  his  departure  to  Italy.69 

To  the  rule  of  St.  Columban,  Masnoald  seems  to  have  conformed,  while 
he  was  under  the  protection  of  King  Theodebert,?0  and  engaged  on 
missionary  labours  near  the  Lake  of  Zurich.?1  While  in  Switzerland,  war 
had  been  declared  between  the  brothers  Theoderic  ?2  and  Theodobert,  with 


and  states,  that  it  happened  during  a  time  of ' 
famine,   "cumque  jam  triduo  jejunio  fessa 
corpora  essent."     Here,  however,   there  is 
no  mention  of  Magnoaldus. 

63  Differently  related  from  that  in  the 
"Vita  S.  Columbani"  of  Jonas  is  the 
account  contained  in  the  text:  "Quarto 
deinde  die  quidam  pontifex  ex  vicinis  urbi- 
bus  frumenti  copiam,  divina  admonitus 
aspiratione,  ad  B.  Cohmibanum  direxit  ;  sed 
mox  Omnipotens,  qui  y.enuriam  patientibus 
aligeros  prxbuerat  cibos,  ut  farris  adeps 
advenit,  alitum  phalanges  imperavit  abire." 

64  In  Fleming's  "Collectanea  Sacra,"  Vita 
S.  Columbani  Abbatis,  we  find  the  name  of 
Magnoaldus  introduced  into  the  text,  and  in 
the  margin  Chagoald  is  a  different  reading. 
See  cap.  xxvi.,  p.  239. 

65  Thus  stated  by  Jonas,  in  his  "  Vita  S. 
Columbani  :"  "  Interea  cogitatio  in  mentem 
ruit,  ut  Venetiorum,  qui  et  Sclavi  dicuntur, 
terminos  adiret,"  &c.  See  ibid.,  pp.  239, 
240. 

66  For  a  very  complete  account  of  the 
Sclaves,  their  origin,  tribal  division,  and 
history,  the  reader  is  referred  to  the  Articles 
headed  Slavonia  and  Slavonians,  in  Charles 
Knight's  "Penny  Cyclopaedia,"  vol.  xxii., 
pp.  100  to  128. 

67  See  Dean  Millman's  "  History  of  Latin 
Christianity,"  vol.  ii.,  book  iv.,  chap,  v.,  p. 
293. 

68  According  to  the  early  Christian  mis- 
sionaries among  the  Sclaves,  they  worshipped 
various  idols.  It  is  said,  that  those  who 
lived  on  the  shores  of  the  Baltic  admitted 
two  different  principles — one  for  good  and 


the  other  for  evil.  The  former  was  known 
as  Biel  Bog,  or  the  "white  god,"  from  whom 
all  benefits  proceeded,  and  the  latter  was 
called  Chemi  Bog,  or  the  "  black  god,"  who 
caused  all  sorrows,  and  misfortunes.  How- 
ever, the  Sixth  Synod  of  Constantinople 
(a.  i).  680)  enumerates  Slavonians  among  the 
Christian  nations. 

69  The  foregoing  account  varies  from  that 
given  by  Jonas,  in  his  "  Vita  S.  Columbani.' 

70  Known  as  Theodebert  II.,  son  ot 
Childebert,  King  of  Austrasia,  and  who 
succeeded  to  this  Kingdom  of  Austrasia,  a.d. 
596,  after  his  father's  death.  His  brother 
Theoderic  II.  was  assigned  the  Kingdom 
of  Burgundy.  Both  were  left  under  the 
tutelage  of  their  grandmother  Brunehaut. 
See  "  Abrege  de  l'Histoire  de  France,"  liv. 
i.  CEuvres  Completes  de  Bossuet,  Eveque 
de  Meaux,  tome  x.,  col.  1 1 77.  Edition  de 
l'Abbe  Migne. 

71  "The  situation  of  the  Lake  of  Zurich  in 
many  respects  resembles  that  of  Con-tance  ; 
no  part  of  it  can  be  said  to  be  within  the 
mountain  zone,  though  the  neighbourhood 
is  almost  everywhere  hilly,  and  the  moun- 
tains are  not  far  from  its  eastern  end.  The 
scenery  is  diversified,  bright  and  sunny, 
rather  than  grand.  Its  shores  in  many  parts 
are  richly  cultivated,  and  studded  with 
goodly  houses  and  thriving  villages." — 
"Picturesque  Europe,"  vol.  v.  Eastern 
Switzerland,  pp.  87,  88. 

f  Known  as  Theoderic  II.,  son  of  the 
aforementioned  Childebert,  who  succeeded 
to  his  father's  Kingdom  of  Burgundy,  A.D. 
596. 


132 


LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS.      [September  6, 


varied  fortune  j*3  and,  at  that  very  time,  when  the  decisive  battle  of  Tolbiac  i*> 
was  fought,  both  Coluniban  and  Magnoald  had  a  revelation  regarding  its 
results.75  This  they  communicated  to  each  other.76  Theodobert  being 
defeated  was  treacherously  delivered  up  by  his  own  men  to  his  brother,  who 
sent  him  to  their  grandmother,  the  wicked  Bt  unehault.??  Having  sided  with 
Theodoric,  she  obliged  the  vanquished  prince  to  receive  holy  orders,  and 
not  many  days  afterwards,  she  put  him  to  death.  Finding  his  enemy, 
Theodoric,  to  have  become  master  of  that  country  in  which  he  then  lived, 
Columban  resolved  on  leaving  it,  and  with  many  disciples,  he  went  into  the 
territories  of  Agilulf,?8  King  of  the  Lombards.  However,  his  disciples, 
Gall  and  Magnoald,  remained  behind,  and  after  some  time  settled  near  Lake 
Constance.?'  Being  seized  with  a  fever,  St.  Gall  could  not  prosecute  his 
purpose  of  accompanying  St.  Columban  into  Italy.  Thinking  his  desire  was 
to  remain  in  that  country,  and  to  avoid  further  missionary  labours  in  a  far-off 
region,  the  latter  said  reproachfully,  "  I  know,  brother,  it  will  be  disagreeable 
for  you  to  be  fatigued  with  other  duties  on  account  of  me ;  however,  now 
that  we  are  about  to  part,  I  pronounce  on  you  a  prohibition  to  celebrate 
Mass,  so  long  as  I  live."  On  hearing  this,  Magnoald,  who  was  present, 
threw  himself  at  the  feet  of  the  holy  abbot,   and  cried  out,  "  My  father 


73  According  to  Fredegarius,  in  his  chroni- 
cle, A.D.  6l2,  the  first  battle  fought  between 
Theoderic  and  Theodobert  was  at  Toul, 
where  the  latter  was  defeated  with  great 
slaughter.  Having  collected  fresh  forces, 
Theodobert  attacked  his  brother  at  Tolbiac, . 
where  the  issue  was  still  more  unfortunate  for 
him,  as  he  was  there  thoroughly  defeated. 

'4  Tulpiacum,  or  Tolbracum,  formerly  a 
town  of  the  Ubii,  a  people  of  Germany,  who 
in  the  time  of  Claudius  Caesar  lived  beyond 
the  Rhine,  but  who  mo\  ed  to  the  left  bank, 
in  the  succeeding  reign.  It  is  now  known 
as  Zulch  "x  mil.  pass,  a  Colonia  Agrippina 
in  Occasum,  uti  xvi  a  Bonna,  Aquisgranum 
versus  xviii." — Bodrand's  "Novum  Lexi- 
con." 

75  In  a  copy  of  Jonas'  Life,  Chagnoald  is 
substituted  for  Magnoald,  in  this  narrative  : 
"  Eo  igitur  tempore  vir  Dei  in  eremo  mora- 
batur,  contentus  tantum  unius  ministri  Chag- 
noaldi  famulatu." — "Vita  S.   Columbani." 

76  In  the  Acts  of  St.  Magnus  is  the  follow- 
ing narrative  of  the  vision,  which  is  not  to 
be  found  in  the  Life  of  St.  Columban  by 
Jonas  :  "  Expergefactus  ministrum  vocat 
Magnoaldum  qui  et  Magnus,  cruentamque 
regum  pugnam  indicat,  et  humanum  Ban* 
guinem  multum  fundi  suspirat.  Respondit 
Magnoaldus,  qui  et  Magnus  prostratus  ad 
pedes  ejus  :  Et  ego  pater  domine,  sopore 
oppiessus  jacebam  subter  unam  arborem 
abietis,  et  videbatur  mihi,  simul  eos  conflic- 
tum  inter  se  habere ;  arreptoque  baculo, 
volebam  percutere  Theodericus,  et  liberare 
Theodebertum  :  sed  prohibuit  me  species 
quondam  dicens:  Non  est  tibi  necesse  emu 
percutere,  quoniam  Dominus  cito  vindicabit 
magistrum  tuum  Columbanum  de  eo  in 
interritu  ignis.  Illico  evigilans  festinabam 
hue  ad  vos  venire,  et  narrare  hanc  visionem, 


vos  me  interim  vocantem  audivi."  Then  is 
introduced  the  name  of  one  Eunuchus,  for 
Chagnoaldus,  as  given  by  Jonas,  and  for 
what  in  substance  refers  to  the  same  incident, 
in  his  "  Vita  S.  Columbani." 

77  Also  called  Brunechild,  daughter  to 
Athanagild,  a  King  of  the  Spaniards,  and 
wife  to  Sigebert  I.,  King  of  Austrasia.  She 
was  an  ambitious  and  unprincipled  woman, 
who  met  her  fate  in  the  year  613,  by  orders 
of  Clotaire.  "  She  was  tied  by  the  leg  and 
the  arm  to  the  tail  of  an  untamed  hone, 
which,  running  full  speed,  quickly  dashed 
out  her  brains." — "The  Modern  Part  of 
Universal  History,"  vol.  xix.  The  History 
of  France,  chap,  lxviii.,  sect,  i.,  p.  238. 

78  At  first  he  was  Duke  of  Turin,  but  on 
the  death  of  Aniharis,  the  third  King  of  the 
Lombards,  at  Pavia,  A.D.  590,  his  widow, 
Theodelinde,  married  Agilulf.  At  first  he 
was  an  Arian,  but  afterwards  he  embraced 
the  Catholic  Faith.  This  warlike  prince 
reigned  twenty-five  years,  and  he  died,  a.  d. 
615  or  616.  See  Michaud,  "  Biographie 
Universelle,  Ancienneet  Moderne,"  tome  i., 
pp.  225,  226. 

79  Also  known  as  the  Boden  See,  dividing 
the  north-eastern  corner  of  Switzerland  from 
Wirtemberg  and  Baden.  At  its  lower  ex- 
tremity is  the  town  of  Constance,  at  the  head 
of  the  Unter  See.  It"  has  declined  in  popu- 
lation since  the  Middle  Ages,  and  also  in 
commercial  importance,  when  its  linen  stuffs 
were  known  all  over  Europe.  Although  on 
the  left  bank  of  the  Rhine,  it  forms  part  of 
the  Duchy  of  Baden.  About  the  beginning 
of  the  Christian  Era,  a  fortress,  called 
Valeria,  had  been  built  on  that  site,  and  it 
was  rebuilt  by  Constantius  Chlorus,  in  the 
days  of  Imperial  Rome.  See  "  Picturesque 
Europe,"  vol.  v.  Eastern  Switzerland,  p.  82. 


September  6.]       LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS.  133 


superior,  what  will  you  that  I  do?  If  I  leave  Gallus  without  attendance,  he 
shall  be  forlorn  and  perish  ;  nevertheless,  if  you  require  me,  him  I  shall 
leave,  as  Peter  followed  our  Lord,  having  parted  with  his  nets."  Whereupon, 
Columban  answered  :  "  I  know  Magnoald,  that  a  great  future  is  open  for  you, 
and  that  you  shall  gain  many  of  the  Eastern  people  to  to  God.  Therefore,  I 
am  not  willing  you  should  come  with  me,  but  I  leave  you  and  our  faithful 
Theodore  to  obey  Gallus  in  all  his  requirements,  and  endeavour  by  all 
means  to  restore  his  health.  Moreover,  Magnoald,  I  tell  you  what  I  desire, 
and  how  you  should  dwell  with  him.  Having  spent  some  days,  you  shall 
receive  the  order  of  Deaconship  from  the  Bishop  of  Constance.  So  I  decide, 
that  you  remain  with  Gallus,  until  the  time  comes  when  I  am  about  to  die. 
Then,  if  it  happen,  that  the  Holy  Spirit  reveal  to  thee  the  fact  of  my  last 
illness,  I  shall  feel  grateful,  should  you  come  to  me ;  otherwise,  if  I  die,  and 
that  you  are  divinely  admonished,  hasten  to  my  tomb,  and  to  my  religious. 
Then  shall  you  receive  my  Epistle  and  my  Cambuta,81  which  you  shall  bear 
to  Gallus,  and  which  shall  release  him  from  my  interdict.  But,  I  tell  you, 
that  three  years  8a  after  the  death  of  Gallus,83  you  and  Theodore  shall  witness 
his  tomb  destroyed  by  spoilers  ;  and  this  being  done,  with  his  tomb  restored, 
hasten  to  a  place,  where  we  have  heard  the  holy  bishop  Narcissus84 
commanded  the  devil  to  kill  a  dragon,  and  there  with  Almighty  aid,  you 
shall  convert  many  to  the  Faith,  and  gain  their  souls  to  the  Lord.85  There, 
too,  shall  you  bear  the  name  of  Magnus,86  imposed  on  you  by  God,  as  He 
desires  to  exalt  you;  and  received  by  the  people  of  that  region,  because  of 
the  doctrines  you  shall  preach,  you  shall  convert  them  from  the  folly  and 
worship  of  demons  to  the  faith  of  Christ.  For  the  demons  shall  bring  upon 
you  many  calamities  ;  but  do  you  be  comforted  in  the  Lord,  who  hath  destined 
you  there  to  dwell  and  remain."8?  Saying  these  words,  St.  Columban  set 
out  on  his  journey  to  Italy. 


80  By  these  are  to  be  understood  the  84  His  festival  has  been  assigned  to  the 
Suevi.  i8tb  of  March,  and  to  the  29th  of  October. 

81  In  his  "VitaS.  Galli,"  WalafridusStrabo  85  St.  Narcissus,  Bishop  of  Girone,  in 
calls  it  "  cambotta  ;"  Goldast's  version  has  Catalonia,  during  the  persecution  raised  by 
it  "  camboca  ;"  while  Babenstiiber  writes  it  Diocletian  in  the  commencementof  the  fourth 
"  cambatta."  The  meaning  is  "  a  staff,"  but  century,  accompanied  by  his  Deacon,  Felix, 
whether  a  pastoral  or  a  walking  staff  has  not  passed  the  Pyrenees  into  Gaul,  and  arrived 
been  determined.  The  former,  however,  at  Augsburg,  where  he  baptized  Afra, 
seems  the  more  probable,  as  seen  under  the  Hilary  and  their  servants.  He  conferred 
words  "  Cambuta,  Cambutta,  Cambuca,  orders  on  Denis,  and  returned  to  Spain,  at 
Gambutta,"  in  Du  Cange,  where  it  is  the  end  of  nine  months.  There  he  governed 
rendered  :  "  Baculus  incurvatus,  virga  pas-  his  church  for  about  three  years,  and  with 
toralis  Episcoporum.  Adrevaldus  de  Mira-  his  Deacon,  Felix,  was  crowned  with  martyr- 
cul.  S.  Benedicti,  lib.  i.,  c.  22.  Baculo,  dom,  about  the  year  306  or  307.  See  Les 
quod  gestabat,  incurvo,  more  veterum  Petits  Bollandistes,  "  Vies  des  Saints,"  tome 
Antistitum." — "  Glossarium    ad    Scriptores  xiii.,  p.  11. 

Mediae   et   Infimae   Latinitatis,"  tomus    ii.,  •  ^  The  Bollandist  editor,  Father  Suysken, 

col.  72.  notices  here  the  contradictions  of  statement 

fa  This  is  to  be  found  in  all  the  known  by  the  writer  of  St.  Magnus' Acts,  who  first 

Acts  of  St.  Magnus,  whether  printed  or  in  introduces  him  as  bearing  originally  the  name 

manuscript.  Magnoaldus,  and  then  having  had  the  name 

Hi  In  the  "Vita  S.  Galli"  of  VValafridus  of  Magnus  bestowed  on  him,by  Columbanus, 

Strabo,  this  desecration  of  the  holy  abbot's  the  same  holy  abbot  now  proclaiming  in  the 

tomb  is  said  to  have  occurred  forty  years  spirit  of  prophecy,   that  the  people  of  his 

after  the  time  of  his  death.    Mabillon  writes  :  future  mission  should  bestow  on  him  such  a 

"  Quamquam  nee  Walafridum  erroris  immu-  name. 

nem  hoc  loco  esse  viri  docti  existimant." —  B?  See  the  Vita  Pseudo-Theodori — Boilan- 

"  Annales  Ordinis  Sancti  Benedicti/'  tomus  dist  version — chap.  i.  and  ii.,  with  accom- 

i.,  lib.  xiii.,  sect,  xxxiii.,  p.  393.  panying  notes. 


134 


LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS.      [September  6. 


CHAPTER     II. 


ST.  MAGNUS  BECOMES  THE  ATTENDANT  OF  ST.  GALL — HE  IS  SENT  BY  THE  LATTER  TO 
BOBBIO— HK  BRINGS  BACK  AN  ACCOUNT  OF  ST.  COLUMBAN'S  DEATH,  AS  ALSO  HIS 
EPISTLE  AND  STAFF,  TO  ST.  GALL — MAGNUS  ASSISTS  AT  THE  OBSEQUIES  OF  ST.  GALL- 
OUTRAGES  OFFERED  TO  THE  REMAINS,  AND  RESTORATION  OF  HIS  TOMB  BY  ST. 
MAGNUS  AND  THE  MONKS— ST.  MAGNUS  AND  THEODORE  LEAVE  ST.  GALL'S 
MONASTERY  AND  JOURNEY  EASTWARDS  — THEY  VISIT  KEMPTEN,  WHERE  A  DRAGON 
IS  DESTROYED  BY  A  MIRACLE — ST.  MAGNUS  GOES  TO  FUSSEN,  WHENCE  DEMONS  ARE 
EXPELLED— THERE  HE  FOUNDS  A  MONASTERY. 

Thus  had  St.  Columban  prophesied,  that  St.  Magnoald  should  convert  the 
people  of  the  Julian  Alps  '  to  the  faith  of  Christ  j  and,  full  of  tenderness  for 
the  helpless  condition  of  his  new  superior,  after  the  departure  of  St.  Columban 
into  Italy,  Magnoald  attached  himself  to  St.  Gall.2  At  this  time,  a  very 
holy  priest,  named  Willimar,3  lived  at  a  place  called  Arbon,  of  which  he  had 
pastoral  charge  and  direction.  About  the  year  612,  and  during  the  summer 
or  autumn  season,  St.  Gall  appears  to  have  sought  his  protection.4  Magnoald 
and  Theodore  s  had  then  become  the  faithful  disciples  and  servants  of  St. 
Gall,  so  that  their  cares  were  employed  with  those  of  Willimar,  to  procure 
their  beloved  superior's  restoration  to  health.  This  was  happily  effected 
after  some  time,  when  St.  Gall  resumed  his  apostolic  labours  among  the 
people,  and  by  his  preaching  to  them  the  words  of  truth,  he  also  brought 


Chapter  ii. — *  The  Alps  are  well  known 
as  the  dominant  chain  of  European  moun- 
tains. The  highest  of  those  is  Mont  Blanc, 
15,732  feet  above  the  sea-level.  From  tiie 
knot  or  culmi.  ating  points,  in  which  meet 
the  St.  Gothard,  the  Vogelsberg,  the 
Bernardine,  the  Splugen  and  the  Sep- 
timer — that  group  known  to  the  ancients 
under  the  name  of  Mom  Adtila—a.?,  in  a 
common  centre,  branches  are  divergent, 
and  by  which  a  connection  is  established 
with  the  Apennines,  the  Pyrenees,  the  • 
Vosges,  the  Hartz,  the  Sudetes,  the  Car- 
pathians, and  the  Balkans.  The  highest 
summits  are  in  Switzerland.  The  Julian, 
or  Panonian,  Alps  send  one  branch  north- 
wards into  Sclavonia,  separating  the  basins 
of  the  Save  and  of  the  Drave  ;  while  the 
other  branches  or  southern  Alps  form  a 
range  of  bare  and  rocky  mountains,  rising 
almost  perpendicularly  on  the  north-wc^i 
shores  of  the  Adriatic,  and  stretching  thence 
to  the  confines  of  Servia  and  Macedonia. 
The  course  of  the  Julian  Alps  is  very  sinuous, 
in  many  cases  ;  but,  it  lies  generally  to  the 
south  east,  and  along  the  shores  of  the 
Adriaiic.  See  "  Gazetteer  of  the  World," 
vol.  i.,  pp.  180  to  185. 

"Mud]  o!  what  here  follows  is  omitted  from 
the  Acts  of  St.  Magnus,  as  given  by  Gokiast, 
and  the  substance  appears  to  have  been  taken 
from  Walafridus  Strabo's  Liie  of  St.  Gall. 
However,  in  Georgius  Heinricus  Pertz's 
"Monumenta  Germanise  Historica,"  tomus 
ii.,  Udephonsus  von  Arx,  Librarian  of  St. 


Gall,  has  edited,  in  1829,  a  Vita  S.  Galli,  and 
for  nearly  900  years  previous,  it  had  been 
noted  as  a  codex,  in  the  Catalogue  of  St. 
Gall's  books,  as  "VilaSS.  patrumColumbani 
et  Galli,  in  vol.  II.  antiquitus  dicata."  This 
is  much  more  ancient  than  the  Life  of  St. 
Gall  by  Walafridus  Strabo,  who  describes  it 
as  rude  in  style,  as  wanting  a  division  into 
chapters,  as  incorrectly  writing  Alamanniam 
by  the  term  Altimaniam,  and  as  not  having 
the  Miracles  which  he  added  in  the  Second 
Book  of  St.  Gall's  life.  Nevertheless,  as 
Walafridus  Strabo  evidently  used  the  more 
ancient  Life  in  compiling  his  Vita  S.  Galli, 
it  has  an  authenticity  for  particulars,  superior 
to  his  own  biography. 

3  So  is  he  called  in  the  Vita  S.  Galli,  by 
Walafridus  Strabo.  By  Canisius  he  is  named 
Willimacus. 

4  In  the  excess  of  his  zeal  to  extirpate 
idolatry,  St.  Gall  had  thrown  the  offerings 
of  the  pagans  to  their  idols  into  the  Lake  of 
Zuric,  and  by  even  burning  their  temples, 
the  indignation  of  the  idolaters  was  so 
excited,  that  the  missionaries  were  expelled 
from  that  neighbourhood.  See  Dr.  Dun- 
ham's "  Europe  during  the  Middle  Ages," 
vol.  ii.,  chap,  ii.,  p.  185.  London,  1833, 
l2mo. 

5  According  to  Walafridus  Strabo,  at  first, 
they  had  been  clerics  of  Willimarus.  In  the 
more  ancient  Vita  S.  Galli,  they  are 
designated  Maginoldus  or  Maginaldus  and 
Theodorus.  See  Pertz's  "  Monumenta  Ger- 
maniae  Historica,"  tomus  ii.,  pp.  5,  13,   14. 


September  6.)      LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS.  135 


salvation  to  their  souls.  A  certain  deacon,  named  Hiltibold,6  knew  all  the 
passes  of  that  rough  country,  and  in  the  wilderness  he  selected  an  open  and 
a  spacious  plain,  with  a  circle  of  mountains  around,  and  a  river  running 
through  it — most  beautiful  and  suitable  for  a  religious  establishment.  But, 
it  was  infested  with  wild  beasts  and  serpents,  as  also  by  demons  who  haunted 
the  place.  Thither  St.  Gall  brought  his  disciples,  Magnoald  and  Theodore, 
to  a  mountain  called  Himiiinberg.?  Through  their  united  exertions  and 
prayers,  the  noxious  animals  were  banished.     Then  a  cell  was  there  built. 

While  they  were  living  in  that  place,  a  messenger  came  to  the  priest, 
announcing  the  death  of  the  Bishop  of  Constance,8  named  Gaudentius,?  and 
this  caused  them  great  sorrow,  but  they  unitedly  offered  up  prayers  for  the 
repose  of  his  soul.  After  a  short  time,  a  letter  was  sent  from  a  magnate 
named  Gunzon,10  who  besought  St.  Gall  to  visit  his  only  daughter  "  possessed 
by  a  malignant  spirit,  and  to  release  her  from  such  an  evil.  The  holy 
superior,  thinking  very  humbly  of  his  own  powers,  refused  to  go  ;  but,  pressed 
repeatedly  by  the  noble,  and  on  being  told,  that  for  three  days  his  daughter 
could  not  take  food,  St.  Gall  betook  himself  to  earnest  prayer.  Trusting  in 
God's  mercy  and  goodness,  he  set.  out  with  the  Duke's  messengers  for  his 
house,12  having  Magnoald  and  Theodore  as  his  companions.  The  prayer 
of  Magnoald  and  the  order  of  St.  Gall  caused  the  energumen's  restoration  to 
a  sound  state  of  mind,  to  the  great  joy  of  her  parents.  The  father  then 
offered  St.  Gall  rich  presents,  and  also  prayed  him  to  accept  episcopal  conse- 
cration.^ Whereupon,  the  holy  man  answered  :  "  Behold  my  witness  of 
this  incident  here,  for  my  beloved  Magnoald  is  aware  that  my  blessed 
superior  Columban  has  interdicted  my  offering  at  the  altar  while  he  lives, 
and  I  dare  not  accept  such  an  office  without  his  permission.  Wherefore,  I 
cannot  assume  the  weight  of  such  government.  But,  if  you  greatly  desire 
this  to  be  accomplished,  wait  awhile,  until  I  shall  have  sent  my  present 
companion  with  a  letter  to  my  abbot  the  blessed  Columban,  and  if  I  learn 
his  will,  and  have  his  permission,  then  shall  I  undertake  the  burden  of 
pastoral  care  urged  by  you."  Whereupon  Gunzon  replied :  u  Be  it  then  as 
you  have  said."  Accepting  the  gifts  offered  by  the  Duke,  St.  Gall  took  a 
courteous  leave. 


6  According  to  Walafridus  Strabo,  he  was .  she  is  named  Fridiburga.  At  that  time,  she 
a  deacon  subject  to  Willimar.  is  said  to  have  been  espoused  to  Sigebert,  the 

7  In  his  glosses  to  the  Vita  S.  Galli,  son  of  Theodoric  ;  but,  after  her  cure  by  St. 
Goldast  writes  regarding  this  mountain  :  Gall,  she  embraced  a  religious  life,  and 
"Mons  Coelius  nonnumquam  a  monachis,  by  Sigebert  himself,  she  was  installed  as 
interdum  Mons  Cceli,  olim  Monkelen,  nunc  Superioress  of  the  Parthenon  of  St.  Peter, 
Menkelen,  dictus."  According  to  Matthaeus  in  Metz.  However,  several  particulars 
Merianus,  this  mountain  was  not  far  from  recounted  in  this  narrative  are  regarded  as 
the  city  of  St.  Gall.  See  "Topographia  fabulous.  See  Pere  Charles  le  Cointe's 
Helvetia?,''  P»  59-  "Annales  Ecclesiastici  Francorum,"  tomu  s 

8  See  an  interesting  account  of  the  Lake  ii.,  at  A.D.  614. 

and  Town  of  Constance,  in  Rev.  William  12  In  the  "  Vita  S.  Galli  "  of  Walafridus 

Cox's  "  Travels  in  Switzerland,  and  in  the  Strabo,   "ad  Iburningas  villam."     To  this 

Country  of  the  Grisons,"  vol.  i.,  letter  3,  pp.  passage,  Goldast  has  appended  this  note: 

14  to  23.  "  In  dextro  litore  lacus  Pontamici,  turn  Ala- 

9  He  died  ah.  614,  according  to  Pere  mannise  ac  Sueviae  ducum  sedes,  nunc  libera 
Charles  le  Cointe.  See  "Annales  Ecclesias-  imperii  Romani  urbs,  Uberlingen."  In  X<>. 
tici  Francorum,  toraui  ii.,  at  a.d.  614.  S.SMj     among     the     Burgundian    Library 

10  "  Scilicet     Alamanniae     seu     Sueviae,  .Manuscripts,    Bruxelles,    vol.   xviii.,    there 
auctoris  illorum  nummorum,  qui  hodieque  are  extracts,  from   the  "  Annales  Suevici," 
a    Snevis,    vocantur    Gunsenpfenning,    de  of  Martinus  Crucis,  concerning  Ireland, 
quibus    in    libro     De    Nummis     German-  '3  Namely,  for   the    See    of   Constance, 
orum."— Goldast.  then  vacant  owing  to  the  death  of  Bishop 

"  In  Walafridus  Strabo's  "  Vita  S.  Galli,"  Gaudentius. 


i36  LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS.     [September  6. 


Magnoald  assumed  charge  of  these  gifts  presented,  and  with  the  aid  of  his 
helpmates,  Theodore  and  Othmar,1*  he  brought  them  to  the  vessel  on  Lake 
Constance.  St.  Gall  had  obtained  from  the  Duke,  that  the  Prefect  of  Arbon  '5 
should  aid  as  desired  in  building  his  monastery.  When  he  had  come  to  the 
fort,  at  that  place,  St.  Gall  desired  Magnoald  to  collect  all  the  poor  he  could 
find,  and  distribute  among  them  the  gilts  of  Duke  Gunzon.  Then  replied 
Magnoald :  "  Father,  all  you  have  commanded  I  shall  willingly  do  ;  but  I 
have  a  precious  silver  vessel,  and  are  you  pieased  I  should  keep  it,  to  serve 
as  a  sacred  objeci  ?"  St.  Gall  answered  :  "  Son,  take  heed  to  give  that  vessel 
you  possess  with  other  valuables  to  the  poor,  lest  you  be  in  contradiction  to 
a  salutary  example,  remembering  what  St.  Peter  said  to  the  paralytic  asking 
for  alms,  'Silver  and  gold  I  have  none.'  "l6  On  hearing  this,  Magnoald  gave 
thanks  to  God  for  such  an  order,  and  distributed  all  to  the  poor.  These 
things  accomplished,  they  retired  to  that  chosen  place  in  the  wilderness, 
where  with  prudent  design  they  commenced  building  their  religious  cell.1? 

Not  long  afterwards,18  St.  Gall  sent  a  letter  to  a  certain  deacon  John  x9 — 
one  of  his  disciples — requesting  him  to  come,  and  when  lie  complied,  the  holy 
Abbot  gave  him  a  course  of  instruction  in  the  Sacred  Scriptures.  At  length, 
of  approved  virtue  and  learning,  John  was  presented  to  the  Duke  as  a  man 
eminently  deserving  episcopal  promotion.  Whereupon,  with  the  approval  of 
other  bishops  and  of  all  the  people,  the  patron  selected  him  for  the  vacant 
See  of  Constance,  and  with  tne  customary  solemn  rites,  he  was  duly 
consecrated. i0  St.  Gall  preached  a  remarkable  discourse  on  this  occasion,-" 
which  the  newly-consecrated  bisiiop  explained  to  the  people  in  their  own 
vernacular  language.  About  the  year  614,  with  the  concurrence  of  St.  Gall, 
and  in  the  thirty-second  or  thirty-third  year  ol  his  age,  St.  Magnus,  who  had 
lived  with  the  priest  named  Wnlimar,  at  Aruon,  near  Bregentz,2-'  is  said  to 
have  been  ordained  deacon, 23  by  Bishop  John  of  Constance.  Atter  receiving 
that  grade  of  Holy  Orders,  and  with  the  bishop's  benediction,  he  returned  to 
the  ceil  of  his  spiritual  lather,  St.  Gall,  who  aitcrwards  gave  name  to  the  well- 
known  town  m  and  Canton  25  of  Switzerland.  Aided  by  the  munificence  of 
King  Sigibert  and  Duke  Gunzon,  St.  Gali  and  St.  Magnoald  are  said  to  have 

M  To  this  statement,  Father  Saysken  takes  2I"Canisius  est  le  premier  qui  a  tire  ce 

exception,      as     the     well-known      Abbot  discours  de  la  poussiere.    On  le  trove  dans 

Othmar   could  not  have  been  a  disciple  to  le  cinquieme  volume  de  ses  Legons  antiques, 

St.  Gall.     Perhaps,    however,    the   present  qui  parut  a  Ingolstast  en  1604,  et  dans  le 

Othmar   may   have   been  quite  a  different  premier  tome  cie  la  nouvelle  edition  qu'en  a 

person.  public^  M.  Basnage." — "  Histoire  Lheraire 

15  An  ancient  town  of  Switzerland  on  the  de  la  France,"  tome  iii.,  vii.  Siecle,  p.  563. 
south  bank  of  Lake  Constance,  about  8  "Anciently  called  Brigantium  by  the 
miles  N.E.  from  St.  Gall.  See  "  Gazetteer  of  Romans,  "opp.  Rhoetise,  in  Suevia,  ad 
the  World,"  vol.  1.,  p.  318.  Brigantinum    iacum,    comitat.    olim,    urbs 

16  See  Acts,  iii,  6.  Rhcetioeprimaria,"&c.— Baudrand's"  Novum 
'7  There  subsequently  arose  the  celebrated      Lexicon  Geographicum,"  tomus  i.,  p.  131. 

monastery  of  St.  Gali,  called  by  the  people  JJ  However,   in   a  note,    Father   Suysnen 

of  that  country  St.  Gallen,  in  the  canton  of  points  out  what  seems  to  him  connecting 

Switzerland  so  named,  and  near  the  southern  statements,  between  what  is  to  be  found  in 

shore  ol  Lake  Constance.  the  .lets  of  St.  Magnus  and  those  of  St.  Gall, 

"  The   previous   portion  of  the  Acts   of  as  related  by  Walalridus  Strabo. 

St.  Magnus  are  omitted  in  tiiat  veision  pub-  *4  An   interesting   account  of  it   may   be 

lishett  by  Goldast.  found  in  Rev.  William  Coxes  "' Travels  in 

*  The  writers  of  "Gallia  Chi istiana"  have  Switzerland   and    in    the    Country    ol    the 

dignified  him  with  tne  title  of  Beatus,  and  Griaons,"  vol.  L,  letter  4,  pp.  24  to  30. 

style  him  the  tenth  bishop  of  Windisch  and  ,J  1  lie  borders  of  Lake  Zurich  "embrace 

Constance,  in  Switzerland.     See  tomus  v.,  the  three  Cantons  of  Zurich,  Sehwytz,  and 

col.  893.  St.  Gall."— J.  S.  Buckingham's  "  Belgium, 

80 See    Canisius,    "  Antiqu*  Lectiones,"  the    Rhine,    Switzerland,    and    Holland," 

tomus  v.,  p.  896.  vol.  ii.,  chap,  ii.,  p.  26. 


September  6.1      LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS. 


'37 


set  about  the  construction  of  a  magnificent  monastery  and  church.26     Both 

of  these  have  long  since 
disappeared.3?  To 
them  was  added  a 
school,  based  on  the 
regulations  introduced 
by  St.Columban,  in  his 
former  house  at  Luxeu. 
The  former  monastery 
has  now  been  con  verted 
into  a  gymnasium,  and 
the  old  Abbey  Library 
still  contains  over 
1,000  manuscripts,28 
many  of  these  being 
most  rare  and  valu- 
able.^ The  former 
Abbey  Church  3°  of 
later  erection  is  one  of 
the  finest  in  Switzer- 
land; and  the  facade 
especially,  with  its 
magnificent  towers  on 
either  angle,  has  been 
greatly  admired.31  I  n 
the  old  monastic 
school ,  a  pious  G  erman 
youth,  Othmar,32  re- 
ceived his  early  educa- 
tion. By  some,  it  has 
been  supposed,  he  had 
been  an  early  Abbot  of 
St.  Gall,33  and  to  be 
distinguished  from  the 
St.  Gall's  Church.  celebrated   Abbot    of 

that  name  who  governed  the  monastery  there  during  the  eighth  century.34 


26  However,  this  seems  t  o  be  an  exaggeration, 
as  it  was  only  in  the  eighth  century  the 
monastery  of  St.  Gall  began  to  assume  its 
truly  noble  proportions,  under  the  rule  of 
Abbot  Othmar.  At  present,  according  to 
local  tradition,  a  chapel  is  shown,  as  standing 
on  the  very  site  of  St.  Gall's  original  church. 

21  The  monastery  has  been  suppressed. 
The  last  Abbot  of  St.  Gall,  Pancratius, 
having  lost  all  his  domains  and  revenues, 
and  having  vainly  endeavoured  to  interest 
the  Allied  Powers  in  his  favour,  refused  a 
pension  offered  to  him,  in  1814,  and  claimed 
the  restoration  of  his  former  rights,  lie 
afterwards  retired  to  the  Convent  of  Mtiri, 
in  the  Canton  of  Lucerne. 

28  Among  these,  Poggio  Bracciolini  and 
other  learned  men  discovered  in  the  Middle 
Ages  copies  of  several  classic  works,  which 
had  been  considered  until  then,  as  having 


been  lost.  See  Charles  Knight's  "Penny 
Cyclopaedia/'  vol.  xi.,  p.  48. 

29  A  great  number  of  Irish  manuscripts  are 
still  pre.-eived  in  that  library,  several  of 
which  have  been  brought  under  the  writer's 
personal  inspection,  by  the  learned  and 
courteous  sub-librarian,  on  the  occasion  of  a 
visit  to  St.  Gallen,  in  September,  1886. 
The  Chevalier  Constantino  Nigra,  in  his 
"  Reliquie  Celtiche,"  has  examined  and 
particularly  described  those  Irish  manu- 
scripts in  the  Library  of  St.  Gall,  in  his 
valuable  and  learned  work.  Firenze,  Torino, 
Roma,  1872,  4to. 

3°  Now  the  Cathedral  of  St.  Gall. 

31  An  illustration  of  it,  from  a  local  photo- 
graph, drawn  on  the  wood  and  engraved  by 
Gregor  Grey,  is  here  presented  as  an  illus- 
tration. 

32  According  to  the  Acts  of  St.  Magnus, 


i38  LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS.       [Septkmkkr  (>. 


After  the  recital  of  the  midnight  office,  and  when  the  monks  hud  retired 
to  their  beds  for  a  little  rest,  on  a  certain  morning  at  day-break,  St.  Gall 
arose.  Calling  the  Deacon  Magnoald,  he  said :  "  Prepare  what  is  requisite 
for  the  holy  oblation,  that  without  delay,  I  may  celebrate  the  Divine 
Mysteries."  Magnoald  asked  if  he  were  then  about  to  offer  up  the  holy 
Mass.  The  Abbot  answered  :  "  After  the  vigils  of  this  night,  I  learned  from 
a  vision,  that  my  Abbot  and  Father  Columbanus  has  passed  from  the  troubles 
of  this  life  to  the  joys  of  Paradise,35  and  for  his  eternal  repose  I  must 
immolate  the  Victim  of  Propitiation."  The  usual  sign  being  given,  on 
entering  the  oratory,  they  prayed  ;  then  Mass  commenced,  and  an  offering 
was  made  for  the  repose  of  St.  Columban.36  Having  concluded  the  Holy 
Sacrifice,  the  Venerable  Gallus  said  to  his  Deacon  Magnoald  :  "  My  son,  let 
not  the  weight  of  my  request  be  too  great  for  you,  but  set  out  for  Italy  to  the 
Monastery  of  Bobbio,  and  bring  me  an  exact  account  of  what  has  happened 
to  my  Abbot.  Note  also  the  day  and  the  hour,  so  that  if  you  find  him  to  be 
dead,  you  may  know  whether  or  not  my  vision  has  been  truly  fulfilled. 
Learning  all  those  circumstances,  and  with  careful  enquiries,  bring  the  account 
back  to  me."  Casting  himself  at  the  feet  of  his  superior,  the  deacon  declared 
the  way  was  unknown  to  him.  But,  the  venerable  Abbot  addressed  him  in 
gentle  tones  of  comfort  and  assurance,  that  the  Lord  would  guide  his  steps. 
Then  recollecting  the  prophetic  words  of  St.  Columban,  that  he  should  go 
into  Italy,  and  to  his  tomb,  as  also  to  bring  back  the  Cambuta,  for  a  token 
of  St.  Gall's  absolution,  Magnoald  asked  the  abbot's  benediction,  and 
immediately  he  prepared  for  the  journey.  Thus,  in  the  year  615,  St.  Magnus 
is  said  to  have  been  sent  by  St.  Gall  to  the  Monastery  of  Bobbio,37  in  Italy, 
so  that  he  might  make  exact  enquiries,  regarding  the  death  of  St.  Columban. 

In  token  of  reconciliation  with  the  great  Abbot  of  Bobbio,  St.  Magnus, 
after  one  night's  stay,  brought  a  letter  and  his  staff  back  to  St.  Gall.  This 
latter  was  known  as  the  Cambutta,38  and  it  was  to  serve  as  a  token  of  his 
reconciliation  and  absolution.  This  seems  to  have  been  a  walking-stick, 
used  by  the  venerable  Abbot,  and   the  original  material  was  wood  of  an 


he   and    St.    Gall   in    conjunction    "juxta  olympiade." — "  Histoire    Literaire    de     la 

doctrinam  magistri  Columbani,  disciplinam  France,''  tome  iii.,  vii.  Siecle,  p.  509. 
Grammatical  artis,  seu  ceterorum  librorum  36  See  Mabillon's   "  Annales  Ordinis   S. 

divinorum,     eum     erudientes,     magistrum  Benedicti,"  tomus    i.,    lib.   xi.,   sect,  xvii., 

scola?  constituerunt."  p.  309. 

33  Such  is  the  opinion  of  Pere  Charles  37  It  was  built  near  the  River  Trebbia, 
le  Cointe,  who  thinks  that  there  had  been  at  the  foot  of  the  Apennines,  and  about 
two  Othmars  :  the  first  a  disciple  of  St.  forty-five  miles  N.E.  from  Genoa.  In 
Gall  and  St.  Magnus,  and  who  flourished  in  course  of  time,  a  town  grew  around  it,  and 
the  seventh  century  ;  the  other  renowned  as  it  became  the  see  of  a  bishop.  See 
the  holy  Abbot  of  St.  Gall,  who  lived  in  the  **  Gazetteer  of  the  World,"  vol.  ii.,  p.  787. 
eighth  century.  See  "Annales  Ecclesiastici  38  Also  written  cambutla  and  cambolia. 
Francorum,"  tomus  iii.,  at  A.D.  661,  num.  2.  Du  Cange  derives  it  from  "  cam-bot  "  or 

34  This  opinion  is  rejected  by  Father  "  bot-cam,"  used  by  the  Armorican  Britons 
Suysken,  who  admits,  however,  that  some  to  express  a  crooked-stick.  See  "Glossanum 
Othmar — about  whom  little  can  now  be  ad  Scriptores  Medise  ct  infimae  Latinitatis," 
known — had  received  his  education  from  tomus  ii.,  col.  72.  But,  it  has  other 
St.  Gall  and  St.  Magnus.  significations.      It    is    used   to   denote   an 

35  St.  Columbanus  is  thought  to  have  episcopal  or  abbatial  crozier,  while 
departed  this  life  on  the  xi.  of  the  December  sometimes  it  seems  to  be  distinguished  from 
Kalends,  A.D.  615.  "II  est  neanmoins  either,  although  ornamented  with  gold  and 
certain  qu'il  avoit  attaint  l'age  de  soixante-  silver,  as  we  read,  in  Gestis  Gaufredi 
douze-ans,  lorsqu'il  ^crivit  son  poeme  a  Episcopi  Cenoman  :  "Cambutam  argenteam 
Fedolius,  qui  paroit  avoir  et6  fait  pendant  magni  pondeiisdeauratam  et  opere  decoram 
sa  derniere  maladie.  II  dit  expressement  cum  baculo  pastorali." — Mabillon's  "  Ana- 
qu'il    etait    a    la    fin    de  sa    dix-huiiieme  lecta,"  tomus  iii.,  p.  390. 


September  6.]       LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS. 


i39 


unknown  species,  which,  at  a  later  period,  had  been  covered  with  silver- 
plating^  partly  intended  for  ornament,  and  partly  to  preserve  it  from  the 
decay  of  time,  especially  as  it  was  liable  to  be  frequently  used,  and  it  bore 
other  relics  enclosed/0  It  was  ornamented  with  a  carved  figure/1  supposed 
to  represent  St.  Magnus,  with  curious  figures  and  designs.  The  staff  is  about 
three  feet,  Antwerp  measure,  in  height;  whether  originally  curved  is  not 
known,  but  at  present  it  presents  a  straight  appearance.  This  was  long 
afterwards  preserved  at  St.  Gall/2  and  at  a  later  time,  as  a  relic  in  Fiissen.43 
With  all  possible  speed  the  messenger  returned  homewards,  but  it  took  him 
eight  days  to  accomplish  that  journey  through  a  rough  and  mountainous 
country.  When  the  Epistle  of  Columban  had  been  presented  to  St.  Gall 
and  read  by  him,  tenderly  recollecting  their  mutual  love  and  former  relation- 
ship, he  shed  tears.  Calling  the  monks  together,  he  manifested  the  greatness 
of  his  sorrow,  and  all  joined  in  prayer  and  sacrifice  for  the  beatitude  of  their 
illustrious  Patriarch. 

For  ten  years  after  this  Italian  visit,  St.  Magnus  remained  with  St.  Gall.*4 
At  the  end  of  that  period,  seeing  his  superior  begin  to  fail  in  strength,  and 
when  he  had  contracted  a  fever,  a  message  was  sent  to  John,  Bishop  ot 
Constance.  Hearing  of  that  illness,  the  devoted  prelate  immediately  set  out, 
bearing  with  him  delicacies  of  food  and  drink  4$  for  his  venerable  friend ; 
but,  when  he  approached  the  town  of  Arbon,46  news  reached  him,  that  St. 


39  A  description  of  this  staff,  furnished  by 
the  Rev.  Father  Columban  Zeiller,  a 
professed  religious  of  the  monastery  at 
Fiiessen,  to  the  Rev.  Father  Maurice 
Chardon,  Rector  ot  the  Jesuit  College  of 
Constance,  had  been  communicated  to 
Father  Suysken,  and  from  his  details,  we 
have  incorporated  the  particulars  in  our 
text.  To  make  the  description  stilt  more 
intelligible  to  the  student  of  ecclesiastical 
antiquities,  Father  Suysken  has  introduced 
an  interesting  copperplate  engraving  of  the 
subject,  and  which  runs  the  length  of  a 
column  on  page  725. 

40  Whether  this  be  of  gold,  or  silver-gilt, 
is  not  stated. 

41  The  Abbot  Henry,  writing  on  the  14th 
of  August,  a.d.  1607,  causeu  the  case  in 
whien  they  had  been  kept  to  be  opened,  in 
the  presence  of  Father  Abraham  Hayl, 
sub-prior,  Father  Caspar  Weber,  sacristan, 
and  some  seculars.  Then  were  disclosed 
seven  particles— in  German  siven  penggelin 
— elegantly  arranged  ;  yet  no  papers  were 
to  be  found,  or  if  such  had  been  there 
placed,  they  were  then  destroyed  through 
lapse  of  time-  He  adds  :  "  liac  occasione 
et  bacuhun  S.  iMagni,  aperire  curavi,  ubi, 
inveni,  rehquias  divae  Vnginis,  S.  Benedicti, 
S.  Magni,  S.  Galb,  S.  Udalrici, 
S.  Seba.stiani,  S.  Eustachi  et  Mauritii,  cum 
schedis  suis,  nomina  contimntibus.  Item 
aliam  particulam  absque  scheda  legibili." 

42  Among  tiie  sacred  treasures  of  this 
church,  we  are  informed,  that  the  staff  of 
St.  Columban  had  been  preserved  at  the 
altar  dedicated  to  St.  Gall,  and  on  a  certain 
occasion  had  been  brought  thence  by  the 


Blessed  Abbot  Notker  Balbulus,  who 
flourished  there  in  the  ninth  and  beginning 
01  the  tenth  century.  At  this  time  it  sus- 
tained a  fracture.  The  account  is  contained 
in  the  tract  of  Ekkehardus  Junior — a  writer 
of  the  eleventh  century  —  "De  Casibus 
Monasteiii  S.  Galli,1'  cap.  iii.  This  is  also 
stated  by  another  Ekkehardus,  Dean  of  St. 
Gall,  in  a  Life  of  the  same  Notker,  and  a 
writer  of  the  thirteenth  century,  as  found 
in  the  Bollandists'  "Acta  Sanctorum," 
tomus  i.,  Aprilis  vi.,  the  date  assigned  for 
his  testival. 

43  At  what  time  it  had  been  transferred  to 
this  place  does  not  appear  ;  but,  in  the 
process  of  Notker  Balbulus'  Canonization, 
begun  on  the  2nd  of  July,  A.D.  1513, 
Ulricus  Herr,  a  professed  religious  of  the 
monastery  of  St.  Gall,  testifies,  that  a  very 
ancient  staff,  having  a  fracture,  and  of  which 
mention  had  been  made  in  the  Twenty- 
sixth  chapter  of  "Vita  B.  Notkeri,''  was 
produced,  "qui  dicitur  baculus  S.  Colum- 
bani,  cum  quo  idem  B.  Notkerus  dacmonem 
verberasse  asseritur."  However,  we  do  not 
find  any  statement  to  inform  us,  as  to  whether 
the  staff  had  been  brought  at  that  time  from 
the  monastery  of  St.  Gall,  or  from  that  of 
Fiissen. 

44  In  Goldast's  edition  we  read  :  "  Com- 
moratus  est  autem  B.  Magnoaldus  cum  S. 
Galio  fere  annos  decern  post  perpetratum 
iter  ab  Italia  ;  decimo  vero  anno  defunctus 
est  B.  Gallus." 

45  These  refreshments  are  not  mentioned 
in  the  Acts  of  our  saint  as  published  by 
Canisius. 

46  In  it,  St.  Gall  departed  this  life. 


t46  LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS.    [September  6. 


Gall  had  peacefully  expired  in  the  ninety-fifth  year  of  his  age.4?  In  tears  and 
sorrow,  Bishop  John  proceeded  to  the  place  where  the  body  of  the  holy 
Abbot  lay.  The  usual  requiem  offices  were  religiously  celebrated.  Afterwards, 
with  prayer  and  benediction,  the  Bishop  and  Magnoald  48  placed  the  coffin  on 
a  chariot  drawn  by  two  untamed  horses,  who,  without  driver  or  rein, 
proceeded  leisurely  and  in  a  direct  course  to  the  cell  which  St.  Gall  had 
previously  erected.  There  they  came  to  a  stand,  when  Magnoald  and 
Theodore,  lifting  the  coffin,  brought  the  sacred  remains  into  the  church,  where 
they  were  placed  before  the  altar.  Having,  with  the  Bishop,  finished  the 
prayers,  in  accordance  with  the  funeral  rites,  St.  Gall  was  religiously  buried. 
When  Bishop  John  returned  to  his  place,  Magnoald  and  Theodore,  with 
Othmar  and  other  monks,  were  left  to  guard  the  relics  as  a  sacred  deposit. 
Three  years  alter  St.  Gall's  death,  and  in  fulfilment  of  St.  Columban's 
prophecy,  it  is  related,  that  a  certain  Otwin/9  and  his  prefect  Erchonald,50 
who  were  men  of  abandoned  lives,  collected  a  multitude  of  spoilers,  and 
attacked  the  monastery  of  St.  Gall.  They  broke  in  the  gates,  and  not  only 
rifled  the  ccenobium  of  its  gold,  silver,  and  other  precious  treasures,  but 
destroyed  the  tomb  of  St.  Gall,  thinking  to  find  therein  something  of  value. 
All  those  whom  they  met  to  oppose  them  were  killed,  while  they  left 
Magnoaldus  and  Theodorus  beaten  and  lying  wounded  in  the  atrium. 
Hearing  of  these  outrages,  Bishop  Boso,51  who  then  ruled  over  the  See  of 
Constance,  hastened  to  the  scene  of  violence,  and  found  both  of  those  holy 
servants  disabled,  and  incapacitated  from  repairing  their  master's  tomb,  much 
as  they  desired.  However,  the  compassionate  prelate  consoled  them  as  best 
he  could,  and  the  comiminity  of  monks  being  assembled,  chaunting  psalms 
and  hymns,  with  prayers,  the  body  of  St.  Gall  was  again  buried  in  the  former 
grave,  which  was  then  filled  with  earth.*2  Bestowing  his  benediction  on  the 
two  religious  brothers,  Magnoald  and  Theodore,  Boso  presented  his  own 
vestments  to  them,  and  furnishing  other  necessaries,  he  gave  them  permission 
on  the  restoration  of  their  strength,  to  seek  whatever  place  of  living  the  Lord 
had  destined  for  them. 

Recollecting  the  monition  and  prophecy  of  St.  Columban  regarding  the 
eastern  mission  of  Magnoald,  he  and  his  companion  Theodore  betook 
themselves  to  prayer.53  The  following  night,  Magnoald  had  a  vision,  which 
indicated,  that  he  should  have  confidence  in  the  Divine  assistance  which 
would  be  afforded  him ;  and  on  the  following  morning,  both  companions 
prayed  with  all  the  greater  fervour,  that  the  Lord  would  guide  their  way  as  He 
willed,  and  show  them  how  their  destination  could  be  accomplished.     At 


47  His  death  has  been  generally  assigned  think  him  to  be  identical  with  a  Huso,  Buffo, 
to  the  year  625.  Obihardus  or  Obbaldus. 

48  In  Walafridus  Strabo's  "Vila  S.  Galli."  5s  Walafridus  Strabo  thus  describes  the 
it  is  stated,  that  the  Bishop,  with  Wilhniar,  bishop's  action  :  "Sumens  loculum,  in  quo 
Magnoald  and  Theodore  had  desired,  in  sanctum  corpus  erat,  posuit  super  terram, 
the  first  instance,  to  inter  St.  Gall  at  inter  parietem  et  altare,  et  desuper,  ul 
Arbon.  nioris  est,  arcam  altiorem  construxit,  fossam 

49  Who   he    was   seems   to    be  unknown.  vero  terra  replevit." — "  Vita  S.  Galli." 

In  the  "Vita  S.  Galli,"  the  spoiler  is  de-  bi  Father     Suy.skcn     remarks,    that     the 

scribed  as  '*  praifectus  et  partium  earumdem  preceding   narrative   in    the    Acta    Pseudo- 

potestate  pneui.us."  Theodon,  seems  to  have  been  taken  from 

50  He  is  also  designated  Erchanoldus  and  the  lives  of  Saints  Columban  and  Gall,  and 
Erwinus,  but  in  any  form  of  the  name,  he  that  what  follows  appears  to  be  the  product 
has  no  historic  celebrity.  of  the  compiler  or  compilers.     In  the  edition 

5'  Except  from  what   is  stated  of  him  in  of  Goldast,  Liber  Secundus  is  prefixed,  at 

the  Lives  of  St.  Gall  and  St.   Magnus,  little  the  beginning  of  the  sentence  substantially 

more  appears  to  be  known.     Some  writers  translated  in  the  text. 


September  6.1      LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS.  14T 


noon,  a  certain  priest,  named  Tozzo  54  or  Tosso,  arrived  from  a  distant 
country  to  pay  his  devotions  at  the  tomb  of  St.  Gall — the  fame  of  whose 
holiness  had  spread  abroad — and  it  was  revealed  to  him,  that  he  should  make 
that  pilgrimage,  and  meet  those  willing  to  set  out  for  the  east,  and  whom  he 
should  conduct  thither  until  they  reached  the  place  desired.  He  brought 
with  him  a  lighted  candle  in  his  hand,  which  the  wind  did  not  extinguish 
during  the  darkness  of  night,  but  which  at  day-break  went  out  of  its  own 
accord.55  After  the  death  of  St.  Gall,  St.  Magnus  and  Theodore  had 
resolved  on  travelling  eastwards,  and  now  they  met  that  stranger  pilgrim.  On 
enquiry,  they  learned  the  nature  and  purport  of  his  journey.  Hearing  the 
circumstance  related  by  him,  they  recognised  the  guide  of  their  course, 
promised  by  the  Almighty,  to  whom  they  gave  thanks.  Having  saluted 
Tozzo  with  the  kiss  of  peace,  they  brought  him  into  the  Church  of  St.  Gall, 
and  to  the  holy  patron's  tomb.  Afterwards,  he  was  conducted  to  the  guest- 
house, where  he  was  hospitably  entertained,  and  there  he  spent  that  night. 
Next  morning,  the  two  missionaries,  having  prayed  before  the  tomb  of  St. 
Gall,  parted  from  their  brother  monks  with  a  blessing,  and  travelled  onwards 
with  Tozzo,  leaving  the  Lake  of  Bregentz  or  Constance  on  their  left. 
At  length,  they  reached  Bregentz  s6  itself,  where  they  remained  for 
two  days.  While  there,  Magnoald  cured  a  poor  blind  man,  who,  filled  with 
admiration  and  gratitude  for  the  restoration  of  his  sight,  expressed  a  desire  to 
follow  Magnoald  wherever  he  went.  Having  obtained  that  permission,  he 
desired  to  serve  the  Lord.  Conscious  of  the  miracle  wrought  in  this  case, 
the  people  of  Bregentz  are  said  then  to  have  bestowed  on  him  the  title  and 
name  of  Magnus.  With  Tozzo  for  their  guide,  Magnoald  and  Theodore 
resumed  their  journey,  the  poor  man  restored  to  sight  following  in  their  train. 
After  some  days  of  travel,  they  came  to  a  beautiful  town  which  they 
found  to  be  altogether  deserted.  Magnoald  enquired  its  name,  and  that  of 
the  river  running  by  it,  and  Tozzo  answered  :  "  This  place,  often  visited  by 
the  country-people,  is  called  Campidona  ;57  but,  they  dare  not  remain  here  a 
single  night,  it  is  so  infested  with  different  species  of  serpents.  The  river  is 
called  Hilara  ;58  not  because  it  disturbs  many  persons,  on  account  of  its  swift 
course,  for  rather  it  causes  them  sorrow  than  joy.  It  behoves  us,  however, 
to  hasten  onwards,  lest  the  serpents  find  us  to  be  here,  and  make  an  onset 
to  devour  us.  For  many  men  who  have  come  hither  to  hunt,  they  have 
devoured,  not  permitting  them  to  remain  even  for  one  night."  The  blessed 
Magnoald  then  answered  :  "  Truly,  our  Lord  Jesus  Christ  hath  power  to  drive 
those  serpents  from  this  place,  as  He  had  in  casting  out  bears,  wolves  and 
other  wild  beasts,  nay  even  serpents  and  demons,  through  the  prayers  of  our 


54  The  festival  of  St.  Tozzo  is  held  on  the  in  Tyrol,  on  the  Bregenzer-see,  a  gulf  of 
16th  of  January.  The  theatre  of  his  apos-  Lake  Constance.  In  the  Middle  Ages,  it 
tolic  labours  was  Algau,  in  Suabia,  between  belonged,  with  the  surrounding  territory,  to 
Lake  Constance  and  the  Tyrolean  Alps.  the  powerful  house  of  Montfort.  In  145 1, 
Afterwards  he  became  Bishop  of  Augsburg.  it  was  obtained  by  purchase  and  ceded  to 
See  Les  Petits  Bollandistes,  "Vies  des  the  Dukes  of  Austria.  See  "  Gazetteer  of 
Saints,"    tome   i.,    xvie    Jour    de    Janvier,  the  World,"  vol.  iii.,  p.  24. 

pp.  412,  413.  57  Also  called  Campodunum,  now  Kemp- 

55  Hence  he  is  represented  in  art,  with  a  ten,  a  German  city  in  Bavaria.  Here  dwelt 
lighted  flambeau  in  his  hand,  and  a  rosary,  in  a  fortress  the  dukes  of  Suabia,  from  whom 
to  denote  a  pilgrim.  See  Rev.  Ur.  F.  C.  descended  Hiltegardis,  the  wife  of  Charle- 
Husenbeth's  "Emblems  of  Saints,"  p.  magne.  See  Martinus  Crusius,  "Annates 
205.  Suevici,"  tomus  i.,  lib.  ix.,  cap.  3. 

56  This  town  is  of  great  antiquity,  being  s8  The  present  Iller,  which  rises  in  the 
the  Brigantia  of  the  Romans.  It  is  now  the  Tyrol,  and  flowing  northwards  by  Kempten, 
capital  of  the  circle  of  Brigenz  or  Vorarlberg,  joins  the  Danube  at  Ulm. 


142  LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS.      [September  6. 


Superior  and  Master  Gallus",  and  from  that  place  where  he  choose  to  build 
his  cell,  and  to  have  his  sacred  body  buried.  Therefore,  with  God's 
assistance,  it  will  be  expedient  for  us  to  remain  here  during  the  night."  The 
Legend  of  our  Saint's  Acts  then  proceeds  to  state,  that  Magnus  said  to  his 
companion  :  "  Brother  Theodore,  pray  and  implore  God's  mercy,  that  He 
aid  us  to  banish  the  dragon  and  demons  that  dwell  in  this  place,  since  by 
thee  is  it  designed  to  be  built  up  and  restored  ;  wherefore  let  us  pray 
unitedly,  that  the  Lord  shall  be  willing  to  hear  us  and  purify  a  spot  rendered 
uninhabitable  for  man."  Then  both  prostrated  themselves  in  prayer,  and 
while  so  engaged,  a  hideous  monster,  called  a  Boas,59  from  the  sound  of  its 
voice,60  rushed  upon  them  out  of  the  town.  In  terror  at  the  sight,  the  priest 
Tozzo  and  the  man  restored  to  vision  ran  to  save  themselves  by  climbing  up 
a  tree.  Confiding  in  the  Divine  assistance,  and  while  Theodore  prayed, 
Magnoald  arose.  Making  a  sign  of  the  cross,  he  took  the  Cambuta  and  a 
crucifix  he  bore,  to  meet  the  dragon,  and  crying  out:  "In  the  name  of  my 
Lord  Jesus  Christ,  I  command  that  there  you  remain,  and  that  the  demon 
you  contain  kill  you,  through  the  power  of  the  true  and  living  God."  He 
then  struck  the  Boas  on  the  head  with  the  Cambuta,  and  immediately 
bursting  asunder  the  monster  expired.  The  other  vermin  in  and  around  the 
town  immediately  fled,  and  never  afterwards  returned. 

When  Theodore  saw  the  wonderful  miracle  wrought,  he  arose  from  his 
kneeling  posture,  and  raising  his  hand  towards  Heaven  exclaimed  :  "  Lord 
God  Almighty,  who  hath  created  heaven  and  earth,  the  sea,  and  all  things  in 
them,  I  give  Thee  thanks,  I  invoke  Thee,  I  adore  Thee,  I  sing  Thy  praises, 
who  hath  deigned  to  fr>ee  us  from  such  a  danger,  and  from  such  a  pest  of 
vermin."  He  then  fell  down,  and  kissed  the  knees,  hands  and  face  of 
Magnoald,  and  in  a  transport  of  joy  exclaimed,  "Truly,  no  longer  shall  you 
be  called  Magnoald,  but  Magnus,  since  the  Lord  hath  granted  such  graces  as 
to  free  this  place  not  alone  from  monsters  but  even  from  demons." 
Whereupon  Magnoald  replied  :  "  Do  not  so  express  yourself,  brother,  I  am 
not  great,  but  the  least  of  God's  servants.  He  alone  has  freed  us  from  such 
dangers.  Your  own  prayers  were  heard  by  the  Lord,  and  therefore  not  to 
my  merits,  but  by  order  of  the  Almighty,  those  monsters  have  departed. 
Now  call  our  fellow-travellers,  and  let  us  remain  here,  since  the  Lord  wills  us 
to  build  a  cell  in  it  for  His  greater  glory.  Remember  how  our  most  holy 
Superior  and  Father  Gallus  came  to  the  place  he  had  chosen  for  his  dwelling  ; 
so  through  his  merits  is  it  ordained  by  God,  for  there  can  be  no  doubt,  he 
desires  this  spot  to  be  consecrated  to  him."61  Seeing  all  danger  thus 
removed,  Tozzo  and  the  man  who  had  recovered  sight  descended  from  the 
tree,  and  prostrated  themselves  before  Magnoald  and  Theodore.  Tozzo  then 
cried  out:  "Truly  the  Lord  is  in  this  place,  who  hath  given  such  power  to 
the  holy  Magnus,  who  with  his  Cambuta  hath  wrought  such  a  miracle  : 
therefore  I  shall  now  boldly  conduct  both  of  you  through  the  deserts  and 

s»  Pliny    thus    writes   regarding    such    a  (hat  a  similar  monster  was  destroyed  by  St. 

monster:     '"Faciunt    his    ndem    in    Italia  Ililarion,     near     Epidaurus,     a     town     of 

appellatae    boae,     in  tantam     amplitudinem  Dalmatia  :      "Draco     mine      magnitudinis 

exeuntes,  ut,  divo  Claudio  principe,  oceisa.  (quos  gentili  sermone   boas  vocant  ab  eo, 

in   Vaticano   solidus   in   alvo   speciatus  sit  qu<»d   tarn    grand efl   sint,    ut    boves   glutire 

infans.     Aluntur  primo  bubuli  lactis  succo,  soleant)  omnem   late   vastabat  provincial!)  ; 

unde  nomenhabet." — "Historia  Naturalis,"  nee  solum  armenta  et  pecudes,  Bed  agricolas 

HI),  viii.,  cap.  14.  quoque   et    pastores,     tractosque   ad    se    vi 

60  In  the  editions  of  our  saint's  Acts  by  gpiritus     sui     absorbebat."  —  "Vita       S. 

Canisius  and  Goldast,  such  derivation  is  not  Hilarionis." 

given.     One  very  different  is  to  be  found  in  6l  This  latter  sentence  is  not  in  the  edition 

the  works  of  St.  Jerome,  when  he  relates,  of  St.  Magnus' Acts  as  published  by  Canisius. 


September  6.1      LIVES  0*  THE  IRISH  SAINTS.  143 


passes,  to  wherever  you  shall  chose  to  dwell.  I  see  such  power  is  bestowed 
bv  the  Almighty  for  your  merits,  because  the  various  localities  of  this  region 
are  purified  and  rendered  habitable."  Magnoald  answered  :  u  Here  shall  we 
remain  for  the  present  week,  and  build  a  small  oratory,62  that  the  people  of 
this  district  may  know  God's  mercy  to  them,  in  this  very  place."  During  the 
short  time  of  their  stay  there,  Tozzo  visited  all  the  neighbouring  places 
familiar  to  him,  and  made  known  to  the  inhabitants  the  great  miracle 
wrought.  Many  flocked  thither,  and  admired  the  power  of  God.  St. 
Magnus  preached  His  Word,  while  still  a  deacon,  and  numbers  converted  to 
the  true  Faith  were  baptised  by  the  priest  Tozzo.  They  brought  more  than 
sufficient  food  for  the  missioners'  wants,  and  giving  thanks  to  God,  the 
country  people  willingly  aided  Magnus  and  Theodore  in  the  work  of  building 
their  cell.  For  three  days  they  continued  working,  and  spent  the  nights  in 
prayer.  After  the  matutinal  office  on  the  third  dawning  of  day,  the  demons 
were  seen  flying  through  the  air,  and  screaming.  Suddenly  they  set  upon 
Tozzo,  crying  out :  "  Thou,  hostile  to  our  leader  63  and  to  us,  why  hast  thou 
brought  this  man  and  his  companion  to  our  place,  who  hath  chased  us  from 
where  we  and  our  confederates  have  subjected  many  souls  ?  Their  Master 
always  conquers  us  with  his  agencies,  as  he  does  also  those  who  invoke  the 
name  of  the  Lord.  Yet,  he  has  not  alone  vanquished  and  expelled  us,  but  also 
our  members  by  the  awe-inspiring  name  of  Adonai."  Hearing  this,  the  aforesaid 
priest  made  a  sign  cf  the  cross  on  himself,  and  went  to  the  holy  man  to  tell 
him  what  he  had  seen  and  heard.  Then  the  brave  athlete  and  elect  of  God, 
with  Theodore,  prostrate  in  prayer,  addressed  the  Omnipotent  in  these  words  : 
"  O  powerful  God,  ineffable  goodness,  inestimable  piety,  who,  according  to 
Thy  mercy  and  not  through  our  merits,  hast  deigned  to  save  us  from  those 
monsters  and  demons,  graciously  hear  our  prayers  as  You  have  those  of  our 
Superior  Gall,  and  banish  the  demons  from  this  place,  that  it  may  be  sanctified 
in  Thy  name,  by  daily  orisons."64  Then  rising  from  prayer  and  going  out 
from  the  oratory,  they  heard  evil  spirits  howling  and  crying  out:  "You, 
Magnus,  bear  three  names  on  your  forehead,  and  with  the  Trinity  cause 
such  ills  to  us,  and  you,  Theodore,  what  do  you  to  us?  The  day  must  come 
when  Magnus  shall  not  be  with  you,  and  then  we  can  assail  you,  and  excite 
the  various  passions  of  the  inhabitants  of  this  region  against  you."  Magnus 
then  replied :  "  Miserable  beings,  acknowledge  if  you  can  the  Trinity  of 
God."  They  answered  :  "  We  know  it  to  be  ineffable  and  immense."  Then 
said  the  blessed  Magnus  :  "  Now  that  you  have  acknowledged  the  Holy 
Trinity,  I  command  you,  not  in  my  own  poor  capacity,  but  through  the 
immense  power  of  the  Holy  Trinity,  that  you  quit  this  place,  and  go  into 
mountain  deserts  wherever  the  Lord  permits  you,  and  that  you  no  longer  have 
permission  to  return."  On  this  sentence  being  pronounced,  the  demons  cried 
out:  "Alas!  what  shall  we  do  ?  Here  have  we  met  another  Gallus:  nay 
more,  this  Gallus  is  worse  than  the  former,  who  with  his  morning  canticles  6s 

62  In  the  Latin  Acts,  "aedificemus  ora-  shall  daily  resound  at  cock-crowing  with 
culum  parvulum."  Thy  praises." 

63  In  the  Latin  Acts,  "senioris  nostri  "  6s  The  text  of  the  saint's  Acts  reads  thus  : 
has  many  observations  regarding  the  "  Heu  !  quid  faciemus?  alium  Galium  hie 
signification,  by  Goidast,  in  a  lengthy  habemus :  imo  iste  Gallus  pejor  est  priori, 
note.  quia  cum    suis  galliciniis    nos   et    membra 

64  The  Latin  phrase  in  the  Acts  of  St.  nostra  pariter  ejicit  :  sed  nee  in  heremo 
Magnus  is,  "  cottidie  cantantibus  gallis."  manere  permittit."  The  demons  are  here 
Goidast  omits  it,  and  Father  Suysken  under-  allowed  to  have  a  play  on  the  proper  name 
stands  it  to  mean  :  "  Locus  iste  quotidie  sub  of  Gallus,  the  master  of  St.  Magnus.  Thus  : 
gallicinium  laudibus  tuis  resonet."  It  may  "gallus  gallinaceus."  See  also  Cicero  pro 
thus  be  rendered  in  English  :  "  This  place  Murana,  29. 


144 


LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS.     [September  6. 


drives  away  us  and  our  companions,  not  even  permitting  us  to  remain  in  the 
wilderness."  From  that  day  forward  the  demons  disappeared,  and  never 
returned  ;  for,  as  the  evil  ones  left,  through  the  prayers  of  Magnus,  so  did 
the  poison  of  error  depart  from  many  souls  there,  holiness  taking  its  place. 
Thenceforth  the  inhabitants  enjoyed  peace  in  their  dwellings.66 

Magnus  stayed  a  short  time  at  Campidonum  67  or  Campodunum,68  now 
Kempten,69  as  he  was  obliged  to  accomplish  the  prediction  of  his  master,  St. 
Columban.?0  That  is  now  a  town  in  Bavaria,  and  in  the  circle  of  Suabia,  on 
the  left  bank  of  the  Uler.  Having  recommended  Theodore  to  build  a  church 
in  that  place,?1  and  leaving  the  man  who  had  recovered  sight  with  him, 
Magnus  gave  him  the  kiss  of  peace  and  bade  farewell,  taking  with  himself 
the  priest  Tozzo  as  a  companion.  About  the  year  629,  St.  Magnus  is  said 
to  have  thus  journeyed  ad  Fauces  Julias,1*  where  he  intended  to  select  a  site, 
on  which  to  build  a  monastery.  On  the  way,  a  river  was  passed,  before  they 
came  to  a  place  called  Eptaticus,?3  where  they  found  a  bishop  belonging  to 
the  renowned  Church  of  Augsburg,"*  in  Germany.  He  was  named 
Wictherpus.75  Tozzo  was  intimate  with  that  prelate,  and  went  in  advance  of 
Magnus,  to  relate  all  he  knew  about  the  holy  man,  and  the  object  of  his 
visit,  which  was  to  seek  that  spot  which  Providence  had  designed  for  him. 
The  bishop  asked  Tozzo  from  what  country  the  stranger  had  come,  and  he 
received  for  answer  :  "  My  lord,  as  I  have  heard  from  'Theodore,  who  has 
been  left  at  Campidona,  he  was  born  in  the  province  of  Ireland."  Having 
heard  the  report  of  his  virtues  and  miracles,  the  Bishop  cordially  received 
Magnus,  who  remained  with  him  a  few  days,  and  related  all  he  knew  regarding 
Saints  Columban  and  Gall,  their  characters,  conversation,  wanderings, 
miracles  and  lives.  Then  Wictherp  enquired  about  the  place  to  which  he 
was  going.  Then  Deacon  Magnus  replied  :  "  The  Lord  willing  it,  I  am 
directed  to  a  locality  denominated  Fauces,?6  near  springs  of  the  Julian  Alps, 
and  where  was  a  dragon  killed  by  a  demon,  according  to  a  command  of 
Bishop  Narcissus,  and  there,  with  God's  assistance,  I  shall  do  all  the  good 


66  This  sentence  is  omitted  in  the  editions 
of  Canisius  and  Goldast. 

67  At  A..D.  752,  Mabillon  writes  : 
"  Positus  est  hie  locus  in  Sueviee  finibus  ad 
Hilarem  amnem,  a  quo  inditum  pago 
Hilergovse  noraen.  Nobile  in  primis  cceno- 
bium,  nobilium  Suevorum  seminarium,  ac 
totius  Suevise  monasterium  facile  princeps 
cujus  abbas  inter  principes  imperii  quatuor- 
viros  locum  habet." — "  Annales  Ordinis 
Sancti  Benedicti,"  tomus  ii.,  lib.  xxii.,  sect, 
lxv.,  pp.  159,  160. 

68  It  lies  61  miles  W.S.W.  from  Munich. 
It  consists  of  two  parts :  the  old  town  and 
the  Stifts-Siadt,  having  close  upon  8,000 
inhabitants,  with  a  fine  collegiate  church, 
library,  and  manufactures  of  cottonand  linen. 
See  "Gazetteer  of  the  World,"  vol.  viii., 
p.  473- 

69  See  Baudrand's  "Novum  Lexicon  Geo- 
graphicum,"  tomus  i.,  p.  154. 

70  The  Benedictine  writers  state  of 
Theodore  :  "  6  qui  on  rapporte  la  premiere 
origine  de  la  celebre  Abbaie  de  Kempten." 
— Histoire  l.iteraire  de  la  France,"  tome 
iii.,  vii.  Siecle,  p.  635. 

71  Theodore  is  called  by  Canisius  the  first 


Abbot  of  Kempten.  However,  Hermann 
states,  that  Audegarius  was  the  first  founder 
and  abbot  there,  A.D.  752.  Sec  Mabillon's 
"  Annales  Ordinis  Sancti  Benedicti,"  tomus 
ii.,  lib.  xxii.,  sect,  lxv.,  p.  159. 

72  Mabillon  states  "ad  Fauces  alpiutn 
Juliarum  accessi-se,"  &c. — Ibid.,  tomus  i., 
lib.  xiii.,  sect,  xxxiii..  p.  392. 

73  Rader  calls  it  Heptaticus,  a  village  in 
Boica,  between  Land-perg  and  Schongavie, 
near  the  River  Lich.     See  "  Bavaria  Sacra." 

74  Bearing  the  Latin  denomination  of 
Augusta  Vindelicensis. 

75  lie  i-  venerated  as  a  saint,  on  the  18th 
of  April,  the  day  for  his  feast.  He  was 
bishop  of  Augsburg  about  the  year  654. 
See  l.es  Petits  Bollandistes,  "Vies  des 
Saints,"  tome  iv.,  xviik-  Jour  d'Avril,  p. 
470. 

76  Baud  rand  has  the  following  description 
of  the  place  :  "  Abusiacum,  seu  Abodiacus, 
Fuessen.oppidum  alias  Vindeliceae  in  Rhxnia, 
nunc  Suevise,  provinciae  Germanise,  in  ipse 
limiie  Bavaria:. in  ditione  episcopiAugustani. 
Distal  xii.  milliaribus  Germanicis  ab 
Augusta  Vindelicorum  in  Meridiem." — 
"  Novum  Lexicon-Geographicum." 


September  6.]      LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS.  145 


within  my  power.  Now  let  your  reverence  prescribe  for  me,  how  I  shall 
obey  you,  as  I  desire  to  become  your  subject,  and  receive  the  Lord's  com- 
mand from  your  mouth.  I  am  now  an  old  man,  and  I  desire  in  my  closing 
years,  if  it  be  your  pleasure,  to  see  that  place,  and  prepare  in  it  to  serve  God, 
following  the  rule  of  my  most  blessed  superiors,  Columban  and  Gall."  The 
Bishop  replied  :  "The  place  you  seek  is  very  rugged  and  deserted  by  man, 
and  various  wild  animals,  such  as  deer,  boars  and  bears  abound  there,  so 
that  my  Lord  the  King  Pipin  77  has  reserved  it  as  a  hunting-ground  for  his 
own  use.  Serpents  of  various  kinds  are  also  to  be  met  with."  Then  Magnus 
said  :  "  Father,  such  grace  had  my  masters  Columban  and  Gall,  that  when 
they  came  to  places  where  they  desired  to  dwell,  our  Lord  Jesus  Christ 
through  their  prayers  banished  the  wild  animals  and  vermin.  In  like  manner, 
through  His  mercies,  I  believe,  He  will  not  allow  such  pests  to  remain  there 
when  I  come."  Giving  his  assent,  and  spreading  before  them  some  food,  the 
Bishop  sent  attendants  with  Magnus  and  Tozzo  to  that  spot,  known  to  the 
inhabitants  as  Rosshaupten,?8  rendered  Head  of  the  Horse,79  where  a  fierce 
dragon  lurked  in  a  crevice,  and  would  not  permit  any  man  nor  horse  to 
approach  that  way. 

When  there  arrived,  the  Deacon  Magnus  said  to  the  Priest  Tozzo : 
u  Brother,  let  us  set  up  our  tent  here  for  the  night,  and  pray  to  the  Lord, 
that  He  would  expe.1  the  present  demoniac  subject  from  this  spot,  and  permit 
us  to  advance."  Accordingly,  they  rested  there,  but  during  that  night, 
Magnus  prayed  and  invoked  the  Divine  assistance  to  overcome  the  dragon. 
At  midnight,  however,  he  said  to  Tozzo  :  "  Give  me  a  man,  who  will  lead  me 
to  the  den  where  that  dragon  lies."  Tozzo  replied,  that  he  feared  the  monster 
should  devour  him,  but  Magnus  answered  :  "  If  the  Lord  be  with  us,  who  shall 
be  against  us,  let  us  therefore  go  in  confidence,  since  he  who  released  Daniel 
from  the  lion's  den  8o  can  also  snatch  me  from  this  wicked  monster's  power." 
Saying  these  words,  Magnus  placed  some  bread  that  had  been  blessed,  in  his 
satchel,  hanging  a  small  crucifix  from  his  neck.  He  took  some  pitch  and 
rosin,  and  the  Cambuta  of  St.  Gall,  in  his  hands  ;  then  he  prayed,  "  O  Almighty 
Lord,  who  hath  brought  me  into  a  distant  country,  send  Thy  angel  with  me, 
as  in  the  case  of  Thy  servant  Tobias,81  deliver  me  from  the  power  of  this 
dragon,  and  show  me  the  place  destined  for  our  most  ardent  desires."  Then 
having  a  little  of  the  blessed  bread  and  water  in  his  mouth,  and  taking  with 
him  a  single  guide,  leaving  all  his  other  companions  in  the  tent,  Magnus  set 
out  for  the  place  where  the  dragon  lay  in  wait.  Immediately  he  arose  to 
attack  the  holy  Deacon,  who  threw  burning  pitch  and  rosin  into  the  monster's 
mouth,  with  a  prayer  to  God  for  the  result.  The  dragon  burst  asunder,  and 
died  on  the  instant.82  The  man  who  had  accompanied  him,  on  seeing  that 
miracle,  ran  back  to  the  tent,  and  brought  those  who  remained  behind  to 
witness  it.     They  found  Magnus  engaged  in  prayer  and  thanksgiving,   in 

"  As  Pepin,  surnamed  the  Short,  did  not  from  the  town  of  Fussen,  and  in  the  direction 

begin  to   reign   until   A.  D.   750 ;    no   other  of  Augsburg. 

prince  of  the  name  can  here  be  intended,  if  ?9  The  author  of  our  saint's  Acts  remarks, 

not    Pippin    the    Senior,    Major-domus  of  "  idcirco  vocatus  est  iste  locus  Caput  Equi, 

Dagobert    I.,     and     Sigebert,      Kings     of  quia  omnes  venatores  reliquerunt  ibi  cabal los 

Austrasia.  suos,  et  pedestres  ibant,  quocumque  poterant 

78   By  the  Germans  ros  means  "horse,"  ad  venandum." 

and  haupt  "head."     Hence  Rader  gives  it  *°  See  Daniel,  c.  vi. 

the   Greek   rendering,  Hippocephalum.      In  8l  See  Tobias,  c.  v. 

the  map,  prefixed  to  the  "  Commentarius  82  Father    Suysken     believes,     that    this 

Rerum     Augustinarum "     of    F.     Charles  account    is    taken    from    what    is    related 

Stengel,    the   spot   is  shown   at  the  River  in  a  nearly  similar  manner  in  Daniel,  xiv. 

Lech,  and  a  little  more  than  a  German  mile  26. 

K 


i46  LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS.      [September  6. 


which  Tozzo  devoutly  joined.  Afterwards,  they  left  that  rugged  place,  and 
went  to  the  River  Lech.  From  the  neck  of  Magnus  depended  a  crucifix  or 
case,83  containing  relics  of  the  Holy  Cross,  of  the  Blessed  Virgin  Mary,  of  the 
holy  Martyrs,  Maurice  and  his  companions,  as  also  of  the  Blessed  Confessors 
Columban  and  Gall.8*  Near  the  banks  of  the  River  Lech  was  found  a 
spacious  and  beautiful  plain, 8s  where  a  large  apple-tree  grew,86  and  on  its 
branches  Magnus  hung  the  reliquary,  and  called  Tozzo  to  him.  Both 
engaged  in  prayer,  and  Magnus  exclaimed:  "  Lord  Jesus  Christ,  who  hast 
deigned  to  be  born  of  the  Virgin  and  to  die  for  our  salvation,  despise  not  the 
contrition  for  my  sins,  but  allow  us  to  construct  an  oratory  here  in  honour  of 
Thy  holy  Mother,  and  prepare  also  a  dwelling  for  Thy  servants." 

Whereupon,  they  began  to  dig  the  foundations  and  to  build  a  church 
there.  Afterwards,  they  invited  Bishop  Wictherp  to  come  and  consecrate  it 
to  our  Lord  and  to  Holy  Mary.87  Their  request  he  complied  with,  and  it 
was  dedicated  to  the  Mother  of  God  and  to  St.  Florianus.88  In  it,  the  Divine 
Mysteries  were  soon  celebrated.  Hearing  of  the  great  miracle  wrought  through 
his  merits,  the  people  flocked  far  and  near  to  the  cell  of  St.  Magnus — for 
such  they  chose  to  call  it,  on  account  of  his  virtues  and  miraculous  powers. 
It  was  also  enriched  with  gifts  by  the  faith  ful.89  Leaving  Tozzo  there  to 
minister  for  their  spiritual  welfare,  and  commending  him  to  the  congregation,^ 
Magnus  knew  that  another  place  not  far  removed  was  destined  for  his  own 
habitation. 

Thence  he  went  to  Fauces — the  present  Fiissen — situated  on  the  River 
Leek,  in  the  circle  of  the  Upper  Danube,  Bavaria.91  There,  too,  the  evil  spirits 
are  said  to  have  had  previous  possession  of  the  locality,  and  while  some  were 
buried  in  the  depths  of  the  River  Leek,  others  held  possession  of  the 
mountains  near  it.92     They  were   heard  mutually  to  lament  the  arrival  of 


83  This  was  afterwards  kept  in  the  monas-  ecclesia  non  in  honorem  divse  Virginis  et  S. 
tery  of  Fiissen.  The  Abbot  Henry,  in  Floriani,  sed  in  honorem  Salvatoris  nostri 
1607,  opened  this  case,  and  found  within  it  est  dedicata." 

seven   different   objects,    but   without   any  88  The  Benedictine  Father  Charles  Stengel 

inscription.      In   German    they    are   called  understood   this  dedication,  as  referring  to 

siven  penggelin,  but  Father  Suysken  states,  the  monastery  of  Fiissen,  in   his  "  Monas- 

he  could  not  anywhere  find  the  interpretation  teriologia,  in  qua  insignium  Monasteriorum 

of  the  words.  Faniiliae    Sancti    Benedicti    in    Germanin, 

84  Father  Suysken  rather  supposes  the  Origines,  Fundatores.  Claiique  Viii,  &c.  , 
narrative  in  the  text  to  have  been  drawn  by  reri  iacbae  occulis  subjiciuntur."  Augsburg, 
the  interpolator  from  an  incident  of  a  nearly  1619,  1638,  two  tomes  in  one  folio  volume, 
similar  character  related  by  Walafridus  However,  in  this  he  was  mistaken,  as 
Strabo  in  his  "  Vita  S.  Galli."  Waltenhofen  was  really  the   place  destined 

85  Rader  states,  that  in  his  day  it  was  for  St.  Tozzo,  as  the  Bollandist  Father 
called  Waltenhofen.  See  "Bavaria  pia,"  Henschenn  shows  in  his  Acts,  at  the  16th 
p.  1S6.  of    January.        See    "  Acta     Sanctorum," 

80  Father  Babenstuber,    in  his    "Vita  S.  'tomus  ii.,  at  that  same  day. 

Magni,"    relates,    that    in    his   day   it    was  *»  In  the  edition  of  our  saint's  Acts  by 

staled  this  apple-tree  grew  in  the  garden  of  Goldast,  much  of  what  follows  in  the  text  is 

a  certain  Adam  Mayr  of  Waltenhofen,  near  omitted. 

the   parish   church.      Although    from    time  9°  The  Vita  S.  Magni  states  :"  relinquens 

to   time    that    tree   had    been    imprudently  prsefatum  pnvsbyterum  Tozzouem  in  ecclesia 

mutilated,    still  it   recovered   growth,    and  sanctze    Mariae  ad  populum    illis  venturum 

many   strangers   came  from    a   distance  to  custodiendum     vocavitque     ipsum       locum 

obtain  its  leaves  and   branches,  which  were  Synagoga,  id  est  Congregatio  populorum." 

thought   to   drive    away  mice    from    their  9l  See  Les  Petits  Bollandistes,  "  Vies  des 

meadows  and  fields.     See  lib.  ii.,  cap.  5.  Saints,"    tome    x.,    Jour    vie    Septembre, 

87  The  Abbot  Henry,  in   annotations  to  p.  528. 

his  manuscript,  writes  :    "Collige   falli  eos,  92  The  Bollandist  editor  invites  the  reader 

qui  hanc  ecclesioe  dedicationem  attribuunt  to  compare  this  account,  with  what  is  related 

ecclesiie    Faucensi :     nostra     enim     prima  regarding  St.  Gall,  by  Walafridus  Strabo; 


September  6.]      LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS.  147 


Magnus  in  the  district,  when  signing  himself  with  the  cross,  he  said  :  "  In  the 
name  of  our  Lord  Jesus  Christ,  and  not  through  my  merits,  but  those  of  the 
blessed  Gallus,  his  confessor,  and  through  his  glorious  deposition,  I  adjure 
you  to  depart  from  this  place  and  return  not,  nor  retiring  presume  to  injure 
anv  person."  Soon  afterwards,  the  holy  deacon  crossed  over  the  river  93  to  the 
Church  of  St.  Mary,  which  he  had  built  for  Tozzo,  and  related  all  he  had 
heard  and  seen.**  When  the  hour  for  vespers  came,  with  its  sacred  song, 
were  heard  the  loud  howls  of  the  demons  from  the  mountain  tops,  as  if 
terrified  on  departing.  The  servants  of  God  gave  thanks  in  prayer  for  this 
victory  over  the  wicked  spirits.  On  the  next  day,  Magnus  and  Tozzo 
returned  to  the  place  already  described,  and  there,  with  the  assistance  of  the 
people,  a  small  oratory  was  erected.  It  was  dedicated  to  our  Saviour,95  by 
Bishop  Wictherpus. 

This  chapel  had  a  ccenobium  attached  to  it,  but  in  the  lapse  of  time, 
both  were  more  than  once  destroyed  and  again  reconstructed  ;  until  in  the 
ninth  century,  the  bishops  of  Augsburg  96 — and  especially  Lanto97 — took 
care  that  a  larger  church  should  be  erected.  This  was  dedicated  to  our 
Saviour  and  to  St.  Magnus.  It  was  also  regarded  as  a  parish  church.  In 
the  year  1  701,  the  Most  Rev.  Dom.  Gerard,  the  fifty-second  Abbot  of  Fiissen, 
had  the  church  and  monastery  magnificently  renovated,  and  in  the  year  171 7, 
on  the  15th  of  February,  the  consecration  took  place,  by  the  Most  Rev.  and 
Serene  Lord  Bishop  of  Augsburg,  Alexander  Sigismund,  Count  Palatine. 
According  to  the  description  given  of  this  church,  it  was  built  in  magnificent 
proportions,  being  of  noble  design,  while  the  materials  were  superior,  and  the 
workmanship  was  most  elaborate.98  The  structure  was  cruciform,  two 
hundred  feet  in  length,  by  sixty  in  height,  whence  a  roof  arose  to  the  apex  of 
forty  additional  feet.  The  transepts  were  eighty-four  feet  in  width,  elsewhere 
the  breadth  was  sixty  feet.  Twelve  columns  supported  the  roof  within,  and 
on  each  of  these  was  the  beautiful  and  artistic  figure  of  an  apostle  carved  in 
fine  marble  ;  while  sixty  triple  windows,  oblong,  rounded  and  lunated,  threw 
light  into  the  building.  Within  the  church  were  four  oratories  ;  the  two 
larger  devoted  to  the  choristers,  and  the  other  two  fitted  for  the  practice  of 
devotion.  The  choir  was  rounded  off  and  elongated  for  accommodation  of 
the  religious,  who  used  it  both  by  day  and  night,  and  the  stalls  were 
elegantly    carved  in   mottled  wood.      Moreover,  within    the    church    were 

and,  he  must   find,    that   what    has    been  ^  Of  it,  the  Abbot  Henry  writes,  that  in 

attributed   to  the  latter  saint  at  Bregentz  is  his  opinion,  it   rested  on  a  rock  above  the 

also   ascribed    by   the   interpolator    to    St.  great  church  of  his  time,    and  that  it  was 

Magnus  at  Fussen.     Wherefore,   lie  deems  near  their   conventual    garden,    "  ubi  jam 

the  story  in  the  text  worthy  only  to  be  re-  constructa  manet  ecclesia  nostra  major." 
ganled  as  a  fable.  96  Much    chronological    uncertainty    pre- 

93  Waltenhofen  and  Fussen  were  on  vails  regarding  the  order  of  succession  and 
opposite  banks  of  the  River  Lech.  dates  for  the  episcopacy  of  Augsburg  during 

94  The  Abbot  Henry  alludes  to  a  spot  the  Middle  Ages,  as  shown  by  Father 
near  the  Lech,  called  S.  Mangen  schritt.  Suysken,  in  the  "  Acta  Sanctorum,"  tomus 
Regarding  it,  Father  Ludovicus  Babenstuber  ii.,  Septembris  vi.  De  Sancto  Magno,  &c, 
states:  "Extra  suburbicen  Fuessense,  ubi  Commentarius  Przevius,  sect,  viii.,  pp.  716 
est  fullonia,  in  utraque  ripa    Lyci  notantur  to  720. 

partes  petra;  depressiores  cateris,  quas  vulgus  97  This  prelate— also  called  Hanto — is  said 

S.    Magni     vestigia    (S.    Mangen    schritt)  to  have  presided  over  his  see  for  seven  years, 

nominat  ;  quae  Divusdestituerit  ibiimpressa,  and  to  have  been  present  at  the  Synod  of 

quando   omnem   superavit,    seu    vado,    seu  Mayence,  held  A.n.  847. 
portatus  ab  angelo.      Non  tamen    referunt  98  We  have  here  abridged  a  detailed  descrip- 

ea,  ut  satis  agnosci  queat,  figuram  plantarum  tion  of  this  grand  chinch,  dedicated  to  St. 

humanarum  :  in  causa  ajunt  esse  vetustatem,  Magnus,  from  that  given  by  the  Rev.  Father 

quae   madore    imbrium,  niveumque  adjuta,  Chardon,  Rector  of  the  Jesuit  College  of 

manifestiora  lineamenta  exederit."  Constance,  to  the  Bollandists. 


148 


LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS.      [September  6. 


admirably  pictured  incidents  in  his  life,  and  representations  of  some  miracles 
wrought  by  St.  Magnus.  The  high  altar,  magnificently  and  skilfully  carved 
from  precious  marble,  closed  the  choir,  and  the  pavement  of  the  choir  was  of 
black  and  white  marble,  in  a  varied  and  harmonizing  pattern.  There  are 
eight  chapels  within  the  church  :  two  larger  ones  within  the  transepts  ;  and 
six  smaller  ones — all  of  their  altars  being  marble  ;  also,  a  large  organ,  and 
two  smaller  ones.  A  few  steps  conduct  to  the  entrance  of  two  subterranean 
chapels:  one  of  these  is  dedicated  to  St.  John  the  Baptist,  and  there  is  the 
baptismal  font,  enclosed  within  a  marble  baptistery.  But,  the  chapel  of  St. 
Magnus,  which  adjoins,  is  still  more  ornate  ;  for  not  alone  is  the  altar  of 
marble,  but  the  walls  and  pavement  are  exquisitely  adorned  with  varied 
coloured  marbles,  and  arranged  with  great  artistic  taste.  Tradition  maintains, 
that  this  latter  chapel  stands  on  the  original  site  of  the  cell  of  St.  Magnus.?? 


CHAPTER     III. 

ST.  MAGNUS  IS  PATRONISED  BY  KING  PIPPIN— ORDAINED  PRIEST  BY  BISHOP 
WICTHERP— MIRACLES  WROUGHT  AT  FUSSEN— BISHOP  TOZZO  VISITED  ST.  MAGNUS 
AT  THE  TIME  OF  HIS  DEATH— INTERMENT  BY  THEODORE— A  MEMOIR  PLACED 
IN  HIS  COFFIN — RESTORATION  OF  HIS  CHURCH  BY  CHARLEMAGNE— TRANSLATION 
OF  ST.  MAGNOALD'S  REMAINS  TO  A  NEW  SHRINE— MIRACLES  THEN  AND  AFTER- 
WARDS   WROUGHT— COMMEMORATIONS   AND    FESTIVALS — CONCLUSION. 

Some  religious  clerics  were  soon  found  to  place  themselves  under  the  rule 
of  St.  Magnus,1  and  they  were  recommended  to  his  care  by  the  good  prelate, 
who  also  furnished  the  means  necessary  for  their  support.  He  is  said,  like- 
wise, to  have  furnished  a  recommendation  in  person  to  the  renowned  King 
Peppin2  or  Pippin  d'H£ristall,3  who  then  ruled  over  Germany  and  Gaul,* 


»  Father  Chardon  adds  :  "  Sacellum  S. 
Magni  ab  initio  et  prima  monasteni  funda- 
tione  ereclum,  antiquissime  documenta 
dicunt  fuisse  habitaculum  et  ipsissimam 
cellam,  in  qua  S.  Magnus  primus  fundator 
et  patronus  noster  habitavit  in  vivis  ;  et  ideo 
semper  in  summo  honore  habitual,  ssepius 
cum  monasterio  et  ecclesia,  partim  incendi, 
partim  devastationibus  destructum,  sed 
semper  iterum  innovatum,  cum  ecclesia  et 
monasterio  anno  MDCCI.  noviter  et  fundo 
erecto  et  hoc  sacellum  e  fundo  noviter  ex- 
tructum  et  pulcherrime  exornaium  fuit, 
ut  hodie  visitur  ;  ita  tamen  ut  eumdem 
semper  locum  servaverit,  quern  habuit, 
vivente  S.  Magno,  postcujus  obitum  postliac 
in  sacellum  mutatum  est.  ' 

Chapter  hi. — '  The  Acts  of  St.  Magnus, 
as  published  by  the  Boilandists,  state,  that 
he  ruled  over  them  for  thirty  years  ;  but  this 
account  does  not  accord  with  other  versions 
of  his  Acts,  which  give  him  only  twenty- 
live  years,  as  a  superior.  Even  the  aforesaid 
Acts  are  inconsistent  with  their  subsequent 
relation  of  the  death  of  St.  Magnus,  "  ex- 
pletis  viginti  sex  annis  commorationis  suae 
in  illo  ccenobio,"  &c. 

2  He.  was  grandson,  through  his  mother, 


Begga,  of  Pepin  le  Vieux,  or  of  Landen, 
mayor  of  the  palace  under  Sigebert  III., 
son  of  Dagobert,  who  died  A. I).  638,  and 
whom  lie  survived  only  one  year.  In  concert 
with  his  brother  Martin,  Pepin  dTIeristal 
declared  war  against  the  King  of  Neustria, 
or  rather  against  the  mayor  or  his  house, 
the  able  minister,  Ebroin.  Their  career 
commenced  by  getting  rid  of  the  Merovin- 
gian King  Dagobert  II.,  who  then  ruled  in 
Austrasia.  However,  having  levied  a 
powerful  army,  they  marched  against  Ebroin 
and  the  Neustrian>,  but  were  signally  de- 
feated near  Laon,  in  680,  when  Martin  was 
killed,  and  Pepin  saved  himself  by  flight. 
Not  long  afterwards,  Ebroin  Was  assas- 
sinated, and.  his  successors  gave  such 
offence,  that  many  of  the  Neustnan  leudes 
sought  refuge  in  the  dominions  of  Pepin. 
The  latter  then  levied  a  confederacy  of  those 
malcontents,  together  with  the  Saxons, 
Prisons,  Cattes,  Hessians,  Thuringians  and 
other  Germans  ;  and  with  these  he  fought  a 
decisive  and  bloody  battle  near  Testri  on 
the  Somme,  in  687.  Afterwards,  Thierry 
III.  being  made  prisoner,  Pepin  consoli- 
dated his  authority  over  all  provinces 
occupied     by   the   Erancs.      See    Le   Dr. 


September  6.]      LIVES  OI  THE  IRISH  SAINTS. 


'49 


while  he  presented  also  an  epistle  of  St.  Columban  s  directed  to  Lothaire,6 
in  favour  of  the  holy  men,  Gallus  and  Magnus, 7  who  had  settled  in  his 
kingdom.  Whereupon,  moved  by  that  epistle,  Peppin  8  enquired  from  some 
of  his  German  chiefs  about  that  place,  for  which  Bishop  Witcherp  preferred 
his  petition.  Then  Gungo,9  Duke  of  Augsburg  and  Rhetia,  told  him  about 
its  desert  character,  and  of  its  being  only  a  haunt  for  wild  animals  and 
serpents.  Extolling  the  virtues  of  Magnus,  Wictherp  stated,  so  marvellous 
had  been  his\  sanctity,  while  in  that  country,  that  like  the  first  man,  Adam,  he 
exercised  an  absolute  power  over  the  savage  animals,10  and  how  in  that 
vicinity  was  a  stronghold  occupied  by  a  frightful  demon,  which  assumed 
the  figure  of  a  dragon,  and  who,  under  such  form,  usurped  the  supreme 
honour,  due  to  God  alone,  among  the  poor  and  ignorant  mountaineers. 

However,  St.  Magnus  resolved  to  encounter  that  demon,  and  fortified  by 
prayer,  he  touched  the  monster  on  the  neck,  with  the  end  of  St.  Columban's 
staff.  Immediately,  the  demon's  wrath  was  excited,  but  swelling  up  in  fury, 
he  expired  on  the  spot,  and  with  him  disappeared  all  the  other  demons, 
that  were  thought  to  infest  those  mountainous  regions.  While  there,  it  was 
stated,  that  he  also  freed  the  neighbourhood  from  serpents. 

On  hearing  such  accounts,  King  Pippin  declared,  that  as  wonderful 
miracles  had  been  already  wrought  where  the  body  of  St.  Gallus  was  deposed, 
so  should  that  wild  district  have  its  fame  diffused  abroad  in  after  times.  He 
then  asked  Gunzon  if  there  could  be  found  tax-payers  to  the  royal  treasury 
in  that  neighbourhood,  who  might  have  their  tributary  returns  sent  to  St. 
Magnus,  instead  of  to  the  royal  fisc.  The  king  learned,  that  there  was  a 
village,  called  Geltenstein,11  that  might  serve  for  that  purpose.  Whereupon, 
he  bestowed  by  charter I2  a  large  tract  of  woodland,  with  the  village  in 


Hoefer's  "  Nouvelle  Biographie  Generate," 
tome  xxxix.,  cols.  540,  54 1. 

3  So  designated  from  a  celebrated  villa, 
in  which  he  dwelt  on  the  banks  of  the 
Meuse,  near  Liege.  See  Henri  Martin's 
"  Ilistoire  de  France,"  tome  ii.,  liv.  xi., 
p.   160. 

4  In  ihe  year  700  he  was  Mayor  of  the 
Palace  for  the  whole  of  the  French  Empire, 
"  tant  en  Neustrie  qu'en  Austrasie." — 
Kohlrausch's  "  Histoire  d'Allemagne," 
traduite  de  l'Allemand,  par  A.  Guinefolle, 
Deuxieme  Epoque,  p.  77. 

5  In  his  "  Vita  S.  Columbani,"  Jonas 
states,  that  when  King  Clothaire  earnestly 
besought  the  holy  Abbot  to  return  and  again 
preside  over  Luxeu,  St.  Columban  wrote  to 
Eustasius — then  Superior  over  Luxeu — that 
he  would  excuse  him  to  the  King  for  not 
undertaking  such  a  charge,  but  only  to  ask 
lor  the  assistance  and  protection  of  the 
monarch  on  behalf  of  his  community,  that 
then  lived  in  the  monastery  at  Luxeu. 

6  Jonas  adds  :  "  Litteras  castigationem 
affamine  plenas  regi  dirigit  gratissimum 
munus,"  &c. 

?  Jonas  makes  no  mention  of  Gallus  and 
Magnus,  and  Father  Suysken  observes, 
"  non  dubito  taman,  quin  hasce  litteras 
interpolator  noster  designet." 

8  "  Gros  et  court  comme  son  surnom  le 
portait,  il  etoit  d'unc  taille  a  n'imprimer 


pas  beaucoup  de  respect ;  mais  il  y  supleoit 
par  une  grande  force,  et  par  un  certain  air 
de  fierte,  qui  reparoit  en  lui  ce  defaut  de  la 
nature." — M.  de  Limiers'  "  Annates  de  la 
Monarchic  Francoise,  depuis  son  Etab- 
lissement  jusques  a  Present."  Premiere 
Partie.  Seconde  Race,  Pepin  dit  le  Bref, 
pp.  49,  50.     Amsterdam,  1 724,  fol. 

9  Goldast  has  the  name  written  Cuntzo. 
He  seems  to  have  been  the  magnate,  from 
whose  daughter,  Frideburga,  St.  Gall  is 
stated  to  have  expelled  the  evil  spirit. 

10  See  Les  Petits  Bollandistes,  "  Vies  des 
Saints,"  tome  x.,  Jour  vie  Septembre,  p. 
528,  n.  1. 

11  So  written  in  the  Acts,  as  published  by 
the  Bollandists.  In  the  edition  of  Canisius, 
it  is  written  Geltinstein  ;  in  that  of  Goldast, 
Keltinstein,  and  called  by  the  Abbot  Henry 
Geltenstain.  The  latter  writer  notices,  that 
no  longer  was  it  known  by  such  a  name, 
bub  he  supposed  it  to  have  been  in  the 
Tyrol.  Mabillon  quotes  a  charter  of  Ludo- 
vicus  Augustus,  in  favour  of  Kempten,  and 
in  which  mention  of  it  is  thus  made,  "in 
pago  Keltenstein."  See  "Annate-;  Ordinis 
S.  Benedicti,"  tomus  ii.,  lib.  xxxii.,  sect, 
xiv.,  p.  609. 

12  In  the  Acts  as  published  by  Goldast  we 
read  :  "  Dedit  ei  totum  ipsum  saltum  cum 
marcha,  firmitatemque  in  epistola,"  &c.  At 
this    passage    Goldast    remarks,    that    by 


i5° 


LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS.       [September  6. 


question, x3  and  a  yearly  payment  of  one  hundred  and  twenty-three  pounds1* 
of  silver.  This  was  to  be  binding  on  himself  and  his  successors  for  ever/s 
That  grant  was  placed,  also,  under  the  jurisdiction  of  Bishop  Wictherp  and 
all  his  episcopal  successors.  Receiving  some  royal  present  for  Magnus,  the 
bishop  returned  with  great  satisfaction  to  urge  him  there  to  supplement  the 
religious  services  of  St.  Mary  and  of  St.  Afra,16  as  also  to  regulate  and 
institute  all  canonical  observances.  There  accordingly  St.  Magnus  founded 
his  chief  monastic  institution,  and  during  the  life-time  of  King  Pepin xi 
enjoyed  his  friendship  and  patronage.  The  latter  monarch  was  viitual 
sovereign,  as  Major  Domus,  in  the  palace  of  the  French  kings,  and  he  died 
December  1 6th,  714,18  while  Dagobert  III. '9  was  under  his  tutelage. 

No  sooner  had  he  been  well  settled  in  Fiissen,  than  his  former  com- 
panion, Theodore  of  Kempen,  paid  him  a  visit,  and  after  the  usual 
religious  salutations  had  passed  between  them,  Magnus  was  informed 
and  consulted  about  the  persecutions  and  injuries  Theodore  had  suffered 
from  the  people  around  him,20  and  how  he  had  built  a  small  church 
on  the  banks  of  the  Iller.  He  was  desirous  of  having  it  consecrated 
in  honour  of  the  Holy  Mother  of  God,  Mary,  by  Bishop  Wictherp. 
Both  of  those  attached  friends  then  went  to  see  the  bishop  at  Eptaticus,21 
where  he  then  resided,  and  preferred  their  request.  He  was  then 
sitting  and  at  prayer  in  his  oratory.  On  learning  the  object  of  their 
interview,  the  venerable  prelate  said:  "I  will  first  tell  you  what  I  had  in  my 
mind  before  you  came,  and  then  at  a  proper  time,  in  the  name  of  God,  I 
shall  go  with  you.     Indeed,  my  most  dear  Father  Magnus,  as  the  Lord  hath 


marcha  he  means  the  village,  previously 
called  Keltinstein,  and  that  such  term  has 
the  modern  signification  of  a  territory  or 
district. 

13  Henry,  Abbot  of  Fiissen,  gives  the 
following  interpretation  :  "  Nota  saltum 
ilium,  quen.  Pippinus  S.  Magno  donasse 
dicitur,  fuisse  totum  ilium  districtum  et 
fund  urn,  magnum  et  spatiosum  desertum, 
quod  se  extendit  ab  Hornbach  et  parochia 
Aschauer  usque  ad  Erspach,  et  quo  spatio 
pnecipue  continetur  tota  parochia  Aschaver, 
Saxenriedt,  Hohenfurch,  bona  in  Nider- 
hoffen  ei  Altenstat,  Dienhausen,  Weyssensee 
et  Fiiessen,"  &c. 

14  In  the  Acts  as  published  by  the  Bol- 
landists,  the  text  reads,  "  vectigalia  centum 
viginti  tria,"  but  in  other  copies  "centum 
et  tredecim."  The  Abbot  Henry  notes: 
"  Si  conjecturari  licet,  puto  esse  centum  et 
tredecim  libra*  argenti,  qose  quotannis 
pendenda;  erant  ex  Aschawensi  S.  Magni 
ecclesia :  nam  centum  et  tredecim  librae 
faciunt  sexaginta  quatuor  Morenos,  triginta 
crucigeros  et  tinum  halerum.  Sic  hodie 
dttm  nobis  etiamnum  pendunt  Aschawcn-.es 
quotannis  pro  censu  sexaginta  quatuor 
florenos.  Quod  ego  pro  ratione  conjecturce 
meas  assertum  volo." 

'5  Father  Suysken,  in  a  note,  points  out  cer- 
tain coincidences  of  statement  and  phrase- 
ology, between  what  is  given  in  the  Acts  of 
St.  Magnus,  and  in  the  text  of  Walafridus 
Strabo,  in  "  De  Miraculis  S.  Galli," 
cap.  xi. 


16  In  Goldast's  edition  of  St.  Magnus' 
Acts,  there  is  no  mention  of  St.  Afra. 

l?  By  his  wife,  Plectrude,  he  had  two  sons, 
Drogon  and  Grimoald,  who  pie-deceased 
their  father.  Her  he  repudiated,  and  after- 
wards cohabited  with  Alpaide,  by  whom  he 
had  two  illegitimate  sons,  Charles  and 
Childebrand.  However,  repenting  his  illicit 
connexion,  he  recalled  Plectrude  to  the 
position  his  religious  obligation  and  her 
virtues  so  justly  merited.  Grimoald  left  a 
son  named  Theudoalis  or  Theobaldus,  who 
was  styled  Major  Domus  while  still  a  youth  ; 
but,  (luring  his  minority,  Plectrude,  the 
wife  of  Pepin,  took  upon  herself  the  chief 
administration  of  public  affairs  in  the  king- 
dom, which  afterwards  became  the  prey  of 
great  disorders.  See  Natalis  Alexander's 
"  Historia  Ecclesiastica  Veteris  Novique 
Testamenti,"  tomus  xii.,  scec.  vii.,  cap.  vi., 
art.  vi.,  p.  102,  and  saec.  viii.,  cap.  vii.,  art. 
i.,  ii.,  iii.,  iv.,  v.,  pp.  382  to  388. 

,8  See  Georgius  Heinricus  Pertz's  "Monu- 
menta  Germanise  J  listorica,"  tomus  v., 
Bernoldi  Chronicon,  p.  417. 

"SonofChildebert  III., who  died  A.D.  711. 
See  J.  (J.  L.  Simonde  de  Sismondi's  "  His- 
toire  Francois,"  tome  ii.,  chap,  xii.,  p.  104. 

20  The  Acts  have  it,  "  narravit  ei  Theodo- 
rus  diversa  et  innumerabilia,  qua?  passus  est 
a  pagensibus  Hilargaugensibus,"  &c.  This 
means  either  the  people  living  near  the  Iller, 
or  in  the  village  situated  on  its  banks.  In 
the  Ratisbon  Manuscript  is  substituted  "  ab 
incolis  Canipidonensibus." 


September  6.]      LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS. 


exalted  you  in  this  place  by  His  great  miracles,  I  had  intended  to  send  for 
and  ordain  you  a  priest  through  Divine  assistance,  on  the  coming  fast  of 
the  seventh  month."22  However,  the  humble  Magnus  declared  himself  to 
be  unworthy  of  such  an  exalted  dignity,  on  account  of  his  many  sins.  Still, 
if  on  their  meditated  journey,  the  Almighty  should  manifest  His  approval  of 
that  intention,  Magnus  declared,  as  an  obedient  servant,  he  would  oppose  no 
further  obstacle  to  the  prelate's  desire.  On  making  that  statement,  Wictherp 
and  Theodore  saw  a  brilliant  crown  of  glory  encircling  his  head.  The  prelate, 
then  rising,  embraced  Magnus,  and  cried  out:  "Almighty  Lord,  who  hath 
deigned  in  the  plenitude  of  Thy  power  to  show  such  virtues  in  you,  who 
have  left  your  country  to  observe  His  precepts,  may  He  cause  you  to 
magnify  and  guard  the  place  destined  for  you,  through  the  grace  of  Thy  Holy 
Spirit."  Theodore  devoutly  answered,  "  Amen."  Again  the  Bishop  said  : 
"  Well  has  this  place  been  called  Eptaticus,23  because  it  lies  midway 2* 
between  the  monastery  of  the  Blessed  Afra  2s  and  your  own  cell.  Therefore 
shall  you  know,  that  after  my  departure,  I  desire  this  possession  to  belong  to 
the  Blessed  Virgin  and  to  St.  Afra,26  as  if  this  place  is  destined  to  be  a 
mediator  between  thy  monastery  and  my  church  of  Augsburg."  All  three 
then  came  to  Kempten,  and  on  the  day  of  the  church's  consecration, 
Wictherp  preached  an  impressive  sermon  before  a  great  number  of  people. 
About  the  same  time,  Magnus  was  duly  ordained  a  priest.2?  There  they 
remained  for  two  days.  Leaving  Theodore  in  charge  of  Kempten,  Magnus 
set  out  for  Fiissen,  and  the  venerable  prelate,  Wictherp,  went  to  his  own  place 
of  residence. 

St.  Magnus  spent  six-and-twenty  years  of  his   life,  at  Fassen.28     The 


31  Father  Charles  Stengel  supposes  he  had 
discovered  the  site  of  this  place,  not  far  from 
the  River  Lech,  and  an  hour's  journey  from 
the  village  of  Eppach.  There  in  a  lonely 
and  uncultivated  situation  was  a  small 
chapel,  dedicated  to  the  Blessed  Virgin  and 
to  St.  Laurence.  This  information  he  re- 
ceived from  a  rustic.  "  Quo  responso  in 
earn  omnino  deveni  sententiam,  at  mihi 
persuaded  paterer,  hanc  ipse  esse  ecclesiam, 
qua  delectatum  fuisse  B.  Wicterpum  legi- 
nms,  ubi  et  postea  Herluca  vitam  egerit." — 
"  Monasteriologia." 

22  By  this  is  understood  the  fast  of  Quatuor 
Tense,  in  the  month  of  September.  It  was 
called  the  seventh  month,  because  it  is  held, 
that  Romulus  had  ordered  the  year  to  com- 
mence from  March  ;  and  although  Numa 
Pompilius  placed  January  and  February 
before  March,  nevertheless  the  previous 
numerical  order  of  the  months  continued  in 
the  writings  of  the  ancients  and  ecclesiastical 
authors.  "  That  the  year  originally  began 
with  March  is  shown  by  the  names  of 
several  of  the  months  ;  as  Quintilis,  Sextilis, 
September,  &c.  :  for  Quintilis,  afterwards 
Julius,  was  the  fifth  month  from  Marcli  ; 
Sextilis,  afterwards  Augustus,  the  Sixth, 
&c. :  January  and  February  were  added  to 
the  end  of  the  year."  —  Thomas  Henry 
Dyer's  History  of  the  Kings  of  Rome,"  &c 
Prefatory  Dissertation,  p.  cxxvii. 

23  The  anonymous  writer  of  the  saint's 
Ratisbon  Acts  thus  finds  fault  with  the  deri- 


vation of  the  name  as  given  in  the  text, 
"quasi  idem  vocabulum  (Eptaticum)  inter- 
pretetur  medium,  et  non  potius  numerum 
sonet  Septenarium,  qui  Grsec£  dicitur 
iirra. 

24  To  the  objection  in  the  previous  note, 
Father  Suysken  replies  :  "Recte  :  sed  quidsi 
locus  ille  septem  circiter  leucis  utrimque 
dissitus  fuerit,  inter  Augustam  scilicet  et 
Fauces  medius  ?  Turn  sane  nihil  erit,  quod 
improbet  anonymus." 

25  Unless  this  be  an  interpolation  of  the 
more  recenr.  writer,  according  to  Father 
Suysken,  by  the  monastery  of  St.  Afra,  we 
are  to  understand  a  community  of  Regular 
Canons,  that  occupied  it  before  A.  D.  1012, 
when  the  Benedictines  succeeded  them,  as 
Bernard  Hertfelder  states.  However, 
Father  Suysken  would  hesitate  to  place  the 
Regular  Canons  there  in  the  age  of  St. 
Magnus. 

26  The  festival  of  St.  Afra  and  Companions, 
Martyrs,  is  celebrated  on  the  5th  of  August. 

2?  St.  Gelasius,  who  flourished  towards 
the  end  of  the  fifth  century,  thus  writes  : 
•'  Ordinationes  etiam  presbyterorum  et 
diaconorum,  nisi  certis  temporibus  et  diebus 
exerceri  non  debent  ;  id  est,  quarti  mensis 
jejunio,  septimi  et  decimi/'&c. — Epistola  ix. 

2b  This  town  of  Bavaria  is  about  90  kilo- 
metres, south  from  Augsbourg,  and  33 
kilometres  south-east  from  Kempten.  At 
present  it  contains  about  2,000  inhabitants. 
On  the  18th  of  April,  1745,  a  treaty  was 


152  LIVES   OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS.      [September  6. 


miracles  he  wrought  there  caused  the  conversion  of  numberless  infidels,  so 
that  he  was  afterwards  regarded  as  the  Apostle  of  Suabia.29  It  is  related,  in 
the  Legend  of  his  Life,  that  when  he  travelled  through  the  mountains  and 
valleys  in  different  places,  the  bears  remarkable  for  their  ferocity,  through  the 
efficacy  of  his  prayers,  lost  all  their  wildness,  and  went  before  him  tamely  as 
did  oxen  before  the  herdsman.  At  one  lime,  having  ascended  a  high  moun- 
tain, called  Suilinc,3°  through  a  miracle,  veins  of  iron  were  discovered  by  him, 
in  that  district  of  country  where  h»  dwelt.31  These  were  afterwards  worked 
to  great  advantage  by  the  inhabitants.32  He  is  said  to  have  founded  many 
monasteries,  in  the  diocese  of  Augsburg.  It  may  here  be  observed,  that  Joannes 
Tamayus  Salazar  33  has  converted  this  saint  into  a  bishop  and  abbot  of  Spain  ; 
but,  this  is  a  ridiculous  statement,  and  not  deserving  the  slightest  attention. 
He  also  absurdly  places  Fauces  in  Spain,  and  states,  that  the  saint  had  been 
canonized  by  Benton  or  Lanthon  of  Caesar  Augusta,  the  classic  name  for  the 
present  city  of  Saragossa. 

After  the  death  of  Bishop  Wictherp,  it  is  stated,  that  through  the  recom- 
mendation of  the  Blessed  Magnus,  Tozzo  was  elected  to  succeed  him  in  the 
see  of  Augsburg.  In  the  twenty-sixth  year  of  his  incumbency,3<  the  holy 
Abbot  took  ill  of  a  fever,  and  then  Tozzo  sent  word  to  his  most  faithful 
friend,  Theodore,  at  Kempten,  to  hasten  and  comfort  him.  Immediately  he 
sorrowfully  set  out,  taking  with  him  what  he  supposed  requisite  for  the  aged 
patient.  He  found  the  holy  Abbot  of  Fussen  in  the  last  extremity,  and  then 
Theodore  sent  a  message  for  the  Bishop  to  hasten  with  all  speed.  Tozzo 
lost  no  time  in  coming  to  his  bed-side,  and  seeing  the  Blessed  Magnus  near 
death,  said  in  tears :  "  Alas  !  beloved  Father,  alas !  illustrious  teacher,  do 
you  leave  me  as  an  orphan  in  the  midst  of  my  dangers!"  To  these  exclama- 
tions, Magnus  was  able  to  reply  :  "  Weep  not,  venerable  prelate,  because  you 
see  me  struggling  in  the  storms  of  worldly  adversity,  since  I  have  faith  in 
God's  mercies,  and  that  my  soul  shall  re joice  in  the  freedom  of  immortality ; 
however,  I  entreat  you,  not  to  withhold  your  pious  prayers  for  me  a  sinner, 
nor  cease  to  afford  the  aid  of  your  intercession." 

The  Life  of  St.  Magnus  states,  that  he  departed  on  a  Sunday,  about  the 
ninth  hour,  and  on  the  viii.  Ides  of  September^  which  correspond  with  the 
6th  of  this  month.  While  Bishop  Tozzo  and  Theodore  stood  weeping,  they 
heard  a  voice  from  Heaven  saying:  "  Come,  Magnus,  come,  and  receive  the 
crown  prepared  for  you  !"  Then  Tozzo  said  to  Theodore ;  "  Brother,  let  us 
cease  weeping,  for  rather  should  we  rejoice  than  grieve,  on  hearing  such 

there    concluded     between     Bavaria    and  32  In  his   "  Vita  S.  Magni,"  Babenstuber 

Austria.     See   Pierre    Larousse's     "  Grand  states,   that  they  had  been  deserted  in  his 

Dictionnaire   Universel    du  XIX.   Steele,"  day,   "sed  cum  ferritin  habeant  notae   non 

tome  viii.,  p.  895.  adeo  bona-,  at  aliucl.  quod  ut  vicinis  nego- 

29  See  Les  Petits  Bollandistes,  "  Vies  des  ciatorilms  importatur,  venditurque  tolerabili 
Saints,"  tome  x.,  Jour  vie  Septembre,  p.  pretio,  piidum  desectae  sunt.' — Lib.  iii., 
528,  n.  1.  cap.  iii. 

30  In  the  edition  of  Goldast,  it  is  written  31  In  his  Spanish  Martyrology.  He  wri'.es  : 
Swilinjr,  and  in  the  German  Life  of  our  "Ad  Fauces,  oppidum  in  Vettonia  His- 
saint  Seyling.  Under  the  latter  form,  it  is  paniae,  sancti  Magni,  qui  cum  Hispanias 
noted  by  Merianus,  in  "  Topographia  cum  S.  Columbano  venisset,  et  monas- 
Suevise,"  as  being  near  the  town  of  Fuessen,  terium  S.  Martini  in  Placentinae  urbis 
on  the  other  side  of  the  Lech  River.  territorio   abbas  inclytus    construxisset,    et 

*"  In  the  Manuscript  of  our  saint's  Acts,  alia    plura    contra    haereticos   machinasset, 

used  by  the  anonymous  writer  of  Ratisbon,  post  hujus  vitas  excursum  miraculis  Celebris 

about  the  middle  of  the  eleventh  century,  is  et  sanctitate  conspicuus.ad  aeternam  quietem 

read:    "  ab  illo  igitur  diversae   ferri  venae  confessor  properavit  strenuus." 

inveniebantur  in  ipso  loco,  usque  in  praesen-  3*  Others  have  it  the  twenty-fifth, 

tern  diem. "  3s  Such    is  the   statement    in  the  Acta 


September  6.1      LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS. 


153 


words,  since  his  soul  is  taken  to  immortal  bliss ;  but  let  us  go  to  the  church, 
that  we  may  prepare  to  immolate  the  Sacred  Victim  for  our  dearly  loved 
friend." 

St.  Magnus  died  in  the  seventy-fourth  year  of  his  age,  and  a.d.  655, 
according  to  the  best  computation.  The  exact  date  for  his  death, 
however,  has  divided  the  opinions  of  various  writers;36  some  placing 
it,  at  654,  655,37  665,38  670,39  673,  683,  689,  and  691. <°  After  the 
departure  of  the  holy  servant  of  God^his  friends,  Bishop  Tozzo  and 
Theodore,  found  a  beautifully-formed  stone  coffin,  fashioned  in  ancient 
times  by  a  magnate  named  Abuzac,*1  who  also  gave  the  name  Abuzacum*2 
to  a  fort  he  had  erected.  In  that  coffin,  no  corpse  had  been  previously 
deposited.  Having  carefully  prepared  the  interior,  the  body  of  our 
saint  was  then  placed  in  it,  and  buried  in  that  place,  where  he  had  built 
an  oratory.  Moreover,  in  the  tomb  was  deposited  a  Memoir  of  his  virtues, 
written  by  Theodore.  With  this  was  placed  a  certificate  in  the  Latin 
language,  and  which  may  thus  be  rendered  into  English  :  "  Wherefore  I, 
Theodorus,  monk  from  the  monastery  of  St.  Gall,  by  order  of  Bishop  Tozzo, 
as  I  have  learned  from  Theodegisilus,*3  monk  ot  St.  Columban,  from  conver- 
sations with  him,  as  also  with  the  Blessed  Columban,**  and  from  what  I  have 
seen  with  my  own  eyes  and  heard  with  mine  own  ears,  either  after  he  left  me 
in  the  cell  at  Kempten,  and  as  afterwards  from  the  aforesaid  venerable  Bishop 
Tozzo,  I  have  learned  about  his  virtues  many  things  ;  but,  not  all  have  I  cared 
to  write  in  my  tract,*s  and  I  have  placed  at  his  head  within  the  coffin  for  futuie 
times,  when  the  Lord  revealing  it,  then  those  who  shall  be  pastors  and 
rectors  of  the  church,  may  rind  it  to  be  just  and  right ;  so  that  those  things 
that  should  be  corrected  they  may  Correct,  and  what  should  be  emended 
they  may  emend ;  moreover,  may  they  not  forget  to  pray  for  me  to  the 
servant  of  Christ,  so  that  supported  by  the  suffrages  of  such  a  Patron,  my 
soul  may  obtain  eternal  rest."  *6 


Pseudo-Theodori.  In  the  Goldast  edition 
is  the  reading,  "  in  die  S.  Dominici."  This 
seems  to  be  the  error  of  a  copyist  ;  for  if 
allusion  be  made  to  the  founder  of  the 
Dominican  Order,  he  expired  on  the  6th  of 
August,  A.D.,  1 22 1.  Moreover,  in  the 
Ratisbonand  other  copies  of  the  saint's  Acts 
we  read,  "  in  die  Dominico." 

36  See  Matthew  Rader's  "Bavaria  Pia," 
p.  188. 

37  Father  Constantine  Suysken  supposes 
from  the  Chronotaxis  of  his  Acts,  that  this 
is  the  most  probable  date  for  the  death  of 
St.  Magnus.  Moreover,  he  calculates,  that 
in  655,  the  viii.  of  the  September  Ides  fell 
upon  Sunday,  which  the  ancient  life  of  St. 
Magnus  states  to  have  coincided  with  the 
day  he  died. 

<8  Mabillon  thinks  he  departed  about  this 
year. 

3'  Bernard  Hertfelder,  in  Basilica  SS. 
Udalrici  et  Afrae,  pars  Hi.,  in  Chronico,  has 
this  date. 

40  Carolus  Stengelius  states,  that  the  death 
of  St.  Magnus  occurred  in  a.d.  689  or  in 
691.  See  "  Commentarium  Rerum  Augus- 
tanum,  pars  ii.,  cap.  iii. 

41  About  this  chief,  nothing  more  seems 
to  be  known. 


42  By  others  called  Abodiacuin  or  Abu- 
diacum.  It  is  supposed  to  have  been  on 
the  site  of  the  present  town,  named  Ftissen. 
See  Philipus  Cluverius,  "  Germanke  An- 
tiquae,  Libri  Tres,  necnon  Vindelicia  et 
Noricum,"  Leyde,  1616,  folio. 

43  He  was  probably  the  same  as  Theude- 
gisilus,  mentioned  by  Jonas,  in  **  Vita  S. 
Columbani,"  cap.  xxiii. 

44  This  passage  in  the  "Acta  Pseudo- 
Theodori,"  "de  tanti  viri  conversationibus 
simul  cum  15.  Columbano  comperi,"  is 
rightly  omitted  from  the  copies  in  Goldast, 
and  in  another  anonymous  manuscript, 
according  to  Father  Suysken,  who  will  not 
allow  St.  Magnus  or  Theodore  to  have  lived 
under  the  rule  of  St.  Columban. 

45  The  Acts  have  it,  "  in  pitatione  mea." 
Canisiushas  "  in  epitatiomeo,"  and  Goldast 
"  in  pictatio  meo."  According  to  Du  Cange, 
"  pittacium,"  "  pitacium,"  and  "pietacium" 
can  be  variously  interpreted,  and  have  been 
by  the  various  authors  quoted,  but  they 
have  generally  the  signification  of  tablets, 
papers,  epistles,  briefs,  parchments,  and 
tracts.  See  "Glossarium  ad  Scriptores 
mediae  et  infirmoe  Latinitatis,"  tomus  v., 
col.  511. 

44  In  the  edition  of  Goldast,  the  fore- 


154 


LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS.      [September  6. 


In  art,  St.  Magnus  or  Magnoald  is  represented  with  a  dragon,*?  trans- 
fixed by  his  pastoral  staff,  or  with  a  bear  at  his  side,*8  in  allusion  to 
legends  contained  in  his  Acts. 

After  the  death  of  Magnus,4?  Bishop  Tozzo — so  far  as  was  within  his 
power — gave  protection  to  the  monastery  and  its  inmates,  guarding  their 
rights  very  carefully.  To  the  last  day  of  his  life,  also,  the  sacred  remains  of 
the  Patron  were  preserved  with  honour,  lights  being  placed  around  his  shrine, 
and  clerics  reciting  the  Divine  Of%e.  Bishop  Tozzo  survived  the  death  of 
his  friend  for  five  years,  and  four  months,  departing  this  life  on  the  xvii.  of 
the  February  Kalends. s°  He  had  previously  bequeathed  some  property  for 
maintenance  of  the  shrine  of  Blessed  Magnus,  according  to  a  bond  and 
stipulation  of  the  German  laws.51  Subsequent  to  the  death  of  the  glorious 
King  Pippin, s2  however,  his  sons  53  began  to  quarrel  among  themselves.54 
Utilo  or  Odiloss  became  Duke  of  Bavaria,  and  Godefredusor  Godefrit s6  was 
King  over  the  Germans.  Their  wars  caused  great  devastation  throughout 
those  districts  where. they  were  waged.  No  longer  was  Theodore  and  his 
monks  able  to  bear  the  persecutions  and  losses  he  sustained  5?  at  the  hands 
of  the  spoilers  around  Kempten.  Wherefore,  he  left  the  place,  and  sought 
refuge  at  St.  Gall,  where  he  found  the  Blessed  Othmar,s8  then  oppressed  with 
the  weight  of  ^ears.     Theodore  told  him  all  about  St.  Magnus,  as  also  what 


going  account  in  the   text  is  considerably 
abridged. 

47  He  is  held  to  have  banished  such  a 
monster  from  the  neighbourhood  of  Ffissen. 

48  See  Rev.  S.  Baring-Gould's  "  Lives  of 
the  Saints,"  vol.  ix.,  September  6,  p.  95. 

49  What  follows  purports  to  have  been  a 
subsequent  addition  to  the  narrative  of 
Theodore.  In  Goldast's  edition  it  is  headed, 
"  Ermenrici  Elewangensis  monachi  Supple- 
mentum."  The  Bollandist  editor  considers, 
that  it  has  been  improperly  interpolated  by 
a  later  writer. 

50  St.  Tozzo  died  about  the  year  66 1.  The 
"Vita  Pseudo-Theodori "  inserted  "  tres 
menses,"  instead  of  "  menses  quatuor,"  for 
such  was  the  difference  between  the  6th  of 
September,  the  day  of  Magnus'  death,  and 
the  16th  of  January,  that  assigned  for  the 
death  of  Tozzo.  The  Ratisbon  Acts  have  : 
14  Post  obitum  B.  Magni  in  pontificatu 
annos  v.  et  menses  VI.  gerens,  xvn.  Kal. 
Feb.  vitam  praesentem  finiit." 

51  See  Goldast's  "  Alamanicarum  Rerum 
Scriptores,"  tomus  ii.,  pars  i.  The  writer 
of  our  saint's  Acts  adds:  " sepultusque  a 
clero  suo  Augustensi  sub  testimonio  in  eadem 
hatred  itate." 

5-!  His  death  has  been  assigned  to  Sep- 
tember 24th,  A.D.  768.  He  ruled  over 
France  very  gloriously  for  forty-seven  years, 
having  carried  his  arms  against  the  Saracens, 
and  his  conquests  into  Italy  and  Germany. 
Before  his  death,  which  was  caused  by 
dropsy,  at  the  age  of  fifty-three,  he  divided 
his  dominions  between  his  two  sons,  Charles 
and  Carloman  ;  a  third  son,  Gilles,  having 
been  educated  in  a  monastery,  became  a 
religious.  See  Henri  Martin's  "  Ilistoirede 
France,"  tome  ii.,  liv.  xii.,  pp.  250,  251. 


53  Namely,  Charles,  who,  when  twenty- 
four  or  twenty-five  years  of  age,  had  been 
crowned  at  Noyon,  King  of  Burgundy  and 
Neustria ;  and  Carloman  at  the  age  of 
eighteen  was  crowned,  at  Soissons,  King  of 
Austrasia,  which  included  a  large  part  of 
Germany.  The  latter  died  after  a  brief 
reign  of  four  years,  and  the  Austrasian 
nobles,  disregarding  his  two  infant  sons, 
offered  the  crown  to  Charles,  who  then 
became  sole  monarch  of  France.  Sec  an 
account  of  these  events  in  Capefigue's 
"  Charlemagne,"  chap,  vii.,  pp.  117  to  142. 

54  Their  mother,  Bertha,  or  Bertrada,  had 
much  difficulty  in  trying  to  reconcile  then- 
differences.  See  L. — P.  Anquetil's"  Hisloire 
de  France,"  Deuxieme  Race  dite  des  Carlo* 
vingiens,  sect,  i.,  p.  60. 

55  He  died  about  the  year  747.  He  was 
in  rebellion  against  Carloman  and  Pepin, 
Majors-domi  to  the  Kings  of  F ranee,  but  he 
was  conquered  by  them.  See  John  George 
Eckhart's  "  Commentarius  de  Rebus 
Francise  Orientalis  et  Episcopatus  Virce- 
burgensis,"  tomus  i.,  lib.  xxiii.,  num.  102, 
Wurtzburg,  1727,  fob 

5(5  According  to  a  fragment  of  Erchanbert, 
he  shook  off  the  French  yoke,  and  died  A.D. 
709.  See  Duchesne's  "  Historic  Francorum 
Scriptores,"  tomus  i.,  p.  780,  and  tomus  ii., 

P-  3- 

57  Certain  anachronisms  are  pointed  out 
by  Father  Suysken,  in  the  Acta  Pseudo- 
Theodori,  at  this  portion  of  the  narrative. 

58  This  must  have  been  intended  for  St. 
Othmar,  whose  feast  is  held  on  the  16th  of 
November,  and  who  became  Abbot  of  St. 
Gall,  A.D.  720,  and  who  presided  over  it  for 
nearly  forty  years,  having  died  A.D.  759. 
However,  this  statement  in  the  text  cannot 


September  6.]       LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS. 


155 


he  and  his  community  suffered  from  the  pagans  and  bad  Christians.  In 
turn,  Othmar  informed  him  about  the  losses  himself  had  endured,5?  owing  to 
the  action  of  the  wicked  Counts  Ruadhard  and  Warin,  the  tyrants  of 
Germany.  Then  Othmar  selected  a  good  and  prudent  member  of  his  com- 
munity, named  Peretgothus,6°  and  four  other  monks,  to  take  charge  of 
Kempten,  until  peace  should  be  restored.  He  permitted  Theodore  to 
remain  at  St.  Gall,  to  the  day  of  his  death. 

Affairs  remained  in  this  state  of  collision,  until  the  great  monarch, 
Charlemagne,6'  subdued  the  petty  dynasts  of  Germany  and  the  Saxons.62 
Then  hearing,  that  the  religious  establishments  at  Augsburg,  Kempten,  as 
also  the  monasteries  of  St.  Afra  and  of  Magnus,  had  been  utterly  ruined, 
that  great  monarch  resolved  on  restoring  them.  He  procured  the  election 
of  Sintpert  63  for  the  see  of  Augsburg.  Afterwards,  Sintpert  ruled  that  church 
for  nearly  thirty  years.  That  prelate  restored  the  monasteries  of  St.  Afra 
and  St.  Magnus  ;6*  he  also  enlarged  the  limits  of  his  diocese,65  so  as  to  make  . 
it  extend,66  on  both  banks  of  the  River  Lech.6? 


be  historically  accurate,  as  Theodore  could 
not  have  survived  even  to  the  first  year  of 
Othmar 's  incumbency. 

59  See  in  Mabillon  the  "  Acta  S.  Othmari, 
at  the  1 8th  of  November.  He  died  A.D. 
761.  See  J.  C.  L.  Simonde  de  Sismondi's 
"  Histoire  de  Francais,"  tome  ii.,  Seconde 
Panie,  chap,  i.,  p. 212. 

60  Canisius  has  the  name  Berthgozus  ; 
Goldast  Perechtgozus ;  and  the  Ratisbon 
Acts  have  Pertgozus. 

61  On  the  death  of  his  brother  Carloman 
A.D.  771,  Charles — better  known  as  Char- 
lemagne— became  sole  ruler  of  France, 
having  taken  possession  of  Burgundy  and 
South  Gaul.  See  Eginhard's  "  Vita  Caroli 
Magni."  After  Charlemagne  had  forced 
the  Saxon  chiefs  to  give  hostages  for  their 
future  obedience,  "so  far  from  observing 
the  treaty,  they  poured  their  wild  hordes 
into  Franconia,  burnt  every  church  and 
monastery  that  fell  in  their  way,  and  put 
every  creature  to  the  sword." — A.  S.  Dun- 
ham's "  History  of  the  Germanic  Empire," 
vol.  L,  book  i.,  chap,  i.,  p.  28. 

62  The  Saxons,  under  their  brave  and  able 
leader,  Witikind,  had  given  him  a  strenuous 
opposition  from  a.d.  772  to  780.  After 
several  sanguinary  campaigns,  Witikind  was 
at  length  obliged  to  submit.  Having  re- 
ceived baptism,  his  days  were  afterwards 
ended  in  peace  on  his  domains  in  the  north 
of  Germany.  Charlemagne  had  occasion  to 
wage  war  against  Tassilo,  Duke  of  Bavaria, 
a  feudatory  of  the  Frankish  monarchs,  who 
had  assisted  or  connived  at  Witikind's  in- 
cursions. He  was  subdued  and  taken 
prisoner,  but  his  life  was  spared  by  Char- 
lemagne, who  had  him  confined  in  a 
convent  A.D.  794.  In  the  year  800,  this 
renowned  monarch  was  everywhere  vic- 
torious and  master  of  the  best  part  of  the 
European  Continent.  In  January,  814, 
Charlemagne  died  of  pleurisy  at  Aix-la- 
Chapelle,  after  a  reign  of  forty-seven  years. 
He    was   buried   with  great  pomp   in   the 


cathedral  of  that  city.  See  Charles  Knight's 
"English  Cyclopaedia  of  Biography,"  vol. 
ii.,  col.  169.  It  is  strange,  that  no  tradition 
remains,  regarding  the  spot  .where  this  great 
Emperor's  remains  had  been  deposited  in 
that  venerable  cathedral,  although  the 
marble  sarcophagus,  brought  from  Rome, 
and  in  which  he  desired  to  be  buried,  is 
there  preserved. 

63  He  is  called  Simpertus,  by  Matthew 
Rader,  in  "  Bavaria  Sancta,"  vol.  iii. 

64  See  Mabillon's  '•  Annales  Ordinis  S. 
Benedicti,"  tomus  ii.,  lib.  xxv.,  sect,  xiii., 
p.  255. 

63  The  following  Latin  verses  commemo- 
rate Simpertus,  together  with  other  religious 
founders  : 

"  Ccenobium  Fuessen  regali  dote  Pipinus 
Fundavit,  sancti  permotus  numine  Magni : 
Vastatum  Caesar  reparavit  Carolus  idem, 
Atque   Augustana  Simpertus    praesul    in 

urbe  : 
Austriacae   posthaec    Leopoldus   marchio 

terrae, 
Guelpho  Suevorum  dux  ampliter  augmen- 

tarunt." 

66  In  the  Acts  of  St.  Magnus,  "  parochia" 
is  the  word  used  for  "  dioecesis."  This  is 
stated  by  Abbot  Henry,  in  certain  notes 
appended  to  the  manuscript  Life  of  our 
saint.  Also,  Velserus  relates,  that  Char- 
lemagne made  that  extension  in  favour  of 
Bishop  Simpertus.  He  adds  :  "  In  vetusto 
manuscripto  codice  legere  memini,  Simper- 
turn  Augustanam  dioecesim  Novicorum 
finibus  auxisse  :  antiquum  Noricum  *  *  * 
ad  Oenum  tantum,  posterius  ad  Lycum 
usque  pertingit.'' — "  Rerum  Augustanarum 
Vindelicarum,"  lib.  iv. 

67  In  the  editions  of  our  saint's  Acts  by 
Canisius  and  Goldast,  it  is  stated  that  Leo 
III.,  whose  pontificate  began  a.d.  795, 
authorised  that  extension  of  the  diocese  of 
Augsburg,  and  that  it  was  confirmed  by 
Charlemagne, 


*5* 


LIVES  OE  THE  IRISH  SAINTS.      [September  6. 


After  the  death  of  Sintpert,68  it  is  stated  ^  that  he  was  succeeded  by 
Bishop  Hatto,?0  who  ruled  for  seven  years,  and  who  acquired  much  property 
for  the  church  through  his  family  connexions^1  but  who  was  not  able  to 
effect  any  improvements  in  it  during  so  short  a  term.  ?a  However,  his  successor, 
Nittarius,"  it  is  said,  first  commenced  the  building  of  a  large  church  in 
honour  of  St.  Magnus.  A  consultation  had  been  held  with  the  Archbishop 
of  Mayence,  named  Otgar,?4  and  his  other  suffragan  Bishops,  to  know  if  it 
should  be  desirable,  that  the  sac^pd  remains  might  be  translated  to  a  more 
ornate  and  conspicuous  shrine.  This  project  was  approved  of  by  all,  and 
the  permission  of  King  Ludovicus  was  also  obtained.75  The  work  of  church 
building  was  prosecuted  by  other  prelates,  and  especially  by  Lanto,'6  who 
finished  the  nave,  in  the  fifth  year  of  his  episcopacy,  through  the  aid  afforded 
by  the  renowned  King  Ludovicus  I.,?7  third  son  of  the  illustrious  Emperor 
Ludovicus,  surnamed  Le  Debonnaire.?8  That  elegantly  appointed  church" 
was  built  over  the  spot,  where  the  body  of  Magnus  had  been  consigned  to 
the  tomb. 


68  He  is  stated  to  have  died  about  A.D. 
818. 

^  There  is  much  uncertainty  regarding 
the  order  of  succession  of  Bishops  over  the 
see  of  Augsburg,  especially  in  the  ninth 
century,  and  owing  chiefly  to  the  miscon- 
ceptions and  opinions  of  writers  in  after 
years.  Their  varying  statements  are  pointed 
out  and  critically  examined  by  Father 
Suysken  in  "  Acta  Sanctorum,  '  tomus  ii., 
Septembris  vi.,  De  S.  Magno,  &c,  Com- 
mentarius  Praevius,  sect,  viii.,  pp.  716  to 
720. 

70  Besides  the  "  Acta  Pseudo-Theodori" 
of  our  saint,  two  other  manuscript  copies 
have  Hatto,  as  in  the  text ;  while  the  Ratis- 
bon  and  another  copy  have  the  name  written 
Hanto  ;  Canisius  and  Goldast  read  Lanto. 
Hatto  or  Hauto  is  said  to  have  belonged  to 
the  noble  family  of  the  Andecensian  Counts. 

71  In  the  Ratisbon  manuscript  :  "  Verum- 
tamen  ex  parentela,  quam  in  Bagoaria 
habuit,  quiedam  bona  ad  episcopatum 
acquisivit." 

7'-'  The  saint's  Acts  stale,  "  minime  quivit 
in  hiis  rebus  sublimari." 

73  He  is  also  named  Nitcarius,  Nidgarius, 
and  Nitkerus ;  he  is  also  called  Witgarius 
and  Nitger. 

74  The  Ratisbon  copy  ofour  saint's  Acts 
writes  the  name  Otkerus,  and  Goldast  has 
it  Otkarius.  He  ruled  over  the  sec  of 
Mayence,  from  A.D.  825  or  826  to  A.D.  827. 

7=  Henry,  Abbot  of  Fuessan,  states,  that 
this  work  w.is  undertaken  in  the  year  870, 
with  the  consent  and  order  of  Pope  Adrian 
II.  He  filled  the  chair  of  St.  Peter  from 
a.d.  867  to  872.  However,  in  none  of  the 
other  manuscript  accounts  of  St.  Magnus  is 
such  a  statement  to  be  found  ;  and,  it  is  only 
necessary  to  observe,  that  Otgai ,  the  Arch- 
bishop of  Mayence,  had  died  twenty  years 
before  Pope  Adrian  II.  had  been  set  over 
the  Universal  Church. 

76  The  various  writers,  such  as  Bruschius, 
Bucelin,     Demochares,     Stengel,    Joannes 


Krueger,  Corbinian  Khamm  and  others, 
who  have  allusion  to  Lanto,  place  the  com- 
mencement of  his  episcopacy  over  the  see  of 
Augsberg  at  different  dates  :  some  have  it  at 
869;  others  at  870  ;  others  again  so  late  as 
A.D.  878,  while  none  of  those  historic  writers 
connect  him  in  any  way  with  Otmar,  Arch- 
bishop of  Mayence.  The  latter  date  is 
inconsistent  with  Lanto  having  received  aid 
towards  the  church  of  St.  Magnus  from 
Ludovicus  I.,  King  of  Germany,  during  the 
life-time  of  that  monarch,  who  died  at 
Frankfort,   August  28th,  A.D.  876. 

77  He  bears  the  surname  of  Le  Pieu.\  or  I.c 
Vieil.  He  was  born  A.D.  806,  and  was 
brother  to  Lothaire  and  Pepin  of  Aquitaine. 
His  father,  known  as  Louis  le  Dibonnaire, 
had  three  sons  by  his  first  wife,  Ermengarde. 
After  her  death,  he  espoused  Judith  of 
Bavaria,  by  whom  he  had  a  fourth  son, 
known  under  the  designation  of  Charles  U 
Chavce.  The  reign  of  that  monarch  was 
remarkable  for  many  and  great  disorders. 
Among  these  were  unnatural  rebellions  of 
his  sons  against  his  authority,  and  sub- 
sequently of  divisions  among  themselves. 
Fearing  the  designs  and  ambition  of 
Lothaire,  Ludovicus,  in  league  with  his 
step-brother,  Charles  le  Chauve,  raised  an 
army,  and  in  841,  a  memorable  battle  was 
gained  at  Fontenoy  over  Lothaire  and  the 
Francs.  This  gave  Ludovicus  supremacy 
over  Fiance  and  Germany. 

1  of  the  Emperor  Charlemagne,  by 
his  second  wife,  Hildegarde.  From  this 
father,  by  his  first  wife,  Ermengarde,  the 
kingdom  of  Bavaria  was  obtained  in  the 
year  817,  by  Ludovicus,  and  he  had  posses- 
sion of  all  Germany  to  the  Rhine,  A.D.  843, 
according  to  the  Annalist  of  Metz.  He  died 
in  the  seventieth  year  of  his  age,  leaving 
three  sons,  viz.,  Carloman,  Louis,  and 
Charles,  known  under  the  designation  of  Lc 
Gros.  These  divided  the  vast  Empire  of 
Charlemagne  between  them.  See  Michaud's 
"  Biographie     Universelle,     Ancienne    et 


September  6J       LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS. 


157 


At  that  time,  a  poor  student,80  the  son  of  respectable  parents  belonging  to 
the  village  of  Durach,81  happened  to  be  in  the  monastery,  and  in  exchange 
for  his  manual  labour,  he  acquired  learning  and  a  maintenance.  He  had 
been  attacked  with  some  kind  of  evil,  which  caused  sores  to  break  out  over 
one  side  of  his  body,  and  he  was  so  afflicted  as  to  become  almost  lame. 
Touched  with  his  misfortunes,  Bishop  Lanto  asked  many  of  the  priests  in  his 
diocese  to  institute  a  Triduum,  so  that  the  Almighty  would  mercifully  hear 
their  prayers  for  his  recovery.  At  the  end  of  three  days,  when  the  physicians 
had  tried  their  skill  in  vain,  and  all  had  cflspaired  of  the  patient's  cure;  in 
his  sleep,  a  venerable  man  appeared  to  him,  and  with  a  benign  look  and 
gentle  tone  of  voice  inquired  the  nature  of  his  infirmity.  This  having  been 
explained  to  him,  the  senior  said  :  M  My  son,  ask  from  the  Bishop,  when 
to-day  he  shall  have  found  my  body,  and  taken  it  from  the  crypt  in  which  it 
lies,  that  he  would  permit  you  to  kiss  that  crypt,  and  when  you  shall  have 
done  so,  that  you  take  some  dust  from  the  place,  mixing  it  with  blessed 
water  and  oil.82  Ask,  that  before  the  new  altar  you  be  allowed  to  prostrate 
yourself,  and  moreover,  that  your  sores  be  anointed.  If  all  this  you  do, 
the  Lord  will  restore  you  to  former  health."  Immediately  awaking,  the 
patient  at  early  dawn  went  to  the  church,  and  told  the  care-taker  what  had 
happened  during  his  sleep.  Afterwards,  as  advised  by  the  guardian,  both 
went  on  their  knees,  relating  what  had  occurred  to  the  Bishop,  whose  assent 
was  obtained  to  fulfil  what  had  been  directed  in  the  vision. 

The  next  process  was  that  of  unearthing  the  remains,  and  soon  the  workers 
reached  that  beautiful  stone  coffin,  in  which  lay  the  relics  of  St.  Magnus. 
On  opening  it,  the  body  was  found  to  be  undecayed,  but  with  the  colour 
somewhat  changed.8s  Placed  at  the  head  was  found  that  Life,  written  by 
Theodore,  with  some  faded  linen.  In  fulfilment  of  the  permission  given,  the 
patient  to  whom  allusion  has  been  already  made  was  brought  to  the  tomb, 


Moderne,"  tome  xxv.,  148  to  150,  and  pp. 
294,  295- 

79  Thus  Father  Stengel  writes  :  "  Cum 
Lanto  episcopus  templum  restauraret  et 
ornaret,  sacrum  D.  Magni  corpus  in  medio 
eccleske  requiescere  sinens,  sicut  prius  posi- 
tum  fuerat,  donee  cum  omni  diligentia  ac 
reverentia  consensum  ab  Hadriano  summo 
Pontifice  expetisset  :  deinde  venerabilis 
proesul  Lanto,  Othgarium  seu  Otgerum  S. 
Moguntinaeecclesias  archiepiscopum  accessit, 
suumque  illi  affectum  aperuit.  Turn  Metro- 
politanus  omnes  fratres  suos  episcopos  ac 
suffraganeos  convocavit,  quatenus  cum  eis 
consultaret,  si  eum  ausus  esset  ab  illo  loco 
in  alium  transferre.  Concluserunt  autem, 
dignum  fore,  pretiosum  ac  sanctum  corpus 
in  meliorem  atque  subiimiorum  locum,  si 
Deus  vellet,  transponere.  Sicque  revevsus 
est  cum  licentia  piissimi  regis  Ludovici  ad 
propria,-'  &c.  —  "  Monasteriologia,"  &c. 
Rerum  Augustanarum,  pars  ii.,  cap.  14, 
num.  2.  This  account,  however,  seems  to 
be  inconsistent  with  comparative  chron- 
ology. 

-"Although  styled  "  frater,"  in  our  saint's 
Acts,  Father  Suysken  understands  the  word 
rather  to  be  interpreted  "  discipulus,"  or 
scholar,  in  the  house,  and  which  is  manifest 
from  the  tenor  of  this  narrative. 


81  The  anonymous  writer  of  the  German 
Life  of  St.  Magnus  thus  identifies  it — 
although  in  the  text  written  Duria — and  he 
states,  that  the  place  is  in  the  district,  near 
Kempten.     Book  iii.,  chap,  v.,  sect.  2. 

82  The  use  of  oil — regarded  as  a  symbol  of 
Divine  Grace — had  been  blessed  to  cure 
diseases,  in  former  ages  of  the  Church  ;  and 
the  practice  was  derived  from  that  of  the 
disciples  of  Christ,  who  "cast  out  many 
devils,  and  anointed  with  oil  many  that 
were  sick,  and  healed  them  " — St.  Mark.  vi. 
13.  Sometimes  oil  had  been  taken  from  the 
lamps  which  burned  before  the  shrines  of 
saints  for  the  same  purpose,  as  Mabillon 
shows,  in  his  Prrefacio  ad  Sceeulum  Bene- 
dictinum  piimum,  sect,  ix.,  num.  101. 

8i  In  the  saint's  Acts  we  read  :  "  Pars  vero 
corporis  in  vestimento  corrupta  apparebat, 
corpus  vero  tantum  quasi  colore  mutato 
jacebat  candidum."  This  removal  of  the 
relics  must  have  been  at  least  one  hundred 
and  seventy  years  after  the  saint's  death. 
How  long  the  remains  afterwards  continued 
whole  is  not  known  ;  but,  the  Abbot  Henry 
believed,  that  while  John  Hesse  was  Abbot 
of  Kussen,  a  skeleton  was  found,  supposed 
to  have  been  that  of  St.  Magnus.  According 
to  Bucelin,  John  Hess  was  Abbot  there  to 
the  year  1480. 


i5» 


LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS.       [September  6. 


which  he  was  permitted  to  kiss,  and  the  church  guardian  taking  some  dust 
from  the  coffin  mixed  it  with  water  and  oil,  which  were  applied  to  the  boy's 
sores.  Next  day,  the  Bishop  asked  the  care-taker  to  inform  him  regarding 
the  result,  and  on  going  to  where  the  boy  lodged,  he  Was  able  to  report,  that 
scarcely  a  trace  of  the  sores  remained.  Then  having  been  brought  by  the 
Bishop  before  the  new  altar  of  St.  Magnus,  the  patient  returned  home  quite 
healed.  As  a  manifestation  of  his  gratitude,  for  the  rest  of  his  life,  the  youth 
devoted  himself  as  watchman  in  that  monastery.  The  Bishop  returned 
thanks  to  God  for  the  performandfe  of  such  a  remarkable  miracle.8* 

When  the  translation  of  the  body  of  St.  Magnus  had  thus  been  accom- 
plished, the  next  care  of  Bishop  Lanto  was  to  examine  the  Life  which  had 
been  taken  from  his  tomb.  The  tract  was  found  to  be  almost  decayed, 
through  the  effects  of  damp  and  age;  yet,  was  it  legible  for  the  most  part. 
To  one  Ermenricus,8*  of  the  monastery  of  Elwanga,86  was  afterwards  com- 
mitted the  task  of  reading  and  emending  it,  although  protesting  his 
inability  and  want  of  skill  for  the  competent  performance  of  that  duty. 
After  the  translation  of  our  saint's  remains  to  the  new  shrine,  many  and 
great  were  the  miracles  wrought  through  his  intercession.  According  to  some 
accounts,  Magnus  was  canonized  by  Pope  Adrian  II.  ;87  others  have  it  by 
Pope  John  VIII.  ;88  while  others  state  that  Pope  John  IX.89  officiated  on  that 


8*  Father  Suysken  is  of  opinion,  that  this 
translation  should  most  probably  be  referred 
to  between  the  years  825  and  847  under 
Bishop  Lanto,  who  within  the  latter  year  is 
thought  to  have  assisted  at  the  Council  of 
Mayence  in  September  or  October,  as  con- 
vened by  kaban  Manr.  In  the  first  place,  a 
Bishop  Lanto  was  present,  but  his  see  is  not 
named.  Again,  that  he  was  Bishop  of 
Augsburg  seems  most  probable,  because 
none  of  the  other  bishops — eleven  in 
number — is  styled  bishop  of  that  see, 
although  it  cannot  be  doubted  such  a 
prelate  had  been  present.  Moreover, 
because  among  the  other  sees,  that  of  Augs- 
burg seems  most  likely  to  have  been  Bishop 
Lanto's,  and  to  him  it  has  been  attributed  by 
Eccard,  in  "Francia  Orientalis,"  tomus  ii., 
P-  394- 

85  In  the  saint's  Acts  we  read  :  "Accer- 
sivit  quemdam  monachum  prudentem  et 
industrium  ex  monasterio  Elewanga,  nomine 
Ermenricum,"  &e.  This  passage  betrays 
the  interpolator's  work,  as  Ermenricus 
would  not  be  likely  to  indulge  in  such  self- 
glorification.  Ermenricus  became  Abbot 
over  the  monastery  of  Elawangen,  A.i>.  S45. 
and  held  this  position  to  A.D.  .S62,  according 
to  the  catalogue  of  the  Abbots  of  Elewan- 
gen.  as  given  by  Corbiuian  Khamm,  in 
"  Hierarchia  Augustana,  "  pais  i.,  in 
Auctario.  An  account  of  his  Life  and 
Writings  may  be  seen  in  "  Histoire  Literaire 
de  la  France,''  tome  v.,  siecle  ix.  Ermcnric, 
Abbe  d'Elwangen,  pp.  324  to  326. 

86  From  the  foregoing  dates,  it  may  be 
seen,  that  the  Emperor  Ludovicus,  Otger, 
Archbishop  of  Mayence,  and  Ermenricus  of 
Elwangen,  could  have  been  contempora- 
neous,   yet    not    with    Lanto,    Bishop    of 


Augsburg,  the  term  of  whose  episcopacy,  at 
the  earliest,  is  placed  at  A.D.  869,  This 
must  invalidate  the  accuracy  of  chronology 
for  the  statement  in  the  text.  However,  it 
is  stated  by  the  Benedictine  writer:  "  Lanton 
Ev&que  d'Ausbourg  chargea  Ermenrtc  de 
retoucher,  et  de  chatier  les  actes  de  vS. 
Magne  premier  Abbe  de  Fuessen  au  merne 
diocese.  *  *  *  Ermenric  executa  sans  doute  ce 
dessein  en  homme  d'esprit  et  de  scavoir, 
tel  qu'il  etoit.  Mais  il  est  arrive,  ou  que 
les  actes  qu'il  avoit  revus  et  corriges,  sont 
perdus,  ou  qu'une  main  etrangere  bien 
diffe' rente  de  la  sienne,  les  a  entierement 
corrum pus  dans  la  suite." — Ibid.,  p.  326. 

87  He  filled  the  chair  of  St.  Peter  from 
A.D.  867  to  872.  In  his  Vita  S.  Magni, 
Martinus,  under  the  title,  De  Translatione 
et  Canonizatione  S.  Magni,  ascribes  the 
latter  process  to  Tope  Hadrian  II.,  probably 
because  he  had  ivad  in  the  Manuscript  Life, 
that  Lanto,  Bishop  of  Augsburg,  had  ob- 
tained permission  from  that  Pontiff  to  have 
the  saint's  relics  transferred.  I  lenry,  Abbot 
of  Pausen,  also.  Beems  to  be  of  opinion  that 
the  translation  and  canonization  occurred 
during  the  episcopacy  of  bishop  Lanto. 

ruled  from  S72  to  882.  The  Bol- 
landisl  Jesuits  had  in  their  Library  a  little 
Italian  book,  edited  at  Rome,  A.D.  1726,  on 
occasion  Of  the  Canonization  ol  Saints 
Aloysius  and  Stanislaus;  and  the  anony- 
mous writer  gives  a  double  catalogue  of 
saints  canonized  by  the  Sovereign  Pontiffs, 
There  he  states,  that  St.  Ampelius,  Bishop, 
and  St.  Magnus,  Abbot,  were  canonized 
A.D.  873.  by  Pope  John  VIII.  However, 
this  statement  does  not  appear  to  be  sub- 
stantiated. 

89  I  Ie  was  Pope  only  from  A.D.  898  to  900. 


September  6.]       LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS.  159 


occasion.?0  But  great  uncertainty  attends  the  supposition,  and  it  does  not 
appear  to  rest  on  any  reliable  or  very  ancient  authority. 91  Nevertheless,  the 
saint's  cultus  was  well  established— especially  throughout  Germany — in  the 
ninth  century.  In  Suabia,  the  commemorative  Translation  of  Magnoald's 
remains  is  held  on  the  21st  of  March,  as  a  festival.  In  concluding  the 
account  of  St.  Magnus,  the  Acta  Pseudo-Theodori  states,  that  his  solemnity — 
by  which  we  are  to  understand  the  principal  one — was  held  on  the  viii.  of  the 
September  Ides,9*  which  corresponds  with  the  6th  of  this  month. 

Many  of  those  miracles  recorded,  and  several  seemingly  well  authenticated, 
as  having  occurred,  owing  to  the  merits  and  intercession  of  our  saint,  have 
been  enumerated  by  Father  Ludovicus  Babenstuber.  The  dates  and  details 
of  those  may  be  found,  on  referring  to  his  work.  Those  records  have  also 
been  re-produced  by  the  Bollandists,»3  but  must  here  be  omitted  ;  the 
narrative  of  St.  Magnus  having  been  already  so  much  extended.  They  refer 
to  cases  of  Phrenesis,  Rabies,  Parturition,  Plague  among  people  and  cattle, 
Demoniac  Possession,  Punishment  for  Irreverence,  Expulsion  of  Vermin 
from  Houses  and  Fields,  Inundations  suppressed,  Healing  from  Dangerous 
Diseases,  Evils  averted  from  Men  and  Cattle,  &c.  Many  of  these  benefits 
were  obtained  by  the  use  of  St.  Magnus'  staff  and  of  his  other  relics.  In  the 
church  of  Fiissen,  the  staff  of  St.  Magnoald  is  still  preserved,  and  through  its 
instrumentality  several  wonderful  miracles  have  been  wrought.  It  is  carried 
about  by  the  people,  to  chase  destructive  vermin  from  their  fields.  Through 
prayers  and  invocations  offered  to  the  saint,  various  benefits  of  a  spiritual 
and  temporal  character  have  been  obtained  In  latter  times,  the  once 
celebrated  Abbey  of  Fiissen  has  been  sequestrated. 94 

Towards  the  end  of  the  ninth  century,  a  nobleman,  named  Salomon 
Ramschwagius,  who  as  a  boy  had  been  educated  in  the  monastery  of  St. 
Gall,  afterwards  living  near  it  as  a.fraler  conscriptus,^  and  entering  there  as  a 
monk,  at  length  he  became  Abbot  over  the  monastery.  As  2,  f rater  conscriptus, 
he  had  exchanged  a  property  of  his  own  for  one  near  the  monastery  of  St. 
Gall.  This  was  a  pleasant  site  on  a  hill,  and  on  the  opposite  bank  of  the 
river,  formerly  called  Ira — at  present  known  as  the  Steinach,  an  affluent  of 
the  Sitter.^6      There  he  erected  a  church,  in  shape  and  honour  of  the  Holy 

An  Office  of  St.    Magnus  which  his    Emi-  92  In   the   saint's  Acts,    as   published  by 

nence    the    Cardinal    Bishop    Andreas    of  Goldast,  the  text  runs  :   "  Celebratur  autem 

Austria  caused   to   be    printed    A.D.    1599,  solemnitas    S.     Magni    confessoris    Christi 

states    in  one   of   the    Lessons  :     "  Quern  atque  abbatis,  quarto  Idus   Septembris  ad 

miraculis  clarum  Joannes   IX.   Pont.   Max.,  laudem  et  gloriam  nominis  Domini."  How- 

qui  creatus   legitur  anno  Christi   octingen-  ever,   the  phrase  "quarto  Idus  Septembris" 

tessimo   septuagessimo,  Dantonis  Augustani  is  clearly  an  error  lor  "  octavo  Idus  Septem- 

episcopi    precibus    in    Sanctos  adscripsit."  bris." 

It  seems  evident  from  the  date,  John  VIII.  93  See  Acta  Sanctorum,"  tomus  ii.,    Sep- 

must  have  been  intended.     An  Office,  issued  tembris  vi.     Miracula,  auctore  P.  Ludovico 

A.D.    1671,   and  again    printed    a.d.    1687,  Babenstuber  Benedictino  Ettalensi,  pp.  759 

ascribes  the    saint's   canonization    to   Tope  to  781. 

John  IX.     The  Proper  Office  of  St.  Magnus  94  At  present,    if  is  the   property    of  the 

for  the  Diocese  of  Constance,  printed  a.d.  Freiherr  von  Poniskau.  See  Rev.  S.  Baring- 

1725,    and     re-issued     a.d.     1739,    reads  :  Gould's    "  Lives    of  the  Saints,"    vol.    ix., 

"Quern    miraculis    clarum   Joannes    IX.,  September  6,  p.  95. 

Pontifex  Maximus,  in  Sanctos  adscripsit." —  95  A /rater  conscriptus  meant  one  who  was 

Noct.  ii.,  Lect.  3.  allowed    to  be   an  honorary   member  of  a 

90  The  earliest  Manuscript  and  Printed  religious  community,  without  being  bound 
Offices  of  St  Magnus  do  not  mention  his  to  observe  its  udes,  except  as  a  matter  of 
canonization.  choice;  but,   being  permitted  to  join  in   the 

91  See  the  Bollandists'  "Acta  Sanctorum,"  devotions,  and  many  of  the  religious  services, 
tomus  ii.,  Septembris  vi.    De  Sancto  Magno,  therein  practised. 

&c,  Commentarius  Prrevius,  sect.  ix..  num.  &  See  "Gazetteer  of  the  World,"  vol.  vi., 

112  to  115,  p.  722.  p.  508. 


i6o  LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS.      [September  6. 


Cross,  and  richly  endowed  it.97  Afterwards,  Adalbert,  Bishop  of  Augsburgh, 
dedicated  this  church  in  a  solemn  manner.  Through  the  influence  of 
Salomon,  an  arm  of  St.  Magnus  was  obtained  from  Fiissen,  and  brought  with 
solemn  ceremonies  to  that  church,  in  which  it  was  deposited.?8  This  Trans- 
lation of  the  Relic  took  place  between  the  years  887  and  889.99  In  the 
archives  of  St.  Gall's  monastery  are  Latin  Hymns,  apparently  of  contempora- 
neous date,  and  written  to  commemorate  this  event.100  Some  of  these  have 
been  published  by  Canisius  Iot  and  by  other  writers.  To  that  church,  also, 
Salomon  attached  Canons,  who  were  there  obliged  to  sing  the  Divine  praises. 
When  he  had  been  created  Abbot  of  St.  Gall,  and  afterwards  when  he  had 
been  advanced  as  Bishop  to  the  see  of  Constance,  he  enriched  the  endow- 
ment with  additional  possessions.  Thenceforth,  the  church  was  regarded  as 
specially  dedicaied  to  St.  Magnus.  The  annual  festival  celebrations  at  St. 
Gall's  to  commemorate  his  Translation  were  observed  with  peculiar 
ceremonies  and  rejoicing.  Beside  the  church  another  institute  of  Recluse 
Virgins  of  St.  Benedict's  Order  had  been  established.  The  Bishop  of  Con- 
stance blessed  a  cell  in  which  St.  Guiborat  or  Viborade  I02  lived  an  enclosed 
life,  and  where  she  obtained  the  crown  of  martyrdom,  at  the  hands  of  the 
Hungarians,'°3  on  the  2nd  of  May,10*  a.d.  925,  when  these  barbarians 
brought  devastation  on  Suabia,  and  on  all  the  adjoining  countries.  At  this 
time,  likewise,  they  burned  the  church  of  St.  Magnus.  This,  however,  was 
soon  restored,  and  the  body  of  St.  Viborade,  having  been  in  the  first  instance 
deposited  in  St.  Gall's  monastery,  was  subsequently  removed  to  the  oratory 
of  her  cell,  and  finally  it  was  translated.  There  too  were  deposited  the 
remains  of  her  companion,  St.  Rachilde,  who  survived  her  for  twenty-one 
years.  Both  were  held  in  the  greatest  veneration  by  the  faithful.  In  fine, 
the  church  and  cemetery  of  St.  Magnus — which  originally  extended  beyond 


97  An   interesting  account    of    this  pious  Gall's  monastery,  has  the  following  heading 

nobleman    may    be    found    in    Mabil  Ion's  and  opening  verse  : — 
"  Annales  Ordinis  S.  Benedicti,"  tomus  Hi., 

lib.  xxxvii.,  num.  xl.,  pp.  178,  179.  Versus  Ratperti  de  S.  Magno. 

Such  is  the  account  given  by  Kkkehard  "  Mire  cunctorum  Deus  et  creator, 

Junior  in  his  bonk,  De  Cassibus  S.   C.alli,  milis  et  fort  is  solidator  orbis, 

cap.  i.  vota  servorum  tibi  subditoruni 

9?  This  inference  is  drawn  from  the  cir-  accipe  Clemens/' 

cumstances,  that   Adalbert  commenced  his 

episcopacy   in  the  former  year,  while   the  x™  See  an  account  of  her  life,  and  that  of 

monastic  life  of  Saloman  began  in  the  latter  her   companion,    St.    Rachilde,    in  the   Les 

year,    as  the  authors  of "  Gallia  Christiana"  Petits  Bollandistes,    "Vies    des     Saints," 

state       See  tomus  v.,  col.  901.  tome  v.,  ii,;  Jour  de  Mai,  pp.  268  to  273. 

100 One  of  these   hymns  is  published  by  ,03  In   the    commencement   of  the   tenth 

Henricus  Canisius,  and  it  was  written  appa-  century,    these  barbarous  people   began  to 

rently  by  one  of  the  monks  of  St.  Gall.       It  extend  their  ravages  into  Germany.     "  L'an 

seems  to  have  been  intended  a>  a    Festival  912,  ils  pillerent  sans  resistance  la  Franconie 

Carmen,  inviting  our  saint  to  return  anil  be  et  la  Turinge  ;  I'annee  suivante    ils  ravage- 

the    patron    of   the    monastery,     where   he  rent  l'Allemagne,  e'est  adire,  le  haut  Rhin  ; 

formerly  lived  with  St.  Gall.     The  following  e»  il  y  en  eut  grand  nomine  de  tues  sur  la 

are   the     heading     and     opening    Sapphic  riviere  d'In.  par  les  Allemands  et  les  Hava- 

verses  :—  rois.   En  915.  ils  desolerent  toute  Allemagne 

Invitatio  S.  Magni.  par  le  fer  et  par  le  feu,  coururent  la  Turinge 

"Miles,  ad  castrum  poperes  novellum,  et  la  Saxe,  et  vinrent  en  916  au  monastere 

pridem  et  notos  repetas  locellos,  de  Fulde.    L'annee  suivante  par  l'Allemagne 

posside  terrain  tibi  prseperatam,  et   I'Alsace,    ill   penetrerent  jusqu'en   Lor« 

jam  comes  Galli,  social e  sibi.*'  raine.'' — Abbe    Fleury's   "  Histoire    Fccl£- 

— "  Antique  Lectiones,"  tomus  v.,  siastique,"  tome  xi.,  liv.  liv.,  sect,  liii.,  p. 

pp.  750  et  seq.  596. 

104  This  is  the  day  assigned  iot  her  fes- 

'OI  One  of  those  hymns,  by  Ratpert,  of  St.  tival. 


September  6.]     LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS  161 


the  town  of  St.  Gallen  —  were  subsequently  embraced  within  the  circuit  of  its 
walls. 

Besides  the  religious  establishments  at  Fiiessan  and  at  St.  (Jail,  dedicated 
to  St.  Magnus,  and  to  which  allusion  has  been  already  made,  a  parochial 
church  had  been  erected  to  his  memory,  at  a  remote  period,  near  the  ancient 
fortification  of  Sorethanum,  called  by  the  natives  Schussenreidi,  now  a  town  ol 
Wiirtemberg,  in  the  circle  of  the  Danube,  about  eight  miles  N.E.  of  Waldsee, 
near  the  source  of  the  Schussen.105  About  a.d.  ii88,106  Beringerua  and 
Conradus,  in  favour  with  the  Emperor  Frederick  I.,  rarnamed  Barbarossa, 
and  having  no  sons  as  heirs  for  their  possessions,  resolved  on  founding  a 
monastery  to  the  glory  of  God  and  to  the  Blessed  Virgin, lo7  near  the  church 
of  St.  Magnus,  and  on  the  site  of  the  old  castle.108  This  foundation  w;i, 
given  in  charge  to  monks  of  the  Premonstratensian  Order, '°9  to  whom  also 
was  transferred  in  perpetuity  the  aforesaid  parochial  church  of  St.  Magnus, 
with  the  care  of  souls.  In  course  of  time,  that  monastery  was  endowed  with 
many  privileges,  and  it  became  a  free  and  an  Imperial  Abbey,  in  the  Germanic 
Confederation.  It  was  secularised  in  1803,  when  the  Municipal  and 
Ecclesiastical  Sovereignties  were  swept  away,110  and  Austria  lost  the  position, 
which  had  given  her  a  natural  authority  and  pre-eminence  in  the  Empire. 

Another  church  and  monastery,  dedicated  to  St.  Magnus,111  had  been 
erected  at  Ratisbon,  in  Bavaria,  near  the  bridge  which  spans  the  Danube,112 
and  as  stated  in  the  year  1 138.  There  many  miracles  were  wrought  through  the 
saint's  intercession.1^  That  coenobium  is  said  to  have  been  an  establishment 
created  by  the  efforts  of  the  venerable  Gebehard,  a  priest  and  canon  of 
Ratisbon  church,  and  through  the  patronage  of  King  Conrad  and  his  brother 
Henry,  Duke  of  Bavaria.  It  was  destroyed  by  the  Swedes,  in  1633,  when 
they  obtained  possession  of  Ratisbon,  but  afterwards  it  was  restored.1'4  The 
site  now  belongs  to  the  Canons  Regular  of  the  Augustinian  Order.  Another 
note-worthy  circumstance,  connected  with  this  monastery  of  St.  Magnus,  was 

I0SSee  "Gazetteer  of  the  World,"  vol.  xii.,  Magnus,  which  was  afterwards  joined  to  the 

p.  489.  church  and  convent  of  St.  Andrew,   belong- 

106  According  to  a  Manuscript  Chronicle,  ing   to    the  Augustinians.      For   authority, 

of  nearly  contemporaneous  date.  Father  Francis  Grienwald,   a  Carthusian   of 

'°7  This  was  endowed  with  all  the  landed  the  monastery  of  St.  Vitus,  without  the  city 

property  of  the  founders.  of  Ratisbon,  is  cited,  and  also  Martin,  Abbot 

108  The  endowment  took  place,  during  the  of  Fiiessen,  a.d.  1624. 
Pontificate  of  Clement  III.,  who  ruled  from  U2  This    celebrated    bridge    of    cut-stone 

a.d.  1187101191.  facings,  and  which  joins   the  suburb  Statt- 

uv  See      "  Annales     Ordinis     Pramion-  am-hoff  to  Ratisbon,  was  commenced  a.d. 

stratensis,"  tomus  ii.,  p.  820.  1 1 35,  according  to  the  chronicle  of  Andieas, 

,l0See    an    impartial    account    of    these  a  priest  of   Ratisbon,  as  published   by  the 

transactions,     in    that    admirable    work    of  learned  Benedictine,  Dom    Bernard  Fez,   in 

Professor  J.  R.  Seeley's  "  Life  and  Times  of  "  Thesaurus  Anecdotorum  novissimus,   sen 

Stein,    or   Germany    and    Prussia    in    the  Veterum  Monumentorum  collectio  recentis- 

Napoleonic  Age,"  vol.  i.,  part  ii.,  chap,  iii.,  sima,"  tomus  iv.     This  valuable  historical 

pp.  199  to  217      Cambridge  :   1878,  8vo.  work,  in  six  folio    volumes,  appeared   from 

111  Father  Babenstuber  relates  a  legend  re-  1721  to  1729.     In  the  year  1 1 4.6,  the  bridge 

garding  St.  Michael  the  Archangel,   in   the  was  finished,  according  to  Matthew  Meiian, 

shape   of  a  beautiful  young  man,    and  also  in  his  "Topographia  Bavaria.'' 
respecting  St.  Magnus,  as  a  venerable  old  "3  See   "  Miracula,"  auctore  P.  Ludovico 

pilgrim,  appearing  to  the  ferryman,  before  a  Babenstuber,     Benedictino    Fttalensi,    cap. 

bridge  had  been  there  built  over  the  Danube.  vii. 

I  hi  being  passed  freely  over  the  river  by  the  "4  In  the  year  1634,  and  on  the  6th  of 

charitable   man,    they  promised   Heaven   to  September — St.  Magnus'  day — the    § 

him    as    a  reward.       This    is  regarded     by  experienced  a  crushing  defeat  at  Nordling.e, 

Father  Suysken  as  only  a  popular  tradition  ;  and    their  disaster   was  attributed   to    the 

but  it  is  held,  that   to  commemorate  that  saint,  whose  chapel  had  been  so  sacrilegiously 

legend,  a  chapel  was  there  dedicated  to  St.  violated  during  the  previous  year. 

L 


[62  LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS.      [September  6. 


its  containing  Irish  manuscripts,"*  and  referable  to  a  very  remote  date. 
Other  places  had  erections  in  honour  ot  our  saint :  viz.,  at  Chiebach  or 
Kuebach,  in  Bavaria,  there  was  a  nunnery  of  pious  virgins  ;"6  at  Steinbach, 
in  Suevia,  a  chapel ;  and  at  Huglfingan,  in  Bavaria,  there  was  a  parochial 
church. 

Besides  the  staff  of  Columban,  which  had  fallen  successively  into  the 
keeping  of  St.  Gall  and  St.  Magnus,  and  which  had  been  preserved  in  later 
ages  at  Fiissen ;  the  Canons  Regular  or  Praemonstratensian  Fathers,  at 
Schussenreidt,IX7  procured  a  portion  of  that  relic,  which  was  kept  in  their 
convent,  but  at  what  time  is  now  unknown.  This  was  inserted  in  a  beautiful 
and  an  artistic  staff,  fashioned  of  silver,  adorned  with  gold  workmanship  and 
various  precious  stones.1'8  It  was  four  feet,  four  inches,  in  length — according 
to  the  local  measurement — from  the  top,  surmounted  with  a  figure  of  St. 
Magnus,  at  the  end. "9  On  the  breast  of  the  silver  figure  is  a  cavity,  con- 
taining a  particle  of  the  cambula,  and  it  has  a  crystal  covering,  about  two 
inches  in  length,  by  one  inch  in  breadth.120  As  in  the  case  of  the  staff  at 
Fiissen,  this  artificial  staff  is  held  in  great  veneration  by  the  people  at 
Sorethan,  who  carry  it  about  the  fields  and  gardens,  for  the  destruction  of 
noxious  insects.121  Another  small  particle  of  the  staff  had  been  obtained  by 
the  Rev.  Cistercian  Abbot,  Stephen  Jung,  ol  the  Salemitan  monastery,  in 
Suevia,  and  Vicar  General  of  his  Order,  when  on  a  visitation  of  his  houses, 
he  came  to  Fiissen.  He  then  had  a  staff,  fashioned  like  that  at  Fiissen,  and 
in  it  he  enclosed  the  relic  presented  to  him.  This  staff  was  used,  likewise,  to 
drive  away  worms  and  other  noxions  insects  from  lands  subject  to  the 
Cistercian  monastery.132  In  the  sacristy  at  Fiiessen  were  to  be  seen  the 
ornamented  cowl,123  stole  and  maniple,12'*  which  St.  Magnus  used  while  he 
celebrated  Mass.  Moreover,  the  silver  chalice,  which  served  him  at  that 
time,  was  drank  from  by  infirm  persons,  and  they  recovered  health. ,as 
Another  prized  memorial  of  St.  Magnus  was  the  cross,  which  hung  from  his 
neck,  while  he  was  a  Deacon,  and  which  contained  various  sacred  relics. 

"5  Among  these  was  an  old  codex  Vita  S.  ^.  Magni  abbatis  baculum  preciosis  acclusit 

Brigidae,    attributed   to  St.  Ultan   of  Ard-  hpsanis,"  tomus  ii.,  col.  833. 
braccan  as  author.     He  lived  in  the  fifth  121  This  was  called  in  Latin,  "  prodigiosus 

and  sixth  centuries.      See  his  Acts,  in  the  baculus   S.   Magni,"   because  of  the  many 

present  volume,  at  the  4th  of  September,  miracles  attributed  to  its  use. 
Art.  i.,  and  especially  n.  50,  ibid.  '"In  a  letter  to  Father  Chardon,  in  1744, 

116  Hundius  thinks  this  had  been  founded  he    writes   on   this  subject :    "  Ante  annos 

in  the  beginning  of  the  eleventh  century.  autem    quatuor,    scilicet    mdccxl,   die   S. 

See  in   •'  Metropolis  Salisburgensis,"  tome  Joannis    Baptists?,    obtuli    Reverendissimo 

ii.,  p.  246.  DD.    nostro    praesuli   Constantino    Muller 

"'Schussenried  is  a  town  of  Wurtemberg,  partem   de    cuculla    S.     Magni,    quam    ab 

in  the  circle  of  the  Danube,  near  the  source  ejusdem  monasterii  abbate,  cum  sigili  abba- 

of  the  river  Schussen,  which  flows  into  Lake  tialis  impressione  obtinui  supplex." 
Constance.     It   had   formerly  an  Imperial  ,23  The  lappet  of  this  hood  is  said  to  have 

Benedictine  Abbey,  founded  in  1183,  audit  been   applied  to  the  sick,  in  former  ages, 

was  suppresed  in  1803.     See  "  Gazetteer  of  and   usually   with   the   result   of  a    happy 

the  World,"  vol.  xii.,  pp.  488,  489.  recovery. 

1,8  The  account  here   inserted   had  been  "« Although  applied  to  the  sick,  we  have 

received  from  Very  Rev.  Father  Evermod  no  account  of  cures  effected  through  them. 

Lorinzer,  of  the  Prsemonstratensian  Order,  They  were  woven  from  green  silk, 
by  Father  Suysken.  I25  Father  Babenstuber  adds  :  "  Illi  quidem 

119  A  copper-plate  engraving,  given  by  the  crebrius,  quibus  aut  febris,  aut  venenum,  aut 
Bollandists,  at  p.  726,  represents  this  artistic  magica  maleficentia  perniciem  conscivcrat  : 
staff.  sed  et  aliis  inde  hausisse,  multoscies  remedio 

120  The  Annalist  of  the  Praemonstratensian  fuit  praesenti,  qui  vertigine  rotabantur,  dolore 
Order  states,  that  this  particle  had  been  in-  dentium  cruciabantur,  syncopen  patiabantur, 
serted  by  Didacus  Strobele,  who  was  elected  aut  aliis  quibusdam  a-gritudinibus  conflicta- 
Abbot  at  Sorethan,  in  17 19  :  '*  Prodigissum  bantur,"  lib.  iii.,  cap.  5. 


September  6.]      LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS. 


63 


At  Schussenreidt,  not  only  the  Pnemonstratensian  Fathers,  hut  the  people 
surrounding  their  monastery,  were  accustomed,  from  times  very  remote,136  to 
celebrate  the  chief  feast  of  their  Patron,  St.  Magnus,  with  the  obligation  of 
hearing  Mass  and  abstaining  from  servile  works. "7  Even  a  special  Office 
had  been  composed  for  him,  the  Lessons  of  which  were  chiefly  taken  from 
his  ancient  Life.  In  like  manner,  the  Hymns  for  the  first  Vespers  of  his 
Festival128  were  Proper;  likewise  those  for  Matins"?  and  Lauds,1??  as  also  the 
Responses  for  the  Nocturns,  and  the  Antiphons  for  all  the  Hours.  More- 
over, in  the  great  diocese  of  Constance,  the  feast  of  St.  Magnus  was  celebrated 
yearly  on  the  6th  of  September,  while  he  was  venerated  and  invoked  as 
the  Thaumaturgus,  and  Apostle,  as  also  the  Common  Father  and  Auxiliator 
of  all  those  suffering  and  in  affliction.  He  is  thus  numbered  among  the 
Sancti  Auxiliatores '31  of  the  Germans,  and  they  were  so  designated  and 
invoked  as  being  their  special  Patrons  before  God,  either  for  averting  or 
^removing  calamities,  or  for  obtaining  particular  benefits.  In  the  old  Missal  '32 
of  the   Diocese  of  Mayence,1"  and  in  an   old  Missal1?*  of  Utrecht, '35  in 


125  Father  Evermod  Lorinzer  of  that 
Order  testifies,  that  for  about  two  hundred 
years,  in  the  middle  ages,  the  special  Office 
lor  St  Magnus  was  sung  on  the  day  of  his 
Festival  and  during  the  Octave  ;  but,  after 
that  lapse  of  time,  the  practice  fell  into 
desuetude,  in  the  year  1632,  when  the 
fathers  were  obliged  to  fly,  and  their  monas- 
tery was  burned,  during  the  Swedish  war, 
waged  by  Gustavus  Adolphus.  See  R.  de 
Prade,  M  L'Histoire  de  Gustave-Adolphe, 
dit  le  Grand,"  Paris,  1686,  8vo, 

,27  On  the  saint's  chief  feast,  September 
6th,  a  great  concourse  of  people  and  clergy 
flocked  to  the  Prsemonstratensian  church  at 
Schussenreidt,  not  only  from  the  neighbour- 
hood, but  also  from  the  churches  apart,  and 
they  formed  in  religious  procession.  The 
large  statue  of  St.  Magnus,  adorned  wgh 
rich  vestments,  was  set  up  in  the  middle  of 
the  church,  and  it  was  an  object  of  great 
popular  veneration.  A  solemn  High  Mass 
was  sung  by  the  Abbot,  in  pontificals,  with 
his  assistant  ministers,  or  by  some  bishop, 
who  had  been  specially  invited  to  officiate. 
A  select  choir  was  chosen  for  the  occasion, 
and  usually  a  distinguished  and  an  eloquent 
preacher  was  selected  to  eulogise  the  saint's 
merits  and  virtues.  Such  devotion  extended 
also  to  those  cities,  towns  and  parishes, 
where  benefits  had  been  obtained  through 
the  intercession  of  St.  Magnus. 

118  The  first  strophe  thus  commences  : 
11  Sydus  refulget  jam  novum, 
Magni  clarum  solemniis, 
Germaniam  et  Galliam 
Novo  beat  Apostolo." 

129  The  Hymn  for  Matins  is  taken  from  that 
ascribed  to  Ratpert,  as  given  by  Henricus 
Canisius  in  "Antiqux  Lectiones,"  tomos  v. 

The  first  verse  runs  as  follows  : 

"  Mire  cunctorum  Dens  et  Creator, 
Mitis  et  fortis  solidator  orbis, 
Vota  servorum  tibi  subditorum 
Accipe  clemens." 


130  The  following  is  the  first  verse  of  the 
Hymn  at  Lauds"  : 

"  Vos  clara  laudes  resonet 
Noctis  quieto  tempore, 
Magni  patris  encomiis 
Miscens  devotosjubilos." 

131  In  the  middle  of  the  seventeenth  cen- 
tury, the  Very  Rev.  Father  Abbot  Thomas, 
of  the  Cistercian  Order,  wrote  a  work  in 
Germany,  on  the  Holy  Helpers,  who  were 
invoked  at  Lanchem,  in  the  Diocese  of 
Bamberg,  under  that  title.  He  only  names 
fourteen,  from  which  list  St.  Magnus  is 
excluded.  Nor  in  the  Mass  peculiar  to  their 
festival  is  his  name  to  be  found. 

132  Printed  A.D.  1493. 

133  In  it  is  a  Mass,  with  the  title,  De 
Quatuordecim  Adjutoribus  Sanctis,  although 
fifteen  names  are  included  in  the  Collect, 
thus  :  "  Omnipotens  ac  mitissime  Deus,  qui 
electos  sanctos  tuos,  Georgium,  Blasium, 
Herasmum,  Fantaleonem,  Vitum,  Christo- 
ferum,  Dionisium,  Ciriacum,  Achatium, 
Eustachium,  Magnum,  Egidium,  Mar- 
garetam,  Barbaram,  et  Katherinam, 
specialibus  privilegiis  decorasti  ;  quivsumus, 
ut  omnes,  qui  in  necessitatibus  eorurn 
imploramus  auxilium,  secundum  tuoe  pro- 
missions  gratiam,petitionis  nostra;  salutarem 
consequamur  effectum.  Da  nobis,  Domine, 
veniam  peccatorum,  et  ipsorum  interceden- 
tibus  meritis,  ab  omnibus  adversitatibus 
libera,  et  deprecationes  nostras  benignus 
exaudi.  Per  Dominum,  &C.  In  like 
manner,  the  name  of  St.  Magnus  is  to  be 
found  in  the  Missal  of  the  Dominicans 
printed  A.I).   1550. 

'   I  Printed  at  Leida,  A.I>.  1514. 

,35  Among  the  Masses  for  averting  various 
calamities,  is  one  healed,  De  Ouindecim 
Auxiliatoribus,  and  having  the  name  of  St. 
Magnus  included,  with  a  Collect  agreeing 
with  that  in  the  previous  note.  In  the 
Secrets  and  Postcommunio,  the  same  names 
occur. 


164  LIVES  Ofi  THE  IRISH  SAINTS.       [September  6. 


Holland,  the  name  of  St.  Magnus  is  found  added  as  a  fifteenth  '36  to  the 
fourteen  Helpers  most  generally  enumerated.  By  the  German  writers, 
BabenstuberT37  and  Francis  Peter,J38  Canon  Regular  of  St.  Augustine,  St. 
Magnus  is  called  Auxiliator. 

Although  not  mentioned  in  the  Roman  Martyrology,  yet  Notker  Bal- 
bulus  '39  and  many  German  Martyrologists  commemorate  this  saint,  at  the 
6th  of  September.  Thus,  in  the  Martyrologies  of  Rheinau,140  of  Augsburg,1-*1 
and  of  Treves,142  he  is  entered.  At  the  same  date,  he  is  noticed  by  Galesi- 
nius,I43  and  by  Bucelin.144  The  Bollandists  had  in  their  Library  a  number 
of  German  Diocesan  Missals  and  Breviaries,  which  proved  that  veneration 
for  St.  Magnus  obtained  not  alone  in  Suevia,  but  also  in  Bavaria,  the  circle 
of  the  Rhine,  Franconia,  Alsace,  and  Belgium.  No  less  than  sixteen  of  those 
Breviaries  are  named,  viz.,  Mayence,  and  its  suffragan  Sees,  Augsburg, 
Argentinensis,  Saltzburg,  Constance,  Eistad,  Spire,  Worms  ;  also  Vienna,  in 
Austria,  Pataviensis  and  Ratisbon,  in  Bavaria ;  Wratislaviensis,  in  Silesia* 
Minden,  in  Westphalia,  and  Cologne,  on  the  Rhine.  To  these  may  be  added 
the  two  Belgian  Breviaries  of  Tongres  and  Utrecht.  There  can  hardly  be  a 
doubt,  but  that  in  other  dioceses  his  cultus  had  spread,  as  to  him  was 
given  the  title  "Auxiliator  Germanise."  Among  the  Kalendars  which 
Dominicus  Geqrgius  edited  at  Rome,  in  1745,  together  with  the  Martyrology 
of  Ado,  two  especially  note  this  festival ;  one  of  these  called  the  Kalen- 
darium  Palatino-Vaticanum,  prefixed  to  a  Sacramentary  of  St.  Gregory, 
belonging  to  the  twelfth  century  ;  the  other  called  Kalendariuin  Mediola- 
nense  II.  Both,  at  the  present  day,  enter  "  Sanctus  Magnus  Confessoris." 
Not  less  frequent  are  entries  in  the  Additions  to  Usuard,  as  Father  Soller 
shows.  Father  Henry  Fitz-simon  '45  inscribes  St.  Magnus  or  Magdobaldus 
on  his  List  of  the  Irish  Saints,  and  ascribes  his  feast  to  the  6th  of  September. 
At  the  same  date,  he  is  in  the  Calendar  of  Conveus,  and  in  that  Anonymous 
one,  published  by  O'Sullevan  Beare.146 

A  secondary  festival  was  held  on  the  22nd  of  March,  which  was  that  for 
the  Translation  of  his  relics.  At  Schussenreidt,  the  same  Office,  as  that  on 
■ i 

136  In  his  additions  to  Usuard,   Greven  at  church  of  Treves,  or  perhaps   of  Belgium, 
the  8lh  of  August  prefixes  the  name  of  the  In  it  is  found,  at  the  viii.  Ides  of  September : 
glorious    Mother  of  God,    to  the  fourteen  "Ad  Fauces,   Magni  confessoris." 
Helpers  ;  but  among  these,  he  has  not  in-  **3  He  writes  :  "  Ad  Fauces,  sancti  Magni 
eluded  the  name  of  Magnus.  confessoris  :   qui    sancti    Galli    discipulos, 

137  He  thus  describes  our  saint  in  his  divino  proedicandi  munere  multorum  animos 
work,  "  Sanctus  Magnus  Algoiorum  Apos-  ad  pie  agendum  inflammavit,  miraculorum 
tolus,  Germanorum  communis  Auxiliator."  que  ac  vita:  religiose'  arte  l.uide  nobilis  in 

138  He  writes:  "  Etiam  apud  longe  (lis-  sanctos  suinini  Pontificis  auctoritate  ab 
sitas  et  exteras  nationes  S.  Magnus  honoie,  episcopo  Augustano  adscriptus  est." 
festoque  die  solemniter  colitur,  interque  eos  '  * 4  lie  writes:  "  Decessit,  ut  annis,  sic 
Divos,  quos  ob  speciales  quasdam  proeroga-  meritis  cumulatissimus,  in  SUO,  quod  con- 
tivas  Auxiliatores  vocamus,  prresentissimus  diderat,  ad  Fauces  Julias  (vulgo  Fiiessen) 
patronus  habetur." — "Suevia  Ecclesiastica,"  coenobio  tumulatus  ;  cujus  memoria  apud 
p.  326.  Germanos    longe    est    celeberrima  :  ita  ut 

139  He  states:  "  Nativitas  sancti  Magni  propter  continua  miracula,  quae  per  ejus 
confessoris,  discipuli  beati  Galli,  mirabiliset  veneramlas  reliquias,  tarn  in  agris,  quam  in 
sanctissimi  viri.  j amends    et  hominibus,    passim  patrantur, 

140 Thus:  "VIII.  Id.  Sept.  Natale  sancti  quatuordecim  Sanctis,  ut  vocant  Auxilia- 

Magni  confess."  TORIBUS,    memorabili  sane  meritorum  com- 

141  Thus,    at   the  same   day,   that  of  the  mendatione,  decimus  quintoa  ipse  adjunctus 
monastery   of    Uldaricus    records  "Magni  sit." — "Martyrologium  Benedictinum." 
conf."  '45See  "  Catalogus  Aliquorum  Sanctorum 

142  The  Martyrology  of  St.  Martin,  which  Hibcrnia:." 

Father   Soller  places  among  the  Hierony-  I46See"  Historic  Catholics  IbernneCom- 

mian  ones.  This  he  suspects  to  have  been  pendium,"  tomus  i.,  lib.  iv.,  cap.  x.,  xi.,  pp. 
originally  compiled   for  the   use  of    some      48,  51,  55. 


September  6.]      LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS.  165 


the  6th  of  September,  was  recited ;  except  that  in  the  Lessons  of  the  Second 
Nocturn,  the  Sermo  Venerabilis  Eedae  presbyteri  in  Natali  S.  Benedicti  «4> 
was  substituted,  and  a  few  minor  changes  took  place.  Nor  was  this  the  only 
honour  paid  to  the  memory  of  St.  Magnus,  as  on  every  Thursday  throughout 
the  year,  not  engaged  for  a  double  Office,  a  special  Antiphon  '*8  and 
Prayer  x«9  were  prescribed,  at  Lauds  and  Vespers.  Moreover,  on  every 
Tuesday,  on  which  there  was  no  proper  Office,  the  Missa  Major  or  Con- 
ventual Mass  was  sung  in  honour  of  St.  Magnus,  excepting  the  common 
suffrage  occurring  in  Lauds  and  Vespers. '5° 

The  Acts  of  many  early  saints,  and  those  even  of  gr?at  celebrity  in  the 
Church,  are  occasionally  obscure  and  defective,  so  that  a  critical  writer  must 
hesitate  to  assert  as  facts,  what  may  prove  at  best  to  be  only  probable  or 
possible  conjectures.  However,  nearly  all  ancient  history  or  biography, 
even  that  of  the  Pagan  writers  most  admired,  abounds  in  fallacies,  with  the 
flow  of  eloquent  narrative.  Nor  would  we  be  willing  to  lose  the  trend  of 
those  facts  preserved,  even  though  wreathed  with  their  unsubstantial, 
imaginary  and  florid  adornments.  We  have  still  more  than  enough  of 
interesting  material  interwoven  with  the  acts  of  St.  Magnus,  to  illustrate  the 
manners  of  his  own  and  of  subsequent  ages  ;  nor  should  we  permit  to  remain 
uncared  for  and  unnoticed  those  traditionary  and  ancient  documents,  that 
have  come  down  to  our  time,  and  that  serve  to  perpetuate  his  virtues  and 
miracles. 


Article  III. — St.  Mac  Cuilinn,  Maculinus  or  Maculind,  Bishop 
and  Patron  of  Lusk,  County  of  Dublin.  [Fifth  or  Sixth  Century.'] 
Much  confusion  exists  in  the  documents  and  traditions  which  remain, 
regarding  the  time  when  the  patron  saint  of  Lusk  flourished,  and  as  to  how  far 
we  can  have  reliance  on  his  rather  modernly  transcribed  Proper  Office,  still 
preserved  in  the  Library  of  Trinity  College,  Dublin.1  The  original  from 
which  it  had  been  transcribed  seems  to  have  been  lost.  Wherefore,  we  have 
deemed  it  well  to  present  the  Latin  Version,2  now  published,  as  we  believe, 
. » 

147  "  Audiensa  Domino  Petrus,"  &c.  viueret  :   in  opes  alere  :  pauperes  recreare  : 

l&  Antiphon  :  "  Laudemus  virum  glorio-  nudis     vestimenta      triburere  :     esurientcs 

sum  et  parentem  nostrum  sanctum  Magnum  pascere  :    peregrinis   et    viduis,   caeteraque 

in  generatione  sua,  cujus  intuentes  exitum,  opera  miserecordiaelargiresolebat.  Deuiantes 

conversationis  ejus  sequamur  vestigia."  V.  etiam  et  a  via  veritatis  declinantes  ;  adspem 

Justum   deduxit  Dominus  per   vias  rectas.  fiduciae  verbo  suae  predicationis  reuocabat. 

ft.  Et  ostendit  i  11  i  regnum  Dei.  In  Dei  templo  quasi  Lucifer  aparuit  Macu- 

'*9Oratio:  Sancti  Magni  confessoris  tui,  linus :  Quicquid  enim  erat  in  eo  Dei  virtute 

quaesumus,  Domine,  mentis  adjuvemur,   ut  atque  potentia  mirabiliter  refulcit.     In  Dei 

quod   possibilitas  nostra  non    obtinet,   ejus  seruitio   in    ecclesia  iugiter   existebat,   turn 

nobis  intercessione  donetur.      Per  Christum,  stando,   turn   orando  :    turn  legendo  :    turn 

&c.  genua  flectendo :    continue  laborando  cor- 

150  Father  Evermod  Lorinzer,  who  sup-  pusque  suum  vigiliis  jeiuniisque  macerabat. 

plied    the    foregoing    information     to    the  Insistent    itaque    diuino     operi    pietatis  ; 

Hollandists,  adds:  "  Et  haec   de  cultu   S.  ecclesias  :  monasteria  etoratoria  iugiter  con- 

Patroni  nostri  tarn  antiquo  quam  moderno."  tinueque  fabricando.      Quid  plura  referam  ? 

Article    hi.  —  ■  In    the    Manuscript  Tantas  per  eum  Deus  operatus  est  vitutes, 

classed  E.,  Tab.  3,  No.  8,  fol.  128,  129.  quas    praesens    libellus  nequeat  continere  : 

"On  the  margin  of  this  transcript  are  the  nee  hominum  linguae  enucleare  valeant.    Tu 

words  Vita  S.  Macttlini,  in  a  different  hand-  autem  Domine  miserere  nostri. 
writing.     The  following  are  the  Lessons  :  Lfctio  2DA 


Lectio  ima. 


Igitur  de  beatissimi  militis  Maculini  vita 


Venerabilem     hujus    diei     sanctissimam  admirabili,  pauca  reuocemusad  memoriam  : 

memoriam  recolentes  quo  gloriosus  Christi  qui  multo    iam    tempore  priusquam   terris 

pontifex  Maculinus,  deposito  carnis  onere,  innotuit     virtutibus     admirandum     claruit. 

ad  gaudia  transmigravit  aeterna.     Qui  dum  Rex  etenim  quidem  nobilissimus  (brumen- 


i66 


LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS.      [September  6. 


for  the  first  time,  in  the  phraseology,  and  order  here  given  ;  but,  lengthening 
the  contraction  of  words,  which  occasionally  occurs,  and  including  within 
brackets  those  words  which  appear  to  be  meaningless,  or  which  probably 
are  mistakes  of  the  scribe.  This  narrative  of  the  saint's  Acts  is  ill-digested 
and  frequently  obscure,  even  were  the  statements   it  contains  to  be  relied 


cium  ?)  ortus  ad  Loth  similitudem  :  ebrietate 
repletus  :  nefando  scelere  sororem  premendo 
violauit :  quae  mox  coYicepit  in  vtero  :  ac 
duos  genuit  filios.  Ille  autem  sceleris 
iniquitatem  celare  est  conatus  ;  inuentis  illis 
nequitiis  grauioribus :  unum  ex  illis  dimisit : 
alium  mater  arripuit :  quem  nutriuit  ac 
baptizari  fecit,  Maculinumque  vocauit :  qui 
literarum  studhs  est  traditus:  cepit  moribus 
florere,  virtutibus  et  miraculis  corruscare. 
Quotidie  sedulo  insistendo  orationibus  et 
vigiliis  :  corpusque  suum  jeiunijs  macerando 
non  desistit.  Sicque  fama  sancti  perad- 
jacentes  circumquaque  prouincias  aduolavit. 
Quid  plura.  Defuncto  illius  regionis  episcopo 
Maculinus  ab  omni  clero  et  populo  elegitur, 
et  infula  pontificali  sublimatur.  Tu  autem 
Domine  miserere  nostri. 

Lectio  3TRA. 

In  diebus  illis  erat  quidam  rex  Rath- 
lunensis  Tugerna  nomine,  qui  quidam 
virgunculam  habuit  forma  et  vultu  pul- 
cherimam  :  a  quo  etiam  edictum  exiit  :  ut 
nemo  thorum  illius  virgunculae  violaret. 
Vnus  autem  ex  ejus  militibus  Amargen 
nomine  :  optimus  scil  :  faber  ferrarius  illam 
cognouit.  Quae  mox  concepit  in  vtero.  Rex 
autem  cum  illam  partui  proximam,  inter- 
rogans earn  de  quo  concepisset.  At  ilia 
statim  confessa  est.  Tunc  Rex  valde  iratus  : 
iussit  alligari  ambos,  et  in  ignem  mitti 
nudos.  Sed  qui  cuncta  condidit,  hoc  non 
permisit.  Fulmina  enim  et  toniirui 
pluuiaeque  de  coelis,  precibus  sancti  Macu- 
lini facta  sunt  in  ilia  hora.  Elementa  inter 
se  (muicein?)  repugnauere  :  atque  edax  ignis 
parcendo  lignis,  vim  negauit  naturae. 
Interea  infans  de  matris  vtero  nouam 
protulit  loquelam  :  claraque  voce  dixit  ad 
regem.  <>  Rex  impie,  imo  crude]  issime 
tyranne  !  nequissimum  sacrilegumque  scelus 
agere  disponis.  Nam  ut  dicam  acceptabilior 
fueris  si  hoc  non  consummaueris.  Ac  si 
manifestius  diceret,  cur  illos  qui  me  feceruut 
ad  vitam,  detrudis  ad  mortem  ?  Rex  autem 
perteritus,  valdeque  ad  ineffabilem  admi- 
ratus  allocutionem,  ait :  quid  sibi  vult  hoc 
novum  prodigium  ?  Tunc  Rex  jussit  fabrum 
ferrarium,  cum  virguncula  praegnante, 
honorabiliter  custodiri.  Quae  peperit  (ilium 
sanctitate  et  vita  laudabilem  :  in  bonis  cepit 
operibusvigere,  etin  Dei  ecclesia  mirabiliter 
florere. 

Lectio  4TA. 
Post  haec  autem  praedicti  tresviri,  beatum 
puerum  ad  fines  Laginencium  perduxerunt. 
Vbi  inter  ccetera,quae  ibidem  gessit  miracula; 


quamdiu  ipse  psalmos  didicit  :  tamdiu 
domum  nine  vestitam  respexerit.  Ac  si  de 
intus  crebris  ardentibus  flammis  videretur  : 
nee  non  et  de  foris  ardoribus  solis  feruen- 
tibus,  eodem  omnino  habitu  permanere 
fecit.  Post  ea  vero  monasterium  illis 
signauit :  ibi  aliquando  tempore  permansit. 
Denique  Laginencium  relinquendo  partes 
Carbrinum  adiuit,  sancti  Gregorii  disci- 
pulum,  per  cuius  magisterium,  evangelium 
et  epistolam  legit.  Eodem  tempore  Rex 
quidam  Acchoreus  nomine  sanctum  Macu- 
linum  rogauit  vt  orbatum  luminibus  filium, 
necnon  et  filiam,  videlicet,  linguae  ex  parte 
curaret.  Protinus  autem  orante  beato 
Maculino  :  vnus  illorum  munera  luminum, 
altera  linguae,  facundiam  loquendi  recepit. 
In  eodem  temporis  momento,  ejusdem  regis 
coniugem  diaboli  sagitta  subito  percussam  ; 
idem  gloriosus  Dei  famulus  reuocauit  ad 
vitam.  Eodem  quoque  die  Rex  nu-moratus  ; 
Maculinum  quum  postulando  de  miraculis 
amplius  faciendis  rogauit.  Erat  enim  vemale 
tempus,  et  illius dicto  nonduin  finito  :  c:>rylus 
sub  cuius  vmbra  positi  fuerant,  priusquam 
flores  extulisset,  maturos  fructus  protulit  : 
eiusque  sinus  vernali  tempore  autumnalibus 
repleuerat  nucibus.  Tunc  Rex  glorihcauit 
beatum  Maculinum,  eique  partem  terra.'  sine 
donauit. 

Lectio  51A. 

Post  haec  venerabilis  Christi  miles  Macu- 
linus Albaniam  petiit  ;  ibique  aliquanti 
temporis  spatio  permanens  innurneris 
coruscauit  miraculis.  Erat  autem  eo  tempore 
qusedara  immeusee  magnitudinis,  ac  tantae 
ferocitatis  bestia,  quod  omnes  Albaniensium 
fines  inuasit,  ac  totam  prouinciam  pene 
euacuauit.  Tunc  omnes  Albannnses  se  in 
vnum  congregati,  ad  sancti  Maculini  pedes 
cateruatim  prouoluu'ntur;  qui  omnes  quasi  ex 
vno  ore  dixerunt,  Salua  nos  :  at)  ilia  etiam 
die  euacuata  est  terra,  nee  vsquam  comparuit 
Sancti  Maculini  meritis  liberati  sunt. 

Lectio  6ta. 

Post  haec  autem  et  alia  plura  miracula  quae 
beatus  Maculinus  operatus  est.  reliquit  Al- 
baniam, et  ut  proposuit  Roman  adiit. 
Gregorius  autem  tunc  Apostolicam  rexerat 
arcem.  Cum  vir  Dei  Maculinus  peruenit 
ad  illam,  qui  cum  episcopali  diademate 
sanctum  sublimate  cepisset  Maculinum, 
flamma  cadens  de  ccelo  intersit.  Tunc 
Gregorius  de  coelis  per  angelum  admonitus, 
sancto  ait  Maculino,  Reuertcre  ad  prouinciam 
tuam,  et  in  loco  quo  reserecturus  fueris  ;  a 
summo  pontifici  pontificali  infula  sublima- 


September  6.]     LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS. 


167 


upon  ;  while  the  persons  and  places  named  appear  not  in   Irish   history  or 
topography — at  least   in   their  present  form.     Vague  tradition   and  popular 
legends  seem  to  have  furnished,  to  a  considerable  extent,  the  materials  for 
St.  Maculin's  Office  ;  nor  have  we  any  notification  of  special  Matins,  1 
Hours,  Vespers,  or  Psalms,  Hymns,  Antiphons,  Versicles  or  Responses,  as 


beris.  Angelico  igitur  ductu  peruenit  beatus 
Maculinus  ad  prouinciam  de  Durpconylc, 
opidum  videlicet  in  quo  protinussanctificauit 
monasterium.  Deindeagitatus  motu  angelico; 
Albamense  monasterium  fundauit  ;  in  quo 
tanto  tempore  permansit.  Duodecim  monas- 
teria  fundauit,  ac  pro  suae  claritatis  et  nomine 
opere,  suis  proximis  ea  concessit. 
Lectio  7 ma. 

Orante  autem  Maculino  cum  turba  justo- 
rum  in  eadem  ciuitate  dominus  noster 
Ihesus  Ctus  angelicis  ministrantibus  choris; 
ilium  pontificali  diademate,  ut  beatus 
Gregorius  iam  ante  predixerat  infulauit  : 
atque  in  eius  officio  fons  olei  largus  de  terra 
emanauit.  Huius  autem  ordine  pontificii 
completo ;  coemeterii  spatium  angeli  sig- 
nauerunt.  Tunc  ergo  sermo  exiit,  quod  si 
quis  fidelium  poenitentiam  agentium  in  illo 
quiesceret  coemeterio  inferni  cruciatibus 
caret  et  in  futuro.  Corpore  autem  ipsius 
Maculini  magistri  primus  in  illo  dormire 
sacro-sancto  promeruit  coemeterio.  Post 
h;vc  autem  gloriose  ac  honorabiliter  beautus 
Maculinus  ia  sua  ciuitate  sanctorum  nimia 
multitudine  illius  ministerio  prout  doctrinae 
salutaris  norma  fuerant  informati  permansit. 
Ac  inde  semetipsos  cum  suis  monasteriis  in 
aeternum  obtulerunt.  Sanctus  autem  Macu- 
linus desiderans  subesse  plusquam  praeesse, 
venerabilem  virum  Eolangum  adiit,  quern 
presulem  elegit.  Igitur  ad  praefati  senioris 
beato  Maculino  cum  suis  praeueniente 
monasterium,  idem  lcetus  ineorum  aduentu  ; 
quos  antea  ad  suum  hospitium  venturos  esse 
pramidit  in  spiritu.  Sic  rem,  tantamque 
cur  Maculinus  aduenisset  ille  cognosceret  ; 
ministris  suis  ait.  Hospites  sancti  bene 
reficiantur,  et  in  crastina  die  vnde  venerunt 
reuertantur.  Ego  enim  non  alloquar  illos, 
donee  post  septem  dies  ad  Luske  peruenero 
villam.  Ministris  haec  verba  magistri 
Maculino  narrantibus ;  ipse  crastina  die 
sicut  venerabilis  senex  praecepit  ad  suam 
perrexit  villam, 

Lectio  8va. 

Igitur  cum  septem  transacti  essent  dies, 
beatus  Eolangus  sicut  praedixit  Luske 
peruenit  villam  :  ac  protinus  ad  sancti  pedes 
Maculini  pronus  procidit,  dicens,  Tibi, 
Deoque  offero  memetipsum,  meumque 
monasterium.  Tunc  Maculinus  amare  flevit, 
et  dixit,  non  hoc  ego  proposui,  sic  ut  semper 
tibi  subditus  essem.  Ille  respondit,  sic  et 
ego  a  te  inde  remunerari  expostulo ;  vt  in 
loco  vno  simul  resurrectionem  expectemus. 
Cui  Maculinus  dixit,  hoc  tibi  Deus  prsestabit. 


Si  adhuc  multum  mouet  me,  quum  praepo- 
situm  siue  idoneum  non  habeo  praesulem  : 
cui  non  dedignatus  semper  subditus  atque 
subiectus  essem.  Tunc  Eolangus  dixit, 
hodie  te  summo  committam  pontifici  :  cui 
cuncti  prepositi  famulantur.  Sicut  enim  a 
nullo  mortalium  nisi  a  semetipso  te  pontificio 
concessit  sublimari  :  ita  et  nemini  nisi 
semetipso  et  vult  famulari.  In  eodem  ergo 
loco  dominus  noster  I ;  Cstu&  cum  angelorum 
agmine  aparuit  eis  :  cui  Eolangus  dixit. 
Deus  meus  suscipe  a  me  hunc  hominem 
iustum.  Qui  continuo  manum  illius  beati 
Maculini  contingens  dexteram ;  eleuauit 
eum  in  sublime.  Tunc  Eolangus  quasi 
penitus  perteritus  dixit.  O  rex  gloriose  et 
qui  dominaris  in  ccelis,  adhuc  modicum  con- 
cedere  digeris  ilium  in  terris.  Tunc  dominus 
remisit  ilium,  et  ab  ilia  die  nemo  praepositus 
nimiam  claritatem  illius  manus  cernere 
potuit  ;  atque  circa  illam  manicam  conti- 
nebat  accinctam.  Hinc  igitur  completum 
est,  quod  Veritas  protulit,  qui  se  humiliat 
exaltabitur.  Quantocunque  enim  Maculinus 
se  humilem  atque  subiectum  vniuersis 
praeferrebat,  tanto  ilium  excelsum  ac  per- 
latum  cunctis  Deus  dirigebat.  Nemo  enim 
multitudinem  virtutum  eius  enarrare  potuit, 
nisi  qui  cuncta  creauit.  Nam  si  temporum 
curricula  non  preterirent :  signa  autem  eius 
superessent. 

Lectio  9NA. 
Cum  dies  exitus  eius  imminent  monas- 
terium de  Luske  adiit,  quo  sanctus  Kuadam 
discipulos  antea  reliquit.  Ibique  postquam 
eisdem  benedixit,  acceptis  tarn  salutiferis 
pacis  muneribus.  corporalem  deposuit 
glebam  ;  «edem  promeruit  adire  supernam. 
Tunc  plurimus  Hiberniencium  chorus  col- 
lectus  est  ad  Maculini  corpus  sanctissimum 
sepeliendum  :  qui  angelorum  noua  cantica 
modulantium  permixtus  erat  exercitus, 
quorum  numerum  nouerat  Deus.  Sol  autem 
illius  diei  protelando  spatium,  perquindenos 
non  cognouit  occasum.  Postea  vero  sanctum 
illud  corpusculum,  cum  hymnis  et  canticis  ad 
Luske  translatum  erat  villam ;  quo  cum 
honore  maximo  in  sarculo  seruatur  dignis- 
simo :  quo  etiam  plures  sanctorum  Hiber- 
niencium venerandae  requiescunt  reliquiae  ; 
ab  ipso  Maculino  priraum  congregate,  nec- 
non  hactenus  venerabili  successore  postremo 
recollects.  Quam  igitur  veneranda  est 
fratres  charissimi  ista  dies  per  orbem  ;  qua 
post  victoria  felix  Maculinus  concendit  ad 
arcem  ?  Et  quamuis  mirabilis  fulgebat  in 
terris,  nunc  multo  mirabilus  resplendit  in 
coelis.      Nos  autem  ut  sufficiant  timeamus 


1 68  LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS.        [September  6. 


connected  with  the  Proper  Lessons.  A  brief  allusion  to  the  particulars 
furnished  can  only  be  introduced  in  the  following  account,  as  collated  or 
contrasted  with  notices  found"  in  our  Martyrologies  and  Annals.  That  the 
present  saint  lived  at  an  ancient  period  does  not  a<Jmit  of  dispute ;  but, 
whether  it  dates  back  to  the  fifth  century  is  very  questionable.  In  the 
Feilire  of  St.  /Engus.3  St.  MacCuilinn  of  Lusk  is  commemorated,  at  the  6th 
of  September.  Also,  the  Martyrology  of  Tallagh*  registers  a  festival,  at  the 
6th  of  September,  in  honour  of  MacCuilinn,  Bishop  of  Luscca,  now  Lusk,  in 
the  County  of  Dublin. 5  This  place  was  also  written  Lusga.6  This  holy 
bishop,  styled  St.  Macculindus,  is  commemorated  at  this  date  by  Rev.  Alban 
Butler.?  Bishop  Forbes  has  a  notice  of  him,  likewise,  in  his  u  Kalendars  of 
Scottish  Saints."8  By  some  writers,  this  saint  is  called  the  son  of  Cathmoga, 
and  by  others  of  Cathbad.  But,  MacCuilind  or  MacCullin  is  the  name  by 
which  he  is  generally  known,  and  hence  we  are  allowed  to  assume,  that  he 
was  son  to  a  man  named  Cullin.  We  are  well  inclined  to  disbelieve  the 
story  of  his  descent  horn  an  unknown  King,  and  the  circumstance  related 
regarding  his  origin,  as  found  in  the  Second  Lesson  of  his  Office.  The 
O'Clerys  state,  that  Cuinnigh  was  his  first  name,s>  and  that  he  belonged  to 
the  race  of  Tadhg,  son  to  Cian,  son  of  Oihll  Olum.10  This  of  course  over- 
leaps his  genealogy  for  many  generations.  Under  the  head  of  Lusca,  Duald 
Mac  Firbis  enters  Mac  Cuilinn,  bishop  of  Lusca.11  We  are  told,  that  Luachan 
Moc  Cuilinn  was  his  proper  name,  and  that  Cainnigh,  Caindigh,  or  Caindedh, 
was  his  first  name.  This  Saint  is  likewise  called  Cinneadh,  Cuindedhe,  Cuin- 
nigh and  Cainnech.  According  to  the  Office,  from  his  mother  when  baptised 
he  received  the  name  of  Maculinus,  and  he  was  carefully  instructed  in  a 
course  of  studies.  As  he  advanced  in  years,  his  morals  were  exemplary,  and 
his  religious  dispositions  were  manifested  in  prayer,  vigils, and  fasting.  Even 
while  a  youth,  miracles  are  attributed  to  him,  and  his  fame  for  sanctity  was 
very  generally  diffused.  We  can  well  afford  to  pass  over  what  is  vague  and 
obscure  in  his  office,    with    the    names  of  unknown    persons   and   reported 


verba  quibus  sancti  Presulis  congrua  laude  Stokes  :    "  With  Mac  Cuilinn  of  Lusk  a  fair 

enerramus    gesta.         Erat     enim    aspectu  pair  of  champions   divides  (this  clay),  the 

angelicus  :   in  sermone  verax  et  nitidus  :   in  feast  of  Sciath  here  we  have  :  Colomb  of 

iudicio     iustus.       Nulli    odibilis  ;      cunctis  fair  Ross  Glandae." — "  Transactions  of  the 

amabilis.     Hie  erat  stabilis,  et  constans    in  Royal   Irish   Academy,"     Irish  Manuscript 

fide:  ut  Petrus  doctor  egregius,  et  vas  elec-  Series,  vol.  i.,  part  i.     On  the  calendar  of 

tionis  ut  Paulus  :    virilis  ut  Andreas,  diuina  Oengus,  p.  cxxxvi. 
gratia  plenus  ut  Joannes.     Quid  moror  in  4  Edited  by  Rev.  Dr.  Kelly,  p.  xxxiii. 

verbis  ?  nam   omnibus   Apostolis  erat  con-  5  In  that  copy  found  in  the  Book  of  Lein- 

similis  ;  per  omnia  illorum  stquens  vestigia,  ster,  we  read  at  this  date,    ttlACCulin-o  epf 

Qui  felici  commercio,  caduca  pro   seternis.  LurcA. 

peritura  commutauit  mansuris.      Vbi  inter  *  See  "Extracts  for  the  County  of  Dublin." 

cetcmos   Dei  sanctos   et   electos,    in   regno  Ordnance  Survey  Records,  p.  131. 
patris   sui  fulget  tanquam  sol,    et  tanquam  ^  See   "  Lives   of   the   Fathers,    Martyrs, 

scintilla   in  arundineto   discurret  :   nationes  and  other  Principal  Saints,"  vol  ix.,   Sep- 

judicabit :   et  cum  vero  justitia?  sole  electos  tember  6. 
congregabit.      Qui   cum   patre,    et    spiritu  8  See  p.  379. 

sancto  viuit  in  secula  saeculorum.     Amen.  9  See  "  Martyrology  of  Donegal,"  edited 

3  In  the  Leabhar  Breac  copy,  we  find  the  by  Rev.   Drs.  Todd  and  Reeves,  pp.  236, 

following  rami  : —  237. 

10  Oilill  Olum,    King  of  Munster,    died 

LufCAi  la  TTUcc  Cuilirro  a.D     234,    according   to    Dr.   O'Donovan's 

Cam  -oecheng  Acr\enx)Ai  "  Annals  of  the  Four  Masters,"  vol.  i.,  pp. 

peil  ScecVu  func  Im-oi  112,113. 

Colum  rtuirf  51L  5I&1V041.  "  See  "Transactions  of  the  Royal  Irish 

Academy,"  Irish  Manuscript  Series,  vol. i., 

Thus  translated  into  English  by  Dr.  Whitley  part  i.,  pp.  120,   131. 


September  6.]      LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS.  169 


acts,  that  have  no  authentication  in  other  historic  documents.  We  may 
accept,  however,  the  traditions  regarding  his  charity  and  kindness  towards 
the  poor  and  strangers  ;  that  his  preaching  effected  the  conversion  of  many 
sinners  and  led  them  on  to  the  path  of  salvation  ;  that  he  was  assiduous  in 
study,  and  in  his  devotions.  It  is  stated,  moreover,  that  he  laboured  much, 
in  founding  churches  and  monasteries  ;  and  that  he  left  the  province  of 
Leinster,  to  become  a  disciple  of  a  St.  Gregory,12  who  dwelt  in  the  district 
written  Carbrinum  ;J3  and  under  such  direction,  he  read  the  Gospel  and 
Epistle,  by  which  we  are  probably  to  understand  a  curriculum  of  theology 
and  of  Sacred  Scripture.  While  there,  it  is  related,  that  he  procured  the 
restoration  of  sight  to  the  blind  son,  and  the  use  of  speech  to  the  dumb 
daughter* of  a  certain  Regulus,  named  Acchoreus.1*  Other  miracles  of  his 
are  also  reported.  Next  we  are  told,  that  Maculin  went  over  to  Scotland, 
where  he  wrought  many  celebrated  prodigies,  such  as  that  of  delivering  the 
country  from  the  ravages  of  a  monstrous  beast,  and  for  which  he  received 
the  thanks  and  gratitude  of  all  the  Albanians.  Thence  he  is  said  to  have 
undertaken  a  journey  to  Rome,  where  Pope  Gregory  then  presided,  and 
where  by  him,  through  angelic  monition,  Maculin  was  promoted  to  the  epis- 
copal dignity.  On  that  occasion,  a  remarkable  light  from  Heaven  seemed 
to  be  diffused  around  them.  Afterwards,  Pope  Gregory  directed  him  to 
return  to  his  own  province,  and  to  seek  the  place  where  his  resurrection  was 
to  be.  An  angel  led  him  to  a  province  and  town  called  Durpconyle,1*  where 
he  erected  a  monastery.  Again,  by  angelic  inspiration,  it  is  said,  he  founded 
a  monastery  designated  Albamense,16  and  in  it  he  remained  for  some  time. 
He  is  stated,  likewise,  to  have  founded  twelve  monasteries,  but  in  what 
particular  places,  we  do  not  find  mentioned  in  St.  Maculin's  Proper 
Office.  An  ancient  Life  of  St.  Ciaran,  of  Clonmacnois,  states,  that  it 
was  Mac  Cuilinn  and  Odhran  of  Lettrech,1?  who  told  Ciaran,18  that  his 
life  should  be  a  short  one.  As  he  died  towards  the  middle  of  the  sixth 
century,  if  the  Mac  Cuilinn  alluded  to  be  identical — as  would  seem — with  the 
present  holy  man,  our  saint  must  have  lived  before  that  time !  St.  Maculinus 
became  Bishop  of  Lusk,x9  but  under  what  circumstances,  and  at  what 
time,  we  are  not  creditably  informed.  In  one  particular  Manuscript,  he  is 
styled  an  Archbishop  ;  but  this  is  likely  to  be  an  error.     The  village  of  Lusk, 


12  This  was  probably  the  locally  celebrated  •'  His  feast  occurs,  on  the  2nd  of  October. 
Gregory  of  the  Golden  month,  who  has  been  ,8  His  festival  occurs,  at  the  9th  of  Sep- 
from  time  immemorial  venerated  along  the  tember.  See  at  that  date,  his  Acts  in  the 
south-western  and  western  shores  of  Ireland,  present  volume,  Art.  i. 

although  his  name  is  not  to  be  found  in  our  I9  The  commentator,   on  that  copy  of  the 

calendars.  Feilire  of  St.  /Engus  in  the  Leabhar  Breac 

13  No  district  in  Ireland  is  known  to  have  Manuscript,  thus  attempts  in  an  Irish  note — 
borne  such  a  denomination  ;  but,  probably  translated  by  Whitley  Stokes,  LL.D. — to 
it  is  a  transcriber's  error  for  Carbreum,  and  account  for  the  origin  of  this  name  :  "  A 
for  which,  in  the  form  of  Carbry,  there  are  house  of  lustoc,  i.e.,  of  ragweed  (?).  i.e..  a 
equivalents  in  the  south  and  west  of  house  and  weed  diustoic  (?),  for  he  had  no 
Ireland.  house  prius.      A  house  was  made  of  weeds 

14  Such  a  personage  does  not  turn  up  in  prius,  et  ab  eo  uominatur  lusca  quasi  weed- 
our  annals.  house,  because  what  is  now  called  ttch  used 

15  No  such  name  is  known  in  Irish  topo-  formerly  to  he  called  ca.  Whence  ulcha 
graphy  ;  but,  it  seems  to  have  been  incor-  '  beard'  quasi  ol-cha  0  cheek-house'),  whence 
rectly  written  or  altered,  from  the  original  also  cerd-cha  ('  artisan-house,'  '  forge  '). 
by  the  scribe  who  copied  our  Saint's  Proper  Lnsca,  then  i.e.  ca.  lalamlusca,  i.e.  house  of 
Office,  and  who  was  evidently  unacquainted  earth."--"  Transactions  of  the  Royal  Irish 
with  the  Iri>h  language  and  history.  Academy,"    Irish    Manuscript   Series,  vol. 

16  Such  local  denomination  in  Ireland  is  i.,  part  i.  On  the  Calendar  of  Oengus,  by 
unknown.  Whitley  Stokes,  LL.D.,  p.  cxliii. 


170 


LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS.       [September  6. 


in  the  parish  of  the  same  denomination,  is  situated  in  the  Barony  of  Bal- 
rothery  East,  and  County  of  Dublin.  It  is  a  place  of  undoubted  antiquity, 
and  the  present  cemetery  and  Protestant  Church  occupy  the  site  of  the  more 
primitive  monastic  establishment.  The  church  there  is  of  medieval  erection. 
Before  the  latest  alterations,  the  interior  consisted  of  two  aisles,  divided  by 
a  range  of  seven  arches,  which  had  been  built  up,  the  east  end  only  having 
been  used  as  a  place  for  worship.20  Except  in  the  eastern  part,  the  windows 
had  been  closed  with  masonry,  and  the  whole  body  of  the  fabric  wore  a  chill 
and  neglected  air.  The  north  aisle  was  150  feet  in  length.  In  the  west  end 
is  a  square  embattled  turret,  and  attached  to  three  of  its  angles  are  rounded 
towers,  finishing  with  the  graduated  parapets,  so  often  observable  in  the 


Church  and  Round  Tower  of  Lusk. 

ecclesiastical  and  medieval  edifices  of  Ireland.21  On  the  fourth  angle  there 
is  a  fine  round  tower,  attached  to  the  embattled  turret,  and  it  rises  near  the 
site  of  the  more  ancient  church.22  It  is  of  greater  altitude  than  the  other 
towers,  and  it  seems  to  be  the  most  ancient  part  of  the  structure.  It  is  of 
greater  diameter  than  is  usual  in  most  of  those  curious  fabrics,  although  the 
height  is  not  equal  to  many  of  the  same  class  throughout  Ireland. 23  A  very 
learned  authority,  on  subjects  connected  with  the  civil  and  ecclesiasttcal 
History  of  Ireland,  says,  that  St.  Maccullinn,  as  he  was  its  first  bishop,  is 
undoubtedly  the  patron  Saint  of  Lusk.  The  terms  found  in  his  Proper 
Office  lead  to  an  inference,  that  when  settled  at  Lusk,  Macalin  was  surrounded 


20  There  is  a  spirited  wood-engraving  of  a 
sketch  by  Samuel  Lover,  Esq.,  R.I  LA., 
showing  the  church  of  Lusk,  its  eastern 
window,  and  a  portion  of  the  turret,  in  the 
"  Irish  Penny  Magazine,"  vol.  i-,  No.  19, 
Saturday,  May  nth,  1832,  p.  145. 

21  The  present  illustration  of  Lusk  church 
and  Round  Tower  is  drawn  from  a  photo- 
graph on   the  wood,   engraved  by  Gregor 


Grey.  It  represents  the  church  as  lately 
restored,  and  differing  from  that  presented 
in  a  previous  engraving,  in  the  Second 
Volume  of  this  work,  at  the  20th  of  February, 
Art.  i. 

"See  Mr.  and  Mrs.  S.  C.  Hall's  "Ireland  : 
its  Scenery,  Character,"  &c,  vol.  ii.,  p.  347. 

23  See  J.  N.  Brewer's  "  Beauties  of  Ire- 
land," voli.,  pp.  253,  254- 


September  6.]      LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS.  171 


with  numbers  of  just  men,  who  probably  lived  in  a  community  life  under  his 
direction.  Moreover,  it  is  asserted,  that  when  he  had  there  exercised  ponti- 
fical functions,  Angels  appeared,  and  marked  out  the  boundaries  for  a  ceme- 
tery ;  and  therefore  an  impression  went  among  the  people,  that  whoesoever 
might  be  interred  there  should  escape  the  punishment  of  Hell  in  the  future 
life.  At  that  place  St.  Maculin  afterwards  lived,  while  many  flocked  to  him 
as  a  master  of  the  spiritual  life,  and  others  presented  themselves  to  him  with 
their  monasteries  for  his  guidance.  However,  Maculin  desired  rather  to  be 
a  subject  himself,  than  to  rule ;  and,  he  selected  a  venerable  man,  named 
Eolangus,24  whom  he  wished  to  serve  and  select  as  his  superior.  This  latter 
had  a  presentiment  of  his  intention,  and  was  rejoiced  to  receive  Maculin  and 
his  companions.  At  that  time,  Eolang  said  to  his  disciples ;  "  Let  our 
religious  guests  be  hospitably  entertained,  but  on  to-morrow,  let  them  return 
whence  they  came.  I  shall  not  address  them  until  after  seven  days,  when  I 
shall  go  to  the  village  of  Lusk."  When  this  had  been  reported  by  the 
ministers  to  Maculin,  he  set  out  the  next  day,  and,  as  Eolang  had  directed, 
towards  his  own  habitation.  Wherefore,  when  seven  days  had  elapsed, 
according  to  his  promise,  Eolang  went  to  Lusk,where,  falling  at  the  feet  of  its 
holy  superior,  he  said :  "  To  thee  and  to  God,  I  offer  both  myself  and  my 
monastery."  Then,  in  tears,  Maculin  replied  :  "  This  I  did  not  expect,  as  I 
would  desire  always  to  be  your  subject."  Eolang  answered  :  "  And  thus  I 
expostulate,  in  demanding  from  you  a  reward,  that  in  the  same  place  our 
resurrection  shall  be."  Maculin  replied  :  "  This  request  the  Lord  will  grant 
you.  If  hitherto  it  has  greatly  troubled  me,  that  I  have  not  had  a  suitable 
superior  or  prelate — to  whom  should  I  always  be  a  subject  and  subjected, 
without  being  deemed  unworthy  ?"  Then  returned  Eolang  :  tk  To-day  I 
commit  you  to  the  care  of  that  Sovereign  Ruler,  whom  all  superiors  obey. 
For,  as  to  no  one  but  Himself  has  been  given  an  ecclesiastical  superiority 
over  you,  so  to  none  but  Himself  does  He  wish  you  to  be  a  servant."  Soon,  in 
the  same  place,  our  Lord  Jesus  Christ,  with  a  choir  of  Angels,  appeared  to 
them.  Then  cried  out  Eolang :  "  My  God,  receive  from  me  this  just  man." 
Immediately,  taking  Maculin  by  the  right  hand,  our  Lord  raised  him  aloft. 
Wholly  astonished  and  filled  with  anxiety  lest  his  friend  was  about  to  be 
removed  from  this  life,  Eolang  cried  out  with  emotion  :  "  O  glorious  King, 
who  reigneth  in  Heaven,  deign  to  leave  him  for  some  time  longer  on  earth  !" 
Then  the  Lord  released  him,  and  a  wonderful  effulgence  shone  about  Macu- 
lin's  hand,  which  could  not  even  be  seen  on  account  of  that  very  brightness. 
Through  humility,  the  saint  afterwards  wore  a  glove  on  the  hand  so  honoured  ; 
but  in  proportion  to  the  great  exercise  of  that  virtue,  so  much  the  more  was 
he  exalted  in  the  sight  of  God  and  man.  It  is  stated,2*  that  Maculin  of  Lusk 
visited  Scotland  twice,  and  that  there  he  was  held  in  repute.  So  far  as  we 
can  understand  an  evidently  faulty  construction  in  the  Office,  St.  Maculin  left 
the  Monastery  of  Lusk  to  one  Kuda  and  the  disciples.  But  when  the  day  of 
his  departure  approached,  the  holy  Bishop  went  to  his  former  place  which 
he  blessed  ;  and  there  having  received  the  Sacraments  for  the  dying,  he 
closed  this  life,  while  the  Angels  were  heard  singing  canticles  of  praise. 
Moreover,  it  is  related,  that  on  the  day  of  his  death,  the  sun  did  not  set  for  the 
fifteen  days  succeeding.     This,  doubtless,  is  chiefly  the  exaggeration  of  popular 


24  We  find  two  holy  men  of  this   name  day ;  and  the  other,   Eolaing,  of  Lecan,  in 

mentioned  in    our    Calendars  :     the    one,  Meath,  whose  festival  was  held,  on  the  29th 

Eolang  of  Achadh-bo,  whose  feast  occurs  of  December. 

on  the  5th  of  September,  where  we  have  2S  According  to  the  Acts,  preserved  in  the 

already  treated  about  him,  on  the  previous  Library  of  Trinity  College,  Dublin. 


i7*  LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS.      [September  6. 


tradition.  His  funeral  obsequies  were  celebrated  with  great  solemnity,  by  a 
multitude  of  Irish  clergy  and  laity.  At  first,  his  remains  seem  to  have  been 
conveyed  to  the  cemetery,  where  so  many  of  his  congregation  and  where 
other  saints  repose.  We  are  unable  to  state,  because  of  the  involved  and 
imperfect  composition  in  the  account,  whether  the  becoming  coffin  or  shrine, 
in  which  his  body  had  been  laid,  and  to  which  allusion  is  made,  was 
deposited  in  the  grave-yard,  or  placed  within  the  church  of  Lusk,  owing  to 
a  translation  of  the  saint's  body.  According  to  tradition,26  however,  it  is 
said  his  remains  were  deposited  in  a  vault,2?  which  being  termed  "  Luska  "in 
the  Irish  language,  is  supposed  to  have  given  name  to  the  present  Village  of 
Lusk,  in  Balruddery  Barony,  County  of  Dublin.  In  the  parish  of  Lusk  there 
is  a  well,  called  Tubbercalleen,  and  it  is  supposed  to  have  been  originally  a 
holy  well,  being  so  called  from  St.  Calleen,  or  Caillin,  a  former  saint  of  the 
primitive  Irish  Church.28  It  used  to  be  visited  by  people,  on  the  6th  Sep- 
tember, the  day  of  our  Saint's  festival,  and  stations  were  then  performed  at  it : 
but,  for  over  one  hundred  years,  preceding  the  year  1843,  these  practices  had 
been  discontinued.  The  water  of  this  well  was  used  for  curing  the  ague ;  it 
is  to  be  presumed,  at  a  period,  when  that  disease  was  more  prevalent  in 
Ireland,  than  it  is  at  present.  We  are  told,  that  at  this  well,  there  were  two 
stones,  which  according  to  popular  tradition  bore  the  impress — one  of  our 
Saint's  hand,  and  the  other  of  his  foot.  Other  legends,  connected  with  the 
memory  of  this  saint,  were  then  current  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Lusk.29 
From  certain  criteria,  Dr.  Todd  shows  that  the  year  of  this  saint's  death 
occurred  in  a.d.  496.3°  Yet,  the  Annals  of  Ulster  and  the  Chronicon 
Scotorum  have  entered  the  death  of  Chinneadha  or  Mic  Cuilind  at  a.d.  497. 3I 
The  latter  authority  states,  that  an  eclipse  of  the  sun  happened  on  the  same 
year;  but  Roderick  O'Flaherty  has  rightly  added  in  the  margin  of  the  MS. 
496.  Again,  in  the  corresponding  entry  in  the  Annals  of  Tighemach,  and  in 
the  same  Codex,  a  similar  correction  has  been  made.  Archdall  mistook 
Mageoghegan's  translation  of  the  Annals  of  Clonmacnoise,  and  has  made 
St.  Macculind  to  have  died,  a.d.  497,  while  Cuynea  M'Cathmoa  is  made  to 
die  in  a.d.  498. 32  These  are  only  two  forms,  however,  of  our  present  saint's 
name.  This  statement  of  Archdall  seems  to  have  led  Dr  Lanigan  to  think, 
two  several  persons  were  constituted  bishops  of  Lusk,  in  the  fifth  century, 
but  on  no  respectable  authority  he  could  discover.33  Elsewhere  he  enquires, 
if  a  certain  Culeneus  could  have  been  identical  with  St.  MacCulindus,  Bishop 
of  Lusk,  and  whose  feast  was  held  on  the  present  day. 34  The  reader  must 
at  once    perceive    how  utterly   irreconcilable  are   the  statements,  that  St. 

26  See  the  "  Irish  Penny  Magazine,"  vol.  Thomas  Campbell,  25th  August,  1843,  an(l 
i.,  No.  19,  p.  146.  It  must  be  remarked,  are  entered  in  the  "  Dublin  Memorandums," 
that   the   valuable  "  Illustrations    of    Irish       p.  273. 

Topography,"  in  this  excellent  periodical,  ^  See  "  The  Book  of  Obits  and  Martyr- 
are  from  the  pen  of  John  D'Alton — a  name  ology  of  the  Cathedral  Church  of  the  Holy 
honourably  connected  with  Irish  history  Trinity."  Edited  by  John  Clarke  Crosthwaite 
and  antiquities.  and  Rev.  Dr.  Todd.      Introduction,   n.  (e) 

27  At  present,    under   the   square  tower,  p.  xlviii. 

attached  to  the  church,  is  a  crypt  or  vaulted  "  Butler  assigns  his  death  to  this  year.  See 

chapel  ;  and,  it  may  be,  that  within  it  the  '•  Lives  of  the  Fathers,   Martyrs,  and  other 

body  of  St.   Macculind  had  been  formerly  Principal  Saints,"  vol.  ix.,  September  6th. 

deposited.  He   quotes   Colgan's    MSS.,  to    which    he 

28  Notes  by  Mr.  O'Donovan,  in  the  volume  appears  to  have,  had  access. 

entitled,  "  Dublin  Memorandums,"  pp.  278,  32  See  "Monasticum  Ilibernicum,"  p.  251. 

279,  belonging  to  the  Irish  Ordnance  Sur-  3!  lie  remarks  that  Colgan  makes  no  men- 

vey  Office,  now  in  the  Royal  Irish  Academy.  tion  of  them. 

*9  The  foregoing   particulars  in   the    text  34  See  "Ecclesiastical  History  of  Ireland, 

are  derived  from   a   communication  signed  vol  i.,  chap  vii.,  sect,  v.,  n.  36,  p.  338. 


September  6.]      LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS.  173 


Maculind  died  towards  the  close  of  the  fifth  century — as  stated  by  our  Irish 
annalists — and  that  he  had  been  consecrated  bishop  at  Rome  by  Pope 
Gregory.  The  first  Sovereign  Pontiff  bearing  that  name  filled  the  chair  of 
St.  Peter,  from  a.d.  590  to  a.d.  604.35  The  death  of  St.  Maculind  is 
recorded  at  a.d.  497,  in  the  Annals  of  Innisfallen,36  and  by  the  Four  Masters. 37 
He  went  to  his  rest  in  the  same  year,  according  to  Diuild  Mac  Firbis.38  How- 
ever, in  the  "Chronicum  Scotorum,"  at  this  date,  we  find  no  such  entry; 
but,  at  a.d.  544,  there  is  notice  of  the  "Quies"  of  Mac  Cuilind  and  of 
Odhran  from  Lethracha.39  In  the  Martyrology  of  Tallagh,  at  the  iii.  of  the 
Nones,  or  6th  of  September,  his  feast  is  entered.40  What  Mac  Firbis  says  is, 
"quies  Cuindid  son  of  Cathbadh,  i.e.  Mac  Cuilind,  Bishop  of  Lusca,  &c, 
September  6."  At  the  same  date,  his  name  appears  in  the  Martyrology  of 
Donegal,41  as  Mac  Cuilinn,  Bishop,  of  Lusc.  In  the  Irish  Calendar  belonging 
to  the  Irish  Ordnance  Survey,  and  now  transferred  to  the  Royal  Irish 
Academy  Library,  his  commemoration  is  at  this  date.43  At  the  6th  of 
September,  the  Bollandists  remark,^  how  Greven  announces  the  feast  of  a 
bishop,  called  Mastulinus,  in  Ireland  j  while  he  is  named  in  like  manner,  in 
their  Manuscript  Florarium  Sanctorum,  but  without  giving  him  a  place.  Not 
finding  such  a  name  in  any  Catalogue  of  Irish  Saints,  nor  in  any  other 
authority,  they  pass  him  over,  at  this  date;  apparently  not  reflecting,  that 
such  an  entry  had  been  the  error  of  a  scribe  for  the  name  of  Macculindus. 
This  holy  man  is  specially  commemorated  among  the  Cistercians.44  At  the 
6th  of  September,  St.  Mac  Cuillinn  was  venerated  in  Scotland,  and  his  feast 
is  entered  in  the  Kalendar  of  Drummond.45  This  holy  man  had  an  office,40 
specially  to  commemorate  his  virtues,  and  to  distinguish  him  among  our 
Saints. 4?  This  office  of  nine  lessons  is  assigned  to  him  as  a  Bishop  and  Con- 
fessor.48 In  Scotland,  the  parish  of  Macalen  or  Macallan,  now  annexed  to 
Knockandhu,  or  Knockando,40  has  been  called  after  MacCallan,  and  dedi- 

35  This  was  the  year  of  his  death.  4<5  According  to  a  MS.  in  T.C.D.,  classed 

36  See  Rev.  Dr.  O'Conor's  "Rerum  Hiber-  B.  1-4,  which  records  at  September  the  6th, 
nicarum  Scriptores,"  tomus  ii.  Annales  Ides  viii.,  Sancti  Maculini  Epis.  et  Conf.,  ix. 
Inisfallensis,  p.  4.                                               .    Lect.,   &c.     This  is  entered  in  a  compara- 

37  See  Dr,  O'Donovan's  edition,  vol  i.,  p.  tively  recent  hand.  In  T.C.D.,  a  MS. 
404,  note  (k).  classed  B.  3.  I.  records  at   September  the 

38  See  "  Proceedings  of  the  Royal  Irish  6th,  Ides  viii.,  Maculini  Epis.  et  Conf.  ix. 
Academy,"  Irish  MSS.  Series,  vol.  i.,  part  Lect.  In  a  MS.  classed  B.  3.  13.  in  T.C.D., 
i.,  pp.  120,  121.  we  find  at  September  the  6th,   Ides   viii., 

39  Thus  :  Quier  true  Cuilmt)  ocur  O-onan  Sancti  Maculini  Epis.  non.  Lect.  In  T.C.D., 
O  lecrvacViA.  See  William  M.  Hennessy's  a  MS.  classed  B.  3.  10.  records  at  Septem- 
edition,  pp.  48,  49.  ber  6th,  Ides  viii.,  Sancti  Maculini  Epis.  et 

40  Thus:  "Mac  Cuilinn  Esp.  Luscca."  Conf.  ix.  Lect.  A  MS.  in  T.C.D.,  and 
See  Rev.  Dr.  Kelly's  "  Calendar  of  Irish  classed  B.  3.  12.,  contains  at  September 
Saints,"  p.  xxxiii.  6th,  Ides  viii.,  Sancti  Maculini,  Archiepis., 

41  Edited  by  Rev.  Drs.  Todd  and  Reeves,  ix.  Lect.  A  MS.  in  T.C.D.,  classed  B.  1.2., 
pp.  236,  237.  has    at   September  6th,    Ides  viii.,   Sancti 

42  See  the  viii.  of  the  Ides  of  September  Maculini  Epis.  et  Conf.,  Duplex  fin  per 
(September  6th).      We  find,  "mac  Cml/m       constit. 

erp  lurga  cdinij-aceT)  airim   aoir  cr\iofC  47  This    office    is    denominated   Vita   S. 

An  can     x>o     cua-it)    an     ceppoj;    fo    t>o  Maculini.     It  is  in  Nine  Lessons,  and  classed 

cumeintrie.  407." — Ordnance  Survey  Office  among  the  Trinity  College,  Dublin,  Manu- 

Copy,  Common  Place  Book  F.,  p.  75.  scripts,   E,    3.  8.     This    is    elegantly    and 

43  See    "Acta    Sanctorum,"    tomus    ii.,  legibly  written,  or  rather  letter-traced. 
Septembris   \i.      Among   the  pretermitted  48  See  "  The  Book  of  Obits  and  Martyr- 
Saints,  p.  654.  ology  of  the  Cathedral  of  the  Holy  Trinity. 

44  At  September  the  6th,  in  the  Annals  Dublin,"  edited  by  John  Clarke  Crosthwaite 
of  the  Cistercian  Monks  is  found,  St.  and  Rev.  Dr.  Todd,  Introduction,  p.  xlviii., 
Macuilindus,  Bishop  of  Lusk,  at  p.  410.  and  n.  (e),  lxxvi.,  pp.  69,   154. 

45  See  Bishop  Forbes'  '*  Kalendars  of  49  Of  this  parish,  a  very  complete  account 
Scottish  Saints,  p.  23.  has  been  given  by  the  Rev.  George  Gordon, 


174  LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS.      [September  6. 


cated  to  St.  Macalin.  In  the  churchyard  of  Macallan,  a  sequestered  rural 
burial-ground,  in  the  wood  of  Easter  Elchies,  there  is  a  ruined  church,  but  fast 
crumbling  to  decay. s°  In  the  year  1839,  the  old  church  of  Anglo-Norman 
erection  at  Lusk  had  been  unroofed  by  a  storm,  and  the  building  was  allowed 
to  become  almost  a  ruin.  Its  ancient  monuments  were  broken,  covered  with 
rubbish,  and  exposed  to  every  indignity.  Its  singular  square  belfry,  co-eval 
with  the  Anglo-Norman  Church,  and  its  ancient  round  tower,  supposed  to 
have  been  co-eval  with  the  original  church  of  St.  Mac  Culind,  were  rapidly 
going  to  decay.  Since  that  time,  the  Ecclesiastical  Commissioners  undertook 
the  work  of  reparation.  It  cannot  be  called  restoration,  as  the  original 
church  style  has  been  changed.  The  Rev.  William  Reeves,  M.R.I. A.,  to 
whom  Irish  Ecclesiastical  History  owes  so  much,  was  Rector  of  Lusk  for 
some  years ;  where  he  laboured  nobly  to  repair  the  damages  of  time  and 
accident  during  the  period  of  his  incumbency.  In  our  annals  are  several 
allusions  to  Lusk,  and  from  an  early  age.  Thus  in  a.d.  695,  Casson,  a 
learned  Chronographer,  died,  and  the  same  year  St.  Adamnan  held  a  Synod 
in  its  monastery,  at  which  were  present  all  the  principal  prelates  and  clerics 
of  the  Kingdom.  In  731  died  Crunnmael,  son  to  Colman,  Abbot  of  Lusk. 
Whether  the  office  of  Bishop  and  Abbot  had  been  kept  distinct  in  this  place, 
we  have  no  means  left  for  ascertaining,  owing  to  the  very  brief  mention  of 
persons  in  connexion  with  their  obits.  The  mortal  wounding  of  Colman, 
Bishop  of  Lusca,  by  the  Hy  Tuirtre,  happened  in  739  ;  and  in  784,  the  death 
of  Conall,  son  to  Crunnmhael,  Abbot  of  Lusk,  took  place;  in  787,  that  of 
Colga,  son  to  Crnnnmhael,  Abbot  of  Lusk  ;  and,  in  791,  that  of  Muireadhach, 
son  to  Aenghus,  Abbot  of  Lusk.  In  795,  Ferghil  Ua  Taidhg,  scribe  of  Lusk, 
died,  and  in  796,  Maenach,  son  to  Aenghus,  Prior  of  Lusk.  In  804,  Cormac, 
son  to  Conall,  (Economus  of  Lusk,  died,  and  in  805,  Maenach,  son  to 
Colgan,  Abbot  of  Lusk.  Subsequently,  during  this  century,  the  Abbey  was 
pillaged  and  destroyed,  by  the  Northmen,  in  825,  and  again  the  Oratory  of 
Lusk  was  burned  by  them.s1  Nevertheless,  in  our  annals,  during  the  ninth 
and  tenth  centuries  are  frequent  entries  of  obits  both  of  Bishops  and  Abbots 
connected  with  this  place.52  Tradition  has  preserved  for  us  a  beautiful 
portraiture  of  St.  Maculind ;  viz.,  that  he  was  angelic  in  appearance,  truthful 
and  brilliant  in  discourse,  just  in  his  judgment,  amiable  to  all,  and  had  no 
enemy.  He  was  firm  and  constant  in  faith,  an  illustrious  doctor  like  St.  Peter, 
a  vessel  of  election  like  St.  Paul,  courageous  as  St.  Andrew,  full  of  Divine 
grace  like  St.  John  ;  «n  fine,  he  was  comparable  to  all  the  Apostles,  since  in 
all  things  he  followed  their  example.  Thus  was  he  admirable,  both  in  word 
and  in  work  ;  having  the  favours  of  God  to  guide  him  through  life,  he  deserved 
to  change  its  transitory  course  for  the  company  of  the  saints  in  Heaven. 
There  he  shines  as  the  sun,  and  with  the  Angels  he  rejoices  for  ever  before 
the  true  Sun  of  Justice  and  of  Judgment. 


Article  IV. — St.  Sciath,  Virgin,  of  Fert-Sceithe,  now  Ardskeagh, 
in  Muskerry  of  the  Three  Plains,  County  of  Cork.     Veneration  was 


Minister,  in  the  "New  Statistical  Account  the  Chronicuni  Scotonim,  and  of  the  Four 

of    Scotland,"     vol.    xiii.,    Elgin,    pp.    60  Masters. 

to  82.  52  For  the    mediaeval  history  of  Lusk,  as 

s°  See  ibid.,  p.  68.  also  for  an  account  of  its  local  characteristics 

s'  Although   there  are   differences   as   to  and   antiquities,  the   reader   is   referred    to 

dates,    the    foregoing   instances  are    taken  John  D'Alton's  "History  of  the  County  of 

from  the  Annals  of  Tighernach,  of  Ulster,  of  Dublin,"  pp.  414  to  425. 


September  6.]      LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS.  175 


given,  at  the  6th  of  September,  according  to  the  Manuscript  copy,1  as  also  in 
the  published  Martyrology  of  Tallagh,3  to  Scieth  of  Fiort  Sceith,  in 
Muscraithe  tre  Maighi.3  Immediately  afterwards  is  mentioned,  The  Arrival 
of  the  Relics  of  Scethi,  daughter  of  Mechi,  at  Tamlachta,  or  Tallagh.4 
Although  in  a  separate  line,  we  can  hardly  believe  it  is  intended  to  comme- 
morate a  different  feast  from  the  former  celebration.  The  festival  of  Sciath 
is  to  be  found  in  the  Feilire  of  St.  ^ngus,  at  the  6th  of  September.* 
Already  we  have  noticed  a  feast  for  this  holy  virgin,  at  the  1st  of  January.6 
She  descended  from  the  race  of  Conaire,  monarch  of  Erinn,  who  sprung  from 
the  seed  of  Heremon.  Eilhue,  daughter  of  Concraidh,  was  her  mother,  accord- 
ing to  the  O'Clerys.7  The  Muscraighe  Tri  Maighe,  or  Muskerry  of  the  Three 
Plains,  in  whi<  h  the  saint's  place  was  situated,  had  been  regarded  as  the  terri- 
tory of  the  O'  Donnegan's.8  The  Church  of  Fiort  Sceithe,  which  is  placed  by 
the  Calendars  of  Marianus  and  the  O'Clerys  at  September  6th,  in  Muscraighe- 
tri-maighe,  is  known  at  present  by  the  name  of  Ardskeagh.9  This  is  a  small 
parish,  in  that  part  of  the  barony  of  Fermoy,  bordering  on  the  baronies  of 
Orrery  and  Kilmore.  In  the  ancient  taxation  of  the  diocese  of  Cloyne,  there 
is  a  rural  deanery,  called  Muscry-donnegan.  It  contains  the  parishes  now 
comprehended  in  the  baronies  of  Orrery  and  Kilmore,  with  small  adjacent 
portions  of  Duhallow  and  Fermoy.  Among  the  Churches  in  this  deanery, 
Orwerg,  (i.e.  Orbraidhe  or  Orrery)  and  Fersket/i,  {i.e.  Feart  Skeithe,)  called 
Ardskagh™  are  two.  This  latter  is  now  known  as  Ardskeagh.  Thus,  the 
identity  of  Muscraighe-tri-maighe  and  the  barony  of  Orrery  is  proved  to  a 
demonstration."  Ardskeagh  is  now  a  parish,  in  the  barony  of  Condons  and 
Clongibbons,  in  the  County  of  Cork.  This  Parish,  also  called  Ardskreagh, 
is  separated  from  the  main  body  of  the  barony  in  which  it  is  included,  by  the 
intervention  of  the  northern  part  of  the  barony  of  Fermoy.  Some  remains  of 
its  old  Church  yet  exist  in  the  burial  ground.12  In  the  Martyrology  of 
Donegal,^  at  this  same  date,  the  patroness  is  recorded  as  Sciath,  Virgin,  of 
Fert  Sceithe,  in  Museraighe  of  the  Three  Plains,  in  Munster.  This  saint  was 
venerated,  likewise,  in  Scotland,  and  at  the  6th  of  September,  she  is  entered 
as  Scetthe,  in  the  Calendar  of  Drummond.14 


Article  V. — St.  Colum,  of  Rosglan,  or  Domhnach-mor-Maighe- 

Imchlain,  now  Donaghmore,  near  Dungannon,  County  of  Tyrone. 

Article   iv.  —  »  In  that    copy  of   the  9  It  is  described  $n  the  "  Ordnance  Sur- 

Tallagh  Martyrology,  found  in  the  Book  of  vey    Townland    Maps    for   the  County   of 

Leiuster,  we  read  :   Sciafc  o  pj\c  Sceiui  m  Cork,"  sheets  3,  8. 

niurqvge  cru  tTUij;i.  ,0In  1615. 

2  Edited  by  Rev.  Dr.  Kelly,  p.  xxxiii.  "  O'Brian's    statement,    in    his     "  Irish 

3  See  what  is  said  about  this  holy  virgin,  Dictionary,"  voce  Muscraighe,  has  been 
at  the  1st  and  15th  day  of  January,  on  whuch  fully  established:  notwithstanding  the  op- 
days  she  is  also  commemorated.  posite  opinion   of  Dr.    O'Donovan,  in  the 

4  In  the  Tallagh  Martyrology  at  this  day,  "  Leabhar  na-g  Ceart,"  who  treats  it  as  wild 
in  the  Book  of  Leinster,  we  find  noticed,  and  conjectural.  See  n.  (v),  pp.  44,  45, 
^■ouencuf  lleliquiA|\um  Sceci  \Xe  nieclu  Dr  Reeves  has  proved  the  contrary,  in  a 
-a-o  CAtnLa6.  note  furnished  to  Dr.  O'Donovan,  for  his 

s  See  "  Transactions  of  the  Royal   Irish  edition   of  "  The  Topographical  Poems  of 

Academy,"   Irish  Manuscript  Series,  vol.  i.,  John  O'Dubhagain  and    Giolla  na  Naomh 

parti.     On   the  Calendar  of   Oengus.     By  O'Huidhrin."     See  n.  605,  pp.  lxix.,  lxx. 

Whitley  Stokes,  LL.D.,  p.  cxxxvi.  '-'  See  Lewis'  "Topographical  Dictionary 

6  See  the   First  Volume  of  this  work,  at  of  Ireland,"  vol.  i.,  p.  57. 

that  date,  Art.  vii.  '3  Edited  by  Rev.  Drs.  Todd  and  Reeves, 

7  See  "  Martyrology  of  Donegal,"  edited  pp.  238,  239. 

by  Drs.  Todd  and  Reeves,  pp.  238,  239.  ,4  See    Bishop    Forbes'    "  Kalendars  of 

8  See  O'Donovan's  %<  Leabhar-na-g  Ceart,  Scottish  Saints,"  p.  23. 

or  Book  of  Rights,"  n.  (v.),  p.  42.  Article  v. — ■  See  "  Transactions  of  the 


176 


LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS.       [September  6. 


{Fifth  Century?)  The  present  St.  Columb  of  Ross  Glandae  and  St.  Sciath, 
are  denominated  a  fair  pair  of  champions,  by  St.  ^Engus  the  Culdee  in  his 
Feilire,  at  the  6th  day  of  September.1  In  the  Martyrology  of  Tallagh,2  at 
the  6th  of  September,  there  is  a  festival  to  honour  Colum  of  Rosnossaire  {i.e. 
Col um  Midisil).  This  is  also  noted  as  a  feast,  in  that  copy  contained  in  the 
Book  of  Leinster.3  The  present  Colum  was  descended  from  the  race  of 
Laeghaire,  son  of  Niall,  according  to  the  O'Clerys.4  We  find,  that  when 
St.  Patricks  had  been  repelled  by  the  people  of  Fera-Gaura,  he  visited  the 
district  of  Imchlair.  This  saint  was  placed  over  the  Church  founded  at 
Donoughmore,  in  the  present  barony  of  Dungannon,  by  the  Irish  Apostle,6 
when  he  had  brought  the  people  there  to  embrace  Christianity.  In  the 
Martyrology  of  Donegal,?  at  the  same  date,  this  saint  is  named  Colum,  of 
Ros  Glanda.8  We  are  told,  that  Glan  is  the  name  of  a  well,  which  was  there 
before  St.  Patrick's  time,  while  Domhnoch  mor  Maighe  Imchlair  was  after- 
wards the  name  of  that  place.10  The  old  church  stood  a  little  to  the  north- 
east of  the  present  village.  The  only  traces  of  its  venerable  antiquity  now 
remaining  is  a  large  and  elegant  cross  of  freestone ;  on  which  numerous 
carvings,  representing  various  passages  of  Scripture,  are  seen.11  The  people 
about  here,  baptised  by  St.  Patrick,  were  blessed  by  him,  as  also  was  that 
well,  in  which  they  received  regeneration.12  At  Domnach  mor,  St.  Patrick 
founded  a  Monastery,  over  which  it  is  said  he  placed  St.  Colum, '3  or 
Columbanus.  His  church  soon  acquired  grants  of  land  and  other  valuable 
possessions;  and  it  continued  to  flourish  until  after  the  Invasion  of  Ireland 
by  Henry  II.1*  The  parochial  surface  extends  from  the  rich  champaign 
ground  in  the  vicinity  of  Dungannon,  to  the  bleak  and  dismal  moorish 
tableau  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Pomeroy ;  and,  it  embraces  every  variety 
of  soil,    from  the  most  fertile  arable  land  to  the  spongy  bog  and  the  sterile 


Royal  Irish  Academy,"  Irish  Manuscript 
Series,  vol.  i.,  parti.  On  the  Calendar  of 
Oengus,  p.  cxxxvi.  In  an  Irish  comment 
attached,  Sciath  is  described  as  of  Muscraige 
Tri-maige  in  Mumain.  In  another  note,  it 
is  stated,  that  Ross  Glanda  was  formerly  the 
name  of  the  stead,  i.e.,  Glan  ("  pure"),  the 
name  of  the  well  that  is  there,  and  Domnach 
Mor  was  its  name,  whe#the  scholiast  wrote. 
It  is  stated,  likewise,  since  Patrick  sent 
Colomb  Croxaire  of  Ross  GialMn  in  Ui- 
Liathain  in  Munster,  or  Colomb  of  Domnach 
Maige  Imchlair  in  Tyrone  ;  and  Glan  (is) 
the  name  of  a  well  that  is  in  the  stead.  See 
ibid.,  p.  cxliii. 

'Edited  by  Rev.  Dr.  Kelly,  p.  xxxiii. 

3 Thus:  CoUnm  o  nuer*onoepMr\e  ix> 
■Ajjuf  Coltnan  mi-oiril. 

4  See  the  "Martyrology  of  Donegal," 
edited  by  Rev.  Drs.  Todd  and  Reeves,  pp. 
238,  239. 

5  See  his  Life,  in  the  Third  Volume  of 
this  work,  at  17th  of  March,  Art.  i. 

6  See  Dr.  O'Donovan's  "Annals  of  the 
Four  Masters,"  vol.  iii.,  n.  (p),  pp.  116  to 
118. 

7  Edited  by  Drs.  Todd  and  Reeves,  pp. 
238,  239. 

8  The  following  MS.  note  is  found  in 
William    M.     Hennessy's    Copy     of     this 


Martyrology,  at  this  word:  "Glen  aium 
tiobraid  boi  and  ria  Patrick  agus  Domhnach 
mor  maighe  Iomchlair  (Donaghmore,  near 
Dungannon),  a  ainm  anin  :  Thir  Eog-hain 
ata." 

9  There  is  yet  a  fine  old  sculptured  cross, 
at  the  Catholic  church  here,  and  it  is 
adorned  with  Scriptural  subjects.  See  Miss 
Cusack's  "Life  of  St,  Patrick,  Apostle  of 
Ireland,"  p.  446,  n.  (4). 

10  At  present  identical  with  Donaghmore, 
near  Dungannon,  in  the  county  of  Tyrone, 
according  to  William  M.  Hennessy's  Copy. 

"This  was  thrown  down  and  mutilated  in 
the  war  of  1641.  It  remained  in  a  neglected 
state  until  Richard  Vincent,  Esq.,  caused  it 
to  be  removed  and  placed  where  it  now 
stands,  at  the  head  of  the  village,  in  1776. 
It  is  16  feet  in  height,  and  it  consists  of  a 
plinth,  a  shaft  and  a  cross.  See  Lewis' 
"  Topographical  Dictionary  of  Ireland,"  vol. 
i.,  p.  469. 

'•'  See  Colgan's  "  Trias  Thaumnturga." 
Septima  Vita  S.  Patricii,  lib.  ii.,  cap.  excii., 
p.  148,  and  nn.  239,  240. 

13  He  is  classed  among  the  Disciples  of 
St.  Patrick.  See  ibid.,  Quinta  Appendix 
ad  Acta  S.  Patricii,  cap.  xxiii.,  p.  267. 

14  See  Lewis'  "  Topographical  Dictionary 
of  Ireland,"  vol.  i.,  p.  469. 


September  6.]      LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS.  177 


mountain. 's  In  1 195,  the  monastery  here  was  plundered  and  wasted  by 
Rughraidhe,  son  of  Dunsleibhe,  assisted  by  the  FLnglish.'6  In  the  Taxation 
of  Pope  Nicholas,  a.d.  1291,  the  church  of  Donaghmore  is  described  as  con- 
taining many  costly  shrines.  It  appears  to  have  been  possessed  by  the 
Colidei  or  Culdees  of  Armagh,  in  the  sixteenth  century.  By  an  Inquisition 
taken  in  the  33rd  year  of  Henry  VIII.,  the  Colidei  had  their  rectory  and  tithes, 
which,  with  many  townlands  in  the  adjoining  parishes,  were  granted  to  the 
Archbishop  of  Armagh  after  the  Reformation. *'  We  are  inclined  to  believe, 
that  the  Columb  of  St.  Patrick's  time  must  have  been  a  different  person 
from  St.  Colum  of  Slanore.  It  seems  likely  enough,  this  latter  was  the 
Colman,  son  of  Eochad,  who  had  been  restored  to  sight  at  Slanore'8  by 
St.  Feichan,  Abbot  of  Fore.!9  Colman's  festival  is  assignable  to  the  present 
day,ao  and  it  would  appear,  that  he  must  have  lived  in  the  seventh  century. 
But,  this  Saint  appears  to  have  had  five  holy  brothers,  and  one  sister,  all  the 
children  of  one  father,  but  by  two  different  wives.  His  pedigree  is  set  down 
in  the  Genealogies  of  the  saints.  From  it  we  learn,  that  his  father  was 
Eochaidh,  and  his  mother  Aigleand,  the  daughter  of  Lenin.  Their  children 
were  St.  Fintan,21  St.  Lughaidh,22  St.  Coluim,  or  Columbanus,  and  a  daughter 
St.  Comaigh.23  The  father  of  these  children  was  the  son  of  Ailill ;  son  to 
Guaire,  son  of  Lughaidh,  son  of  Laeghaire,  monarch  of  Ireland,  in  the  time 
of  St.  Patrick.  By  another  wife,  Ligach  Bredmainech,  or  Ligan  Bregmuinech, 
he  had  St.  Nanidh,24  and  St.  Muiredhach.2*  St.  Fursa26  was  also  her  son, 
according  to  some  accounts.2?  This  however  must  have  been  a  Fursa,  dis- 
tinct from  him  venerated  on  the  16th  of  January,  whose  mother  is  stated  to 
have  been  Gelgesia  or  Gelges.  The  present  saint  is  introduced,  also,  in  the  Acts 
of  St.  Columba,  as  driving  his  chariot,  and  this  probably  took  place  when  the 
former  was  a  young  man.  Afterwards,  he  probably  founded  the  Monastery 
of  Snamluther,  now  Slanore,  a  little  to  the  south  of  Lough  Oughter,  and 
nearly  opposite  to  Trinity  Island,  on  the  west  side  of  the  parisli  of  Kilmore, 
County  of  Cavan.  The  Abbey  field  there  represents  the  effaced  site  of  this 
monastic  establishment.28  Here  at  least  the  saint  lived,  and  he  was  visited 
there  by  St.  Fechin  of  Fore.29  It  is  probable,  himself  and  his  sister,  St. 
Comaigh,  were  joint  occupants  of  that  place  ;  for,  both  are  venerated  there — 
the  present  saint,  as  has  been  supposed,  at  this  day,  and  his  sister  on  the 
27th  of  May.  Again,  is  stated,  that  a  Columba  Crossaire  was  patron  of  the 
parisli  of  Kilrush,  according  to  the  Martyrology  of  Tallagh,3°  and  also  patron 
of  the  Church  of  Myshall,  in  the  parish   of  St.  Mary,  TDounty  of  Wexford. 31 

'5  See  the   "  Parliamentary   Gazetteer  of  23  Venerated  at  the  27th  of  May.     See  the 

Ireland,"  vol.  ii.,  p.  28.  Fifth  Volume  of  this  work, at  that  date,  Art.  ii. 

16  See  ArchdalPs  "  Monasticon  Hiberni-  24  Venerated  at  the    13th  of  November, 

cum,"  p.  682.  where  notices  of  him  may  be  found. 

'7  See  Lewis'  "  Topographical  Dictionary  2S  Venerated  at  the  12th  of  August.      See 

of  Ireland,"  vol.  i.,  p.  469.  the  Eighth  Volume  of  this  work,   at  that 

18  See  Colgan's  "  Acta  Sanctorum  Hiber-  date,  Art.  i. 

niae,"  xx.  Januarii.  Secunda  Vita  S.  Fechini,  a6  Venerated  at  the  16th  of  January.     See 

cap.  xxx.,  p.  136.  the  First  Volume  of  this  work,  at  that  date, 

19  See  his  Life,   at  the  20th  of  January,  in       Art.  i. 

the  First  Volume  of  this  work,  Art.  ii.  27  As   will  be  seen  (ibid.)  at   the  1st  of 

20  Colgan  thinks  the  present  saint  is  iden-  January,  there  was   a  St.  Colman,   son  of 
tical   with   the  Colman,    son    of    Eochad,  Eochaich,  venerated.     See  Art.  xvi. 
venerated   at   the   27th   of  October.      See  28  See  Dr.  Reeves'  Adamnan's    "  Life  of 
Secunda  Vita  S.  Fechini,  n.  19,  p.  141.  St.  Columba,"  nn.  (e,f),  pp.  172  to  174. 

21  Venerated  at  the  1st  of  January.     See  ^  See  ibid.,  n.  (e)»  p.  172. 

the  First  Volume  of  this  work,  at  that  date,  ^  This,  however,  we  are  unable  to  find, 

Art.  xiii.  in  the  copies  now  accessible. 

32  Venerated  at  the  31st  of  January.     See  3I  See  County  of  Wexford  Irish  Ordnance 

ibid-,  January  31st,  Art.  xv.  Survey  Records, kvol.  i. 

M 


178  LIVES  OF  THE  IRISH  SAINTS.       [September  6. 


In  Scotland,  also,  the  saint  whose  festival  is  held  on  this  day  was  venerated ; 
and,  in  the  Kalendar  of  Drummond,32  the  name  of  Colombe,  without  further 
description,  is  solely  entered,  at  the  6th  of  September.  This  entry  seems  to 
make  it  doubtful,  if  he  be  not  rather  of  St.  Columkille's  than  of  St.  Patrick's 
time. 


Article  VI. — St.  Colman,  Son  of  Eochaidh,  probably  of  Kilclief, 
County  Down.  We  read  in  the  Marty rology  of  Donegal,1  that  at  the  6th 
of  September  veneration  was  given  to  Colman,  son  of  Eochaidh.  This  may 
be  Colman,  of  Cill  Cleitigh,  says  the  writer,  and  son  of  Eochaidh,  who 
descended  from  the  seed  of  Aenghus,  son  to  Nadfraech,  King  of  Minister  and 
of  Caisel.2  Cill-Cleitigh,  to  which  allusion  is  here  made,